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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632927

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While evidence indicates that Fusobacterium nucleatum may promote colorectal carcinogenesis through its suppressive effect on T-cell-mediated antitumor immunity, the specific T-cell subsets involved remain uncertain. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We measured F. nucleatum DNA within tumor tissue by quantitative PCR on 933 cases (including 128 F. nucleatum-positive cases) among 4,465 incident colorectal carcinoma cases in two prospective cohorts. Multiplex immunofluorescence combined with digital image analysis and machine learning algorithms for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RO (PTPRC isoform), and FOXP3 measured various T-cell subsets. We leveraged data on Bifidobacterium, microsatellite instability (MSI), tumor whole exome sequencing, and M1/M2-type tumor-associated macrophages [by CD68, CD86, IRF5, MAF, and MRC1 (CD206) multimarker assay]. Using the 4,465 cancer cases and inverse probability weighting method to control for selection bias due to tissue availability, multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis assessed the association between F. nucleatum and T-cell subsets. RESULTS: The amount of F. nucleatum was inversely associated with tumor stromal CD3+ lymphocytes (multivariable odds ratio, 0.47, 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.79, for F. nucleatum-high vs. negative category; P trend=0.0004) and specifically stromal CD3+CD4+CD45RO+ cells (corresponding multivariable odds ratio, 0.52, 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.85; P trend=0.003). These relationships did not substantially differ by MSI status, neoantigen loads, or exome-wide tumor mutational burden. F. nucleatum was not significantly associated with T-cell subset densities in tumor intraepithelial regions or with macrophage densities. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of tissue F. nucleatum is associated with lower densities of stromal memory helper T cells. Our findings provide evidence for the interactive pathogenic roles of microbiota and specific immune cells.

2.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574088

RESUMO

Germline variation and smoking are independently associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We conducted genome-wide smoking interaction analysis of PDAC using genotype data from four previous genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry (7,937 cases and 11,774 controls). Examination of expression quantitative trait loci data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project followed by colocalization analysis was conducted to determine if there was support for common SNP(s) underlying the observed associations. Statistical tests were two sided and P-values < 5 x 10-8 were considered statistically significant. Genome-wide significant evidence of qualitative interaction was identified on chr2q21.3 in intron 5 of the transmembrane protein 163 (TMEM163) and upstream of the cyclin T2 (CCNT2). The most significant SNP using the Empirical Bayes method, in this region which included 45 significantly associated SNPs, was rs1818613 (per allele OR in never smokers 0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.93; former smokers 1.00, 95 CI 0.91-1.07; current smokers 1.25, 95%CI 1.12-1.40, interaction P-value=3.08x10-9). Examination of the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project data demonstrated an expression quantitative trait locus in this region for TMEM163 and CCNT2 in several tissue types. Colocalization analysis supported a shared SNP, rs842357, in high LD with rs1818613 (r2=0. 94) driving both the observed interaction and the expression quantitative trait loci signals. Future studies are needed to confirm and understand the differential biologic mechanisms by smoking status that contribute to our PDAC findings.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes increases risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), but the association of pre-existing diabetes with CRC survival remains unclear. METHODS: We analyzed survival by diabetes status at cancer diagnosis among 4038 patients with CRC from two prospective U.S. cohorts. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overall and cause-specific mortality, with adjustment for tumor characteristics and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: In the first 5 years after CRC diagnosis, diabetes was associated with a modest increase in overall mortality in women (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.00-1.49), but not in men (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.62-1.12; P heterogeneity by sex = 0.04). Beyond 5 years, diabetes was associated with substantially increased overall mortality with no evidence of sex heterogeneity; in women and men combined, the HRs were 1.45 (95% CI, 1.09-1.93) during >5 to 10 years and 2.58 (95% CI, 1.91-3.50) during >10 years. Compared with those without diabetes, CRC patients with diabetes had increased mortality from other malignancies (HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.18-2.67) and cardiovascular disease (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.29-2.91). Only women with diabetes for more than 10 years had increased mortality from CRC (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.01-1.76). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with CRC, pre-existing diabetes was associated with increased risk of long-term mortality, particularly from other malignancies and cardiovascular disease. IMPACT: Our findings highlight the importance of cardioprotection and cancer prevention to CRC survivors with diabetes.

4.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher dairy intake during adulthood has been associated with lower colorectal cancer risk. As colorectal carcinogenesis spans several decades, we hypothesised that higher dairy intake during adolescence is associated with lower risk of colorectal adenoma, a colorectal cancer precursor. METHODS: In 27,196 females from the Nurses' Health Study 2, aged 25-42 years at recruitment (1989), who had completed a validated high school diet questionnaire in 1998 and undergone at least one lower bowel endoscopy between 1998 and 2011, logistic regression for clustered data was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Colorectal adenomas were diagnosed in 2239 women. Dairy consumption during adolescence was not associated with colorectal adenoma risk (OR highest vs. lowest [≥4 vs. ≤1.42 servings/day] quintile [95% CI] 0.94 [0.80, 1.11]). By anatomical site, higher adolescent dairy intake was associated with lower rectal (0.63 [0.42, 0.95]), but not proximal (1.01 [0.80, 1.28]) or distal (0.97 [0.76, 1.24]) colon adenoma risk. An inverse association was observed with histologically advanced (0.72 [0.51, 1.00]) but not non-advanced (1.07 [0.86, 1.33]) adenoma. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of younger women, higher adolescent dairy intake was associated with lower rectal and advanced adenoma risk later in life.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446564

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pembrolizumab demonstrated efficacy in PD-L1-positive [combined positive score (CPS) ≥1] advanced gastric/gastroesophageal junction (G/GEJ) cancer in the first-, second-, and third-line setting in KEYNOTE-062, KEYNOTE-061, and KEYNOTE-059, respectively. To better delineate the specificity of CPS as a predictor of clinical outcomes, we analyzed pembrolizumab efficacy in patients with CPS ≥ 10 in these trials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Included were patients with CPS ≥ 10 tumors from KEYNOTE-059 cohort 1 (pembrolizumab, n = 46; post hoc), KEYNOTE-061 (pembrolizumab, n = 53; chemotherapy, n = 55; post hoc), and KEYNOTE-062 (pembrolizumab, n = 92; chemotherapy, n = 90; primary). Efficacy outcomes were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and duration of response (DOR). RESULTS: In KEYNOTE-059, median follow-up was 6 months, median OS was 8 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.8-11.1], ORR was 17%, and median (range) DOR was 21 months (3+ to 35+). In KEYNOTE-061, median follow-up was 9 months, median OS (pembrolizumab vs. chemotherapy) was 10 versus 8 months (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.41-1.02), median PFS was 3 months versus 3 months (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.56-1.33), ORR was 25% versus 9%, and median (range) DOR was not reached (4 to 26+ months) versus 7 months (3-7). In KEYNOTE-062, median follow-up was 11 months, median OS (pembrolizumab vs. chemotherapy) was 17 months versus 11 months (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49-0.97), median PFS was 3 months versus 6 months (HR, 1.09, 95% CI; 0.79-1.49), ORR was 25% versus 38%, and median (range) DOR was 19 months (1+ to 34+) versus 7 months (2+ to 30+). CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive analysis showed consistent improvements toward more favorable clinical outcomes with pembrolizumab across lines of therapy in patients with CPS ≥ 10 G/GEJ cancer.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262135

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While abundant myeloid cell populations in the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) microenvironment have been postulated to suppress anti-tumor immunity, the composition of these populations, their spatial locations, and how they relate to patient outcomes are poorly understood. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To generate spatially-resolved tumor and immune cell data at single cell resolution, we developed two quantitative multiplex immunofluorescence assays to interrogate myeloid cells (CD15, CD14, ARG1, CD33, HLA-DR) and macrophages [CD68, CD163, CD86, interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), MRC1 (CD206)] in the PDAC tumor microenvironment. Spatial point pattern analyses were conducted to assess the degree of co-localization between tumor cells and immune cells. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess associations with patient outcomes. RESULTS: In a multi-institutional cohort of 305 primary PDAC resection specimens, myeloid cells were abundant, enriched within stromal regions, highly heterogeneous across tumors, and differed by somatic genotype. High densities of CD15+ARG1+ immunosuppressive granulocytic cells and M2-polarized macrophages were associated with worse patient survival. Moreover, beyond cell density, closer proximity of M2-polarized macrophages to tumor cells was strongly associated with disease-free survival, revealing the clinical significance and biologic importance of immune cell localization within tumor areas. CONCLUSIONS: A diverse set of myeloid cells are present within the PDAC tumor microenvironment and are distributed heterogeneously across patient tumors. Not only the densities but also the spatial locations of myeloid immune cells are associated with patient outcomes, highlighting the potential role of spatially-resolved myeloid cell subtypes as quantitative biomarkers for PDAC prognosis and therapy.

7.
Future Oncol ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167735

RESUMO

Treatment options for patients with HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer are limited, and the prognosis for these patients is poor. Pembrolizumab has demonstrated promising antitumor activity in patients with advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma as monotherapy, in combination with chemotherapy and in combination with trastuzumab. Combining pembrolizumab with trastuzumab and chemotherapy may therefore provide a benefit for patients with advanced HER2-positive gastric cancer. Here we aimed to describe the design of and rationale for the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III KEYNOTE-811 study, which will evaluate the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab or placebo in combination with trastuzumab and chemotherapy as first-line treatment for patients with advanced HER2-positive gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. Clinical trial registration: NCT03615326 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

8.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(3): pkaa024, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134818

RESUMO

Background: In nonmetastatic colorectal cancer, overweight and mild-to-moderately obese patients experience improved outcomes compared with other patients. Obesity's influence on advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is relatively unexplored. Methods: We conducted a prospective body mass index (BMI) companion study in Cancer and Leukemia Group B (now Alliance)/SWOG 80405, a phase III metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treatment trial. BMI was measured at trial registration. Primary and secondary endpoints were overall and progression-free survival, respectively. To minimize confounding by poor and rapidly declining health, we used Cox proportional hazards regression to adjust for known prognostic factors, comorbidities, physical activity, and weight loss during the 6 months prior to study entry. We also examined weight loss prior to enrollment as an independent predictor of patient outcome. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Among 2323 patients with mCRC, there were no statistically significant associations between BMI and overall or progression-free survival (adjusted P trend = .12 and .40, respectively). Weight loss during the 6 months prior to study entry was associated with shorter overall and progression-free survival; compared with individuals with stable weight ±4.9%, individuals with weight loss greater than 15% experienced an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.52 for all-cause mortality (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26 to 1.84; P trend < .001) and of 1.23 for disease progression or death (95% CI = 1.02 to 1.47; P trend = .006). Conclusions: In this prospective study of patients with mCRC, BMI at time of first-line chemotherapy initiation was not associated with patient outcome. Weight loss prior to study entry was associated with increased risk of patient mortality and disease progression.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233566

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue express the vitamin D receptor and may be a mechanism through which vitamin D supplementation slows cancer progression and reduces cancer death. In this exploratory analysis of a double-blind, multicenter, randomized phase II clinical trial, 105 patients with advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer who were receiving chemotherapy were randomized to either high-dose vitamin D3 (4000 IU) or standard-dose (400 IU) vitamin D3. Body composition was measured with abdominal computed tomography at enrollment (baseline) and after cycle 8 of chemotherapy (16 weeks). As compared with standard-dose vitamin D3, high-dose vitamin D3 did not significantly change body weight [-0.7 kg; (95% CI: -3.5, 2.0)], body mass index [-0.2 kg/m2; (95% CI: -1.2, 0.7)], muscle area [-1.7 cm2; (95% CI: -9.6, 6.3)], muscle attenuation [-0.4 HU; (95% CI: -4.2, 3.2)], visceral adipose tissue area [-7.5 cm2; (95% CI: -24.5, 9.6)], or subcutaneous adipose tissue area [-8.3 cm2; (95% CI: -35.5, 18.9)] over the first 8 cycles of chemotherapy. Among patients with advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer, the addition of high-dose vitamin D3, vs standard-dose vitamin D3, to standard chemotherapy did not result in any changes in body composition.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076423

RESUMO

Ramucirumab (anti-VEGFR2) plus pembrolizumab (anti-PD1) demonstrated promising antitumor activity and tolerability among patients with previously treated advanced cancers, supporting growing evidence that combination therapies modulating the tumor microenvironment may expand the spectrum of patients who respond to checkpoint inhibitors. Here we present the results of this combination in first-line patients with metastatic G/GEJ cancer. Twenty-eight patients (≥18 years) with no prior systemic chemotherapy in the advanced/metastatic setting received ramucirumab (8 mg/kg days 1 and 8) plus pembrolizumab (200 mg day 1) every 3 weeks as part of JVDF phase 1a/b study. The primary endpoint was safety. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and overall survival (OS). Tumors were PD-L1-positive (combined positive score ≥ 1) in 19 and -negative in 6 patients. Eighteen patients experienced grade 3 treatment-related adverse events, most commonly hypertension (14%) and elevated alanine/aspartate aminotransferase (11% each), with no grade 4 or 5 reported. The ORR was 25% (PD-L1-positive, 32%; PD-L1-negative, 17%) with duration of response not reached. PFS was 5.6 months (PD-L1-positive, 8.6 months; PD-L1-negative, 4.3 months), and OS 14.6 months (PD-L1-positive, 17.3 months; PD-L1-negative, 11.3 months). Acknowledging study design limitations, ramucirumab plus pembrolizumab had encouraging durable clinical activity with no unexpected toxicities in treatment-naïve biomarker-unselected metastatic G/GEJ cancer, and improved outcomes in patients with PD-L1-positive tumors.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2023500, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125497

RESUMO

Importance: Diet has been associated with survival in patients with stage I to III colorectal cancer, but data on patients with metastatic colorectal cancer are limited. Objective: To examine the association between diet quality and overall survival among individuals with metastatic colorectal cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prospective cohort study of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who were enrolled in the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (Alliance) and Southwest Oncology Group 80405 trial between October 27, 2005, and February 29, 2012, and followed up through January 2018. Exposures: Participants completed a validated food frequency questionnaire within 4 weeks after initiation of first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. Diets were categorized according to the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Alternate Mediterranean Diet (AMED) score, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, and Western and prudent dietary patterns derived using principal component analysis. Participants were categorized into sex-specific quintiles. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for overall survival. Results: In this cohort study of 1284 individuals with metastatic colorectal cancer, the median age was 59 (interquartile range [IQR]: 51-68) years, median body mass index was 27.2 (IQR, 24.1-31.4), 521 (41%) were female, and 1102 (86%) were White. There were 1100 deaths during a median follow-up of 73 months (IQR, 64-87 months). We observed an inverse association between the AMED score and risk of death (HR quintile 5 vs quintile 1, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.67-1.04; P = .04 for trend), but the point estimates were not statistically significant. None of the other diet scores or patterns were associated with overall survival. Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospective analysis of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, diet quality assessed at initiation of first-line treatment for metastatic disease was not associated with overall survival.

12.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023967

RESUMO

Macrophages are among the most common cells in the colorectal cancer microenvironment, but their prognostic significance is incompletely understood. Using multiplexed immunofluorescence for CD68, CD86, IRF5, MAF, MRC1 (CD206), and KRT (cytokeratins) combined with digital image analysis and machine learning, we assessed the polarization spectrum of tumor-associated macrophages in 931 colorectal carcinomas. We then applied Cox proportional hazards regression to assess prognostic survival associations of intraepithelial and stromal densities of M1-like and M2-like macrophages while controlling for potential confounders, including stage and microsatellite instability status. We found that high tumor stromal density of M2-like macrophages was associated with worse cancer-specific survival, whereas tumor stromal density of M1-like macrophages was not significantly associated with better cancer-specific survival. High M1:M2 density ratio in tumor stroma was associated with better cancer-specific survival. Overall macrophage densities in tumor intraepithelial or stromal regions were not prognostic. These findings suggested that macrophage polarization state, rather than their overall density, was associated with cancer-specific survival, with M1- and M2-like macrophage phenotypes exhibiting distinct prognostic roles. These results highlight the utility of a multimarker strategy to assess the macrophage polarization at single-cell resolution within the tumor microenvironment.

13.
Clin Trials ; : 1740774520959313, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current adverse event reporting practices do not document longitudinal characteristics of adverse effects, and alternative methods are not easily interpretable and have not been employed by clinical trials. Introducing time parameters in the evaluation of safety that are comprehensive yet easily interpretable could allow for a better understanding of treatment quality. In this study, we developed and applied a novel adverse event reporting method based on longitudinal adverse event changes to aid describing, summarizing, and presenting adverse event profile. We termed it the "Adverse Event Load, Onset, and Maximum Grade" method. METHODS: We developed two adverse event summary metrics to complement the traditional maximum grade report. Onset time indicates the time period in which the maximum grade for a specific adverse event occurred and was defined as "early" (i.e. maximum grade happened for the first time before 6 weeks) or "late" (i.e. after the 6th week). Adverse event load indicates the overall severity of a specific adverse event over the entire treatment. Higher adverse event load indicates a worse overall experience. These metrics can be calculated for adverse events with different maximum grades, in treatments with planned changes (e.g. dosage changes), using data sets with different number of adverse event data points between treatments (e.g. treatments with longer cycle lengths may have less adverse event data points) and on data sets with different adverse event data availability (e.g. cycle basis and patient-outcome reports). We tested the utility of this method using individual patient data from two major backbone therapies ("Irinotecan" and "Oxaliplatin") from the N9741 trial available in the Fondation ARCAD database (fondationarcad.org). We investigated profiles of diarrhea, neutropenia/leukopenia, and nausea/vomiting. RESULTS: Our method provided additional information compared to traditional adverse event reports. For example, for nausea/vomiting, while patients in Irinotecan had a higher risk of experiencing maximum grade 3-4 (15.6% vs 7.6%, respectively; p < 0.001), patients in both groups experienced similar severity over time (adverse effect load = 0.102 and 0.096, respectively; p = 0.26), suggesting that patients in Oxaliplatin experienced a lower-grade but more persistent nausea/vomiting. For neutropenia/leukopenia, more patients in Irinotecan experienced their maximum grade for the first time early in the treatment compared to patients in Oxaliplatin (67.9% vs 41.7%; p < 0.001), regardless of maximum grade. Longitudinal information can help compare treatments or guide clinicians on choosing appropriate interventions for low-grade but persistent adverse event or early adverse event onset. CONCLUSION: We developed an adverse event reporting method that provides clinically relevant information about treatment toxicity by incorporating two longitudinal adverse event metrics to the traditional maximum grade approach. Future research should establish clinical benchmarks for metrics included in this adverse event reporting method.

14.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(10): 1571-1580, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880601

RESUMO

Importance: Safe and effective therapies for untreated, advanced gastric/gastroesophageal junction (G/GEJ) cancer remain an unmet need. Objective: To evaluate the antitumor activity of pembrolizumab, pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy, or chemotherapy alone in patients with untreated, advanced G/GEJ cancer with programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) combined positive score (CPS) of 1 or greater. Design, Setting, and Participants: The phase 3 KEYNOTE-062 randomized, controlled, partially blinded interventional trial enrolled 763 patients with untreated, locally advanced/unresectable or metastatic G/GEJ cancer with PD-L1 CPS of 1 or greater from 200 centers in 29 countries between September 18, 2015, and May 26, 2017. Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to pembrolizumab 200 mg, pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy (cisplatin 80 mg/m2/d on day 1 plus fluorouracil 800 mg/m2/d on days 1 to 5 or capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 twice daily), or chemotherapy plus placebo, every 3 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary end points were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with PD-L1 CPS of 1 or greater or 10 or greater. Results: A total of 763 patients were randomized to pembrolizumab (n = 256), pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy (n = 257), or chemotherapy (n = 250). The median (range) age of all patients in the study cohort was 62 (20-87) years; 554 of 763 (72.6%) were men. At final analysis, after a median (range) follow-up of 29.4 (22.0-41.3) months, pembrolizumab was noninferior to chemotherapy for OS in patients with CPS of 1 or greater (median, 10.6 vs 11.1 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.91; 99.2% CI, 0.69-1.18). Pembrolizumab monotherapy was not superior to chemotherapy in patients with CPS of 1 or greater. Pembrolizumab prolonged OS vs chemotherapy in patients with CPS of 10 or greater (median, 17.4 vs 10.8 months; HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49-0.97), but this difference was not statistically tested. Pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy was not superior to chemotherapy for OS in patients with CPS of 1 or greater (12.5 vs 11.1 months; HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.70-1.03; P = .05) or CPS of 10 or greater (12.3 vs 10.8 months; HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.62-1.17; P = .16) or for PFS in patients with CPS of 1 or greater (6.9 vs 6.4 months; HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.70-1.02; P = .04). Grade 3 to 5 treatment-related adverse event rates for pembrolizumab, pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy, and chemotherapy were 17%, 73%, and 69%, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: This phase 3 randomized clinical trial found that among patients with untreated, advanced G/GEJ cancer, pembrolizumab was noninferior to chemotherapy, with fewer adverse events observed. Pembrolizumab or pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy was not superior to chemotherapy for the OS and PFS end points tested. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02494583.

15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2735-2739, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are associated with pancreatic cancer risk is uncertain. Mendelian randomization (MR) represents a study design using genetic instruments to better characterize the relationship between exposure and outcome. METHODS: We utilized data from genome-wide association studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, involving approximately 9,269 cases and 12,530 controls of European descent, to evaluate associations between pancreatic cancer risk and genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels. Conventional MR analyses were performed using individual-level and summary-level data. RESULTS: Using genetic instruments, we did not find evidence of associations between genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels and pancreatic cancer risk [estimates per one SD increase in each PUFA-specific weighted genetic score using summary statistics: linoleic acid odds ratio (OR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-1.02; arachidonic acid OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.99-1.01; and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.87-1.02]. The OR estimates remained virtually unchanged after adjustment for covariates, using individual-level data or summary statistics, or stratification by age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that variations of genetically determined plasma n-6 PUFA levels are not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. IMPACT: These results suggest that modifying n-6 PUFA levels through food sources or supplementation may not influence risk of pancreatic cancer.

16.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(5): pkaa040, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923934

RESUMO

Background: Smoking has been associated with worse colorectal cancer patient survival and may potentially suppress the immune response in the tumor microenvironment. We hypothesized that the prognostic association of smoking behavior at colorectal cancer diagnosis might differ by lymphocytic reaction patterns in cancer tissue. Methods: Using 1474 colon and rectal cancer patients within 2 large prospective cohort studies (Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study), we characterized 4 patterns of histopathologic lymphocytic reaction, including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), intratumoral periglandular reaction, peritumoral lymphocytic reaction, and Crohn's-like lymphoid reaction. Using covariate data of 4420 incident colorectal cancer patients in total, an inverse probability weighted multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was conducted to adjust for selection bias due to tissue availability and potential confounders, including tumor differentiation, disease stage, microsatellite instability status, CpG island methylator phenotype, long interspersed nucleotide element-1 methylation, and KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations. Results: The prognostic association of smoking status at diagnosis differed by TIL status. Compared with never smokers, the multivariable-adjusted colorectal cancer-specific mortality hazard ratio for current smokers was 1.50 (95% confidence interval = 1.10 to 2.06) in tumors with negative or low TIL and 0.43 (95% confidence interval = 0.16 to 1.12) in tumors with intermediate or high TIL (2-sided P interaction = .009). No statistically significant interactions were observed in the other patterns of lymphocytic reaction. Conclusions: The association of smoking status at diagnosis with colorectal cancer mortality may be stronger for carcinomas with negative or low TIL, suggesting a potential interplay of smoking and lymphocytic reaction in the colorectal cancer microenvironment.

17.
JAMA Oncol ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940631

RESUMO

Importance: Several compounds found in coffee possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and insulin-sensitizing effects, which may contribute to anticancer activity. Epidemiological studies have identified associations between increased coffee consumption and decreased recurrence and mortality of colorectal cancer. The association between coffee consumption and survival in patients with advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the association of coffee consumption with disease progression and death in patients with advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective observational cohort study included 1171 patients with previously untreated locally advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer who were enrolled in Cancer and Leukemia Group B (Alliance)/SWOG 80405, a completed phase 3 clinical trial comparing the addition of cetuximab and/or bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy. Patients reported dietary intake using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire at the time of enrollment. Data were collected from October 27, 2005, to January 18, 2018, and analyzed from May 1 to August 31, 2018. Exposures: Consumption of total, decaffeinated, and caffeinated coffee measured in cups per day. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Results: Among the 1171 patients included in the analysis (694 men [59%]; median age, 59 [interquartile range, 51-67] years). The median follow-up time among living patients was 5.4 years (10th percentile, 1.3 years; IQR, 3.2-6.3 years). A total of 1092 patients (93%) had died or had disease progression. Increased consumption of coffee was associated with decreased risk of cancer progression (hazard ratio [HR] for 1-cup/d increment, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-1.00; P = .04 for trend) and death (HR for 1-cup/d increment, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.89-0.98; P = .004 for trend). Participants who consumed 2 to 3 cups of coffee per day had a multivariable HR for OS of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.67-1.00) and for PFS of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.68-0.99), compared with those who did not drink coffee. Participants who consumed at least 4 cups of coffee per day had a multivariable HR for OS of 0.64 (95% CI, 0.46-0.87) and for PFS of 0.78 (95% CI, 0.59-1.05). Significant associations were noted for both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee. Conclusions and Relevance: Coffee consumption may be associated with reduced risk of disease progression and death in patients with advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer. Further research is warranted to elucidate underlying biological mechanisms.

18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2323-2331, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with improved survival among patients with colorectal cancer, but the relationships between circulating vitamin D binding protein (VDBP), and bioavailable or free 25(OH)D, and colorectal cancer survival remain unknown. METHODS: We examined the associations between prediagnostic plasma levels of vitamin D-related markers and survival among 603 White participants diagnosed with colorectal cancer from two prospective U.S. cohorts. Plasma VDBP and total 25(OH)D were directly measured, while bioavailable and free 25(OH)D was calculated using a validated formula on the basis of total 25(OH)D, VDBP, and albumin levels. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate HRs for overall and colorectal cancer-specific mortality, with adjustment for other prognostic markers and potential confounders. RESULTS: Higher VDBP levels were associated with improved overall (P trend = 0.001) and colorectal cancer-specific survival (P trend = 0.02). Compared with patients in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile of VDBP had a multivariate HR of 0.58 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.41-0.80] for overall mortality and 0.58 (95% CI, 0.37-0.91) for colorectal cancer-specific mortality. The results remained similar after further adjustment for total 25(OH)D levels. In contrast, neither bioavailable nor free 25(OH)D levels were associated with overall or colorectal cancer-specific mortality (all P trend > 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: Prediagnostic circulating concentrations of VDBP were positively associated with survival among patients with colorectal cancer. IMPACT: The clinical utility of VDBP as a prognostic marker warrants further exploration, as well as research into underlying mechanisms of action.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858111

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been proposed to be tumorigenic; however, prior studies of the association between DM and survival are conflicting. The goal of this ancillary analysis of RTOG 9704, a randomized controlled trial of adjuvant chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer, was to determine the prognostic effects of DM and insulin use on survival. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eligible patients from RTOG 9704 with available data on DM and insulin use were included. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and variable levels were compared using log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards models were created to assess the associations among DM, insulin use, and body mass index phenotypes on outcomes. RESULTS: Of 538 patients enrolled from 1998 to 2002, 238 patients were eligible with analyzable DM and insulin use data. Overall 34% of patients had DM and 66% did not. Of patients with DM, 64% had insulin-dependent DM, and 36% had non-insulin-dependent DM. On univariable analysis, neither DM nor insulin dependence were associated with OS or DFS (P > .05 for all). On multivariable analysis, neither DM, insulin use, nor body mass index were independently associated with OS or DFS. Nonwhite race (hazard ratio [HR], 2.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-3.50; P = .0014), nodal involvement (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.24-2.45; P = .0015), and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) ≥90 U/mL (HR, 3.61; 95% CI, 2.32-5.63; P < .001) were associated with decreased OS. Nonwhite race (HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.05-2.63; P = .029) and CA19-9 ≥90 U/mL (HR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.85-4.40; P < .001) were associated with decreased DFS. CONCLUSIONS: DM and insulin use were not associated with OS or DFS in patients with pancreatic cancer in this study. Race, nodal involvement, and increased CA19-9 were significant predictors of outcomes. These data might apply to the more modern use of neoadjuvant therapies for potentially resectable pancreatic cancer.

20.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(10): e202948, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789511

RESUMO

Importance: Pancreatic cancer is the third-leading cause of cancer death in the United States; however, few high-risk groups have been identified to facilitate early diagnosis strategies. Objective: To evaluate the association of diabetes duration and recent weight change with subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer in the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study obtained data from female participants in the Nurses' Health Study and male participants in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, with repeated exposure assessments over 30 years. Incident cases of pancreatic cancer were identified from self-report or during follow-up of participant deaths. Deaths were ascertained through reports from the next of kin, the US Postal Service, or the National Death Index. Data collection was conducted from October 1, 2018, to December 31, 2018. Data analysis was performed from January 1, 2019, to June 30, 2019. Exposures: Duration of physician-diagnosed diabetes and recent weight change. Main Outcome and Measures: Hazard ratios (HRs) for subsequent development of pancreatic cancer. Results: Of the 112 818 women (with a mean [SD] age of 59.4 [11.7] years) and 46 207 men (with a mean [SD] age of 64.7 [10.8] years) included in the analysis, 1116 incident cases of pancreatic cancers were identified. Compared with participants with no diabetes, those with recent-onset diabetes had an age-adjusted HR for pancreatic cancer of 2.97 (95% CI, 2.31-3.82) and those with long-standing diabetes had an age-adjusted HR of 2.16 (95% CI, 1.78-2.60). Compared with those with no weight loss, participants who reported a 1- to 4-lb weight loss had an age-adjusted HR for pancreatic cancer of 1.25 (95% CI, 1.03-1.52), those with a 5- to 8-lb weight loss had an age-adjusted HR of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.06-1.66), and those with more than an 8-lb weight loss had an age-adjusted HR of 1.92 (95% CI, 1.58-2.32). Participants with recent-onset diabetes accompanied by weight loss of 1 to 8 lb (91 incident cases per 100 000 person-years [95% CI, 55-151]; HR, 3.61 [95% CI, 2.14-6.10]) or more than 8 lb (164 incident cases per 100 000 person-years [95% CI, 114-238]; HR, 6.75 [95% CI, 4.55-10.00]) had a substantially increased risk for pancreatic cancer compared with those with neither exposure (16 incident cases per 100 000 person-years; 95% CI, 14-17). Incidence rates were even higher among participants with recent-onset diabetes and weight loss with a body mass index of less than 25 before weight loss (400 incident cases per 100 000 person-years) or whose weight loss was not intentional judging from increased physical activity or healthier dietary choices (334 incident cases per 100 000 person-years). Conclusions and Relevance: This study demonstrates that recent-onset diabetes accompanied by weight loss is associated with a substantially increased risk for developing pancreatic cancer. Older age, previous healthy weight, and no intentional weight loss further elevate this risk.

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