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1.
Sci Adv ; 6(35): eaaz4551, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923617

RESUMO

Recently, covalent modifications of RNA, such as methylation, have emerged as key regulators of all aspects of RNA biology and have been implicated in numerous diseases, for instance, cancer. Here, we undertook a combination of in vitro and in vivo screens to test 78 potential methyltransferases for their roles in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation. We identified methyltransferase-like protein 6 (METTL6) as a crucial regulator of tumor cell growth. We show that METTL6 is a bona fide transfer RNA (tRNA) methyltransferase, catalyzing the formation of 3-methylcytidine at C32 of specific serine tRNA isoacceptors. Deletion of Mettl6 in mouse stem cells results in changes in ribosome occupancy and RNA levels, as well as impaired pluripotency. In mice, Mettl6 knockout results in reduced energy expenditure. We reveal a previously unknown pathway in the maintenance of translation efficiency with a role in maintaining stem cell self-renewal, as well as impacting tumor cell growth profoundly.

2.
Neurosci Lett ; 735: 135206, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593773

RESUMO

Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase-A (ITPKA) is the neuronal isoform of ITPKs and exhibits both actin bundling and InsP3kinase activity. In addition to neurons, ITPKA is ectopically expressed in tumor cells, where its oncogenic activity increases tumor cell malignancy. In order to analyze the physiological relevance of ITPKA, here we performed a broad phenotypic screening of itpka deficient mice. Our data show that among the neurobehavioral tests analyzed, itpka deficient mice reacted faster to a hotplate, prepulse inhibition was impaired and the accelerating rotarod test showed decreased latency of itpka deficient mice to fall. These data indicate that ITPKA is involved in the regulation of nociceptive pathways, sensorimotor gating and motor learning. Analysis of extracerebral functions in control and itpka deficient mice revealed significantly reduced glucose, lactate, and triglyceride plasma concentrations in itpka deficient mice. Based on this finding, expression of ITPKA was analyzed in extracerebral tissues and the highest level was found in the small intestine. However, functional studies on CaCo-2 control and ITPKA depleted cells showed that glucose, as well as triglyceride uptake, were not significantly different between the cell lines. Altogether, these data show that ITPKA exhibits distinct functions in the central nervous system and reveal an involvement of ITPKA in energy metabolism.

3.
Genes Dev ; 34(9-10): 715-729, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217665

RESUMO

Covalent chemical modifications of cellular RNAs directly impact all biological processes. However, our mechanistic understanding of the enzymes catalyzing these modifications, their substrates and biological functions, remains vague. Amongst RNA modifications N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is widespread and found in messenger (mRNA), ribosomal (rRNA), and noncoding RNAs. Here, we undertook a systematic screen to uncover new RNA methyltransferases. We demonstrate that the methyltransferase-like 5 (METTL5) protein catalyzes m6A in 18S rRNA at position A1832 We report that absence of Mettl5 in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) results in a decrease in global translation rate, spontaneous loss of pluripotency, and compromised differentiation potential. METTL5-deficient mice are born at non-Mendelian rates and develop morphological and behavioral abnormalities. Importantly, mice lacking METTL5 recapitulate symptoms of patients with DNA variants in METTL5, thereby providing a new mouse disease model. Overall, our biochemical, molecular, and in vivo characterization highlights the importance of m6A in rRNA in stemness, differentiation, development, and diseases.

4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 66, 2020 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066665

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental disorders are heterogeneous and identifying shared genetic aetiologies and converging signalling pathways affected could improve disease diagnosis and treatment. Truncating mutations of the abnormal spindle-like microcephaly associated (ASPM) gene cause autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) in humans. ASPM is a positive regulator of Wnt/ß-Catenin signalling and controls symmetric to asymmetric cell division. This process balances neural progenitor proliferation with differentiation during embryogenesis, the malfunction of which could interfere with normal brain development. ASPM mutations may play a role also in other neurodevelopmental disorders, nevertheless, we lack the details of how or to what extent. We therefore assessed neurodevelopmental disease and circuit endophenotypes in mice with a truncating Aspm1-7 mutation. Aspm1-7 mice exhibited impaired short- and long-term object recognition memory and markedly enhanced place learning in the IntelliCage®. This behaviour pattern is reminiscent of a cognitive phenotype seen in mouse models and patients with a rare form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as in mouse models of altered Wnt signalling. These alterations were accompanied by ventriculomegaly, corpus callosum dysgenesis and decreased parvalbumin (PV)+ interneuron numbers in the hippocampal Cornu Ammonis (CA) region and thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN). PV+ cell number correlated to object recognition (CA and TRN) and place learning (TRN). This opens the possibility that, as well as causing MCPH, mutant ASPM potentially contributes to other neurodevelopmental disorders such as ASD through altered parvalbuminergic interneuron development affecting cognitive behaviour. These findings provide important information for understanding the genetic overlap and improved treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders associated with ASPM.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 624, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005798

RESUMO

Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) executes thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, which is a major focus of human obesity research. Although the UCP1-knockout (UCP1 KO) mouse represents the most frequently applied animal model to judge the anti-obesity effects of UCP1, the assessment is confounded by unknown anti-obesity factors causing paradoxical obesity resistance below thermoneutral temperatures. Here we identify the enigmatic factor as endogenous FGF21, which is primarily mediating obesity resistance. The generation of UCP1/FGF21 double-knockout mice (dKO) fully reverses obesity resistance. Within mild differences in energy metabolism, urine metabolomics uncover increased secretion of acyl-carnitines in UCP1 KOs, suggesting metabolic reprogramming. Strikingly, transcriptomics of metabolically important organs reveal enhanced lipid and oxidative metabolism in specifically white adipose tissue that is fully reversed in dKO mice. Collectively, this study characterizes the effects of endogenous FGF21 that acts as master regulator to protect from diet-induced obesity in the absence of UCP1.


Assuntos
Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 655, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005800

RESUMO

The identification of causal variants in sequencing studies remains a considerable challenge that can be partially addressed by new gene-specific knowledge. Here, we integrate measures of how essential a gene is to supporting life, as inferred from viability and phenotyping screens performed on knockout mice by the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium and essentiality screens carried out on human cell lines. We propose a cross-species gene classification across the Full Spectrum of Intolerance to Loss-of-function (FUSIL) and demonstrate that genes in five mutually exclusive FUSIL categories have differing biological properties. Most notably, Mendelian disease genes, particularly those associated with developmental disorders, are highly overrepresented among genes non-essential for cell survival but required for organism development. After screening developmental disorder cases from three independent disease sequencing consortia, we identify potentially pathogenic variants in genes not previously associated with rare diseases. We therefore propose FUSIL as an efficient approach for disease gene discovery.


Assuntos
Doença/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Animais , Genes Essenciais , Genômica , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
7.
Mamm Genome ; 31(1-2): 30-48, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060626

RESUMO

The collaborative cross (CC) is a large panel of mouse-inbred lines derived from eight founder strains (NOD/ShiLtJ, NZO/HILtJ, A/J, C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ, CAST/EiJ, PWK/PhJ, and WSB/EiJ). Here, we performed a comprehensive and comparative phenotyping screening to identify phenotypic differences and similarities between the eight founder strains. In total, more than 300 parameters including allergy, behavior, cardiovascular, clinical blood chemistry, dysmorphology, bone and cartilage, energy metabolism, eye and vision, immunology, lung function, neurology, nociception, and pathology were analyzed; in most traits from sixteen females and sixteen males. We identified over 270 parameters that were significantly different between strains. This study highlights the value of the founder and CC strains for phenotype-genotype associations of many genetic traits that are highly relevant to human diseases. All data described here are publicly available from the mouse phenome database for analyses and downloads.

8.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(2): 44, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106289

RESUMO

Purpose: The clinical phenotype of retinal gliosis occurs in different forms; here, we characterize one novel genetic feature, (i.e., signaling via BMP-receptor 1b). Methods: Mouse mutants were generated within a recessive ENU mutagenesis screen; the underlying mutation was identified by linkage analysis and Sanger sequencing. The eye phenotype was characterized by fundoscopy, optical coherence tomography, optokinetic drum, electroretinography, and visual evoked potentials, by histology, immunohistology, and electron-microscopy. Results: The mutation affects intron 10 of the Bmpr1b gene, which is causative for skipping of exon 10. The expression levels of pSMAD1/5/8 were reduced in the mutant retina. The loss of BMPR1B-mediated signaling leads to optic nerve coloboma, gliosis in the optic nerve head and ventral retina, defective optic nerve axons, and irregular retinal vessels. The ventral retinal gliosis is proliferative and hypertrophic, which is concomitant with neuronal delamination and the reduction of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs); it is dominated by activated astrocytes overexpressing PAX2 and SOX2 but not PAX6, indicating that they may retain properties of gliogenic precursor cells. The expression pattern of PAX2 in the optic nerve head and ventral retina is altered during embryonic development. These events finally result in reduced electrical transmission of the retina and optic nerve and significantly reduced visual acuity. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that BMPR1B is necessary for the development of the optic nerve and ventral retina. This study could also indicate a new mechanism in the formation of retinal gliosis; it opens new routes for its treatment eventually preventing scar formation in the retina.


Assuntos
Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo I/genética , Coloboma/genética , Gliose/genética , Mutação , Disco Óptico/anormalidades , Doenças Retinianas/genética , Animais , Camundongos , Disco Óptico/patologia
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 296, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941883

RESUMO

Regulation of cellular iron homeostasis is crucial as both iron excess and deficiency cause hematological and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we show that mice lacking iron-regulatory protein 2 (Irp2), a regulator of cellular iron homeostasis, develop diabetes. Irp2 post-transcriptionally regulates the iron-uptake protein transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and the iron-storage protein ferritin, and dysregulation of these proteins due to Irp2 loss causes functional iron deficiency in ß cells. This impairs Fe-S cluster biosynthesis, reducing the function of Cdkal1, an Fe-S cluster enzyme that catalyzes methylthiolation of t6A37 in tRNALysUUU to ms2t6A37. As a consequence, lysine codons in proinsulin are misread and proinsulin processing is impaired, reducing insulin content and secretion. Iron normalizes ms2t6A37 and proinsulin lysine incorporation, restoring insulin content and secretion in Irp2-/- ß cells. These studies reveal a previously unidentified link between insulin processing and cellular iron deficiency that may have relevance to type 2 diabetes in humans.


Assuntos
Insulina/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Reguladora do Ferro/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência de Lisina/metabolismo , tRNA Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Intolerância à Glucose/genética , Homeostase , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Insulinoma/genética , Insulinoma/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Reguladora do Ferro/genética , Proteínas com Ferro-Enxofre/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Proinsulina/genética , Proinsulina/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência de Lisina/genética , Ratos , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/genética , tRNA Metiltransferases/genética
10.
Exp Eye Res ; 190: 107871, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751552

RESUMO

The eye lens displays a variety of phenotypes in the wake of genetic modifications or environmental influences. Therefore, a high-resolution in vivo imaging method for the lens is desirable. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become a powerful imaging tool in ophthalmology, especially for retinal imaging in small animal models such as mice. Here, we demonstrate an optimized approach specifically for anterior eye segment imaging with spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) on several known murine lens cataract mutants. Scheimpflug and histological section images on the same eye were used in parallel to assess the observed pathologies. With SD-OCT images, we obtained detailed information about the different alterations from the anterior to the posterior pole of the lens. This capability makes OCT a valuable high-resolution imaging modality for the anterior eye segment in mouse.

11.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1866(3): 165622, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770620

RESUMO

Isolated methylmalonic aciduria (MMAuria) is primarily caused by deficiency of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MMUT or MUT). Biochemically, MUT deficiency results in the accumulation of methylmalonic acid (MMA), propionyl-carnitine (C3) and other metabolites. Patients often exhibit lethargy, failure to thrive and metabolic decompensation leading to coma or even death, with kidney and neurological impairment frequently identified in the long-term. Here, we report a hemizygous mouse model which combines a knock-in (ki) missense allele of Mut with a knock-out (ko) allele (Mut-ko/ki mice) that was fed a 51%-protein diet from day 12 of life, constituting a bespoke model of MMAuria. Under this diet, mutant mice developed a pronounced metabolic phenotype characterized by drastically increased blood levels of MMA and C3 compared to their littermate controls (Mut-ki/wt). With this bespoke mouse model, we performed a standardized phenotypic screen to assess the whole-body impairments associated with this strong metabolic condition. We found that Mut-ko/ki mice show common clinical manifestations of MMAuria, including pronounced failure to thrive, indications of mild neurological and kidney dysfunction, and degenerative morphological changes in the liver, along with less well described symptoms such as cardiovascular and hematological abnormalities. The analyses also reveal so far unknown disease characteristics, including low bone mineral density, anxiety-related behaviour and ovarian atrophy. This first phenotypic screening of a MMAuria mouse model confirms its relevance to human disease, reveals new alterations associated with MUT deficiency, and suggests a series of quantifiable readouts that can be used to evaluate potential treatment strategies.

12.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 257: 399-423, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541322

RESUMO

Using standardized guidelines in preclinical research has received increased interest in light of recent concerns about transparency in data reporting and apparent variation in data quality, as evidenced by irreproducibility of results. Although the costs associated with supporting quality through a quality management system are often obvious line items in laboratory budgets, the treatment of the costs associated with quality failure is often overlooked and difficult to quantify. Thus, general estimations of quality costs can be misleading and inaccurate, effectively undervaluing costs recovered by reducing quality defects. Here, we provide examples of quality costs in preclinical research and describe how we have addressed misconceptions of quality management implementation as only marginally beneficial and/or unduly burdensome. We provide two examples of implementing a quality management system (QMS) in preclinical experimental (animal) research environments - one in Europe, the German Mouse Clinic, having established ISO 9001 and the other in the United States, the University of Kentucky (UK), having established Good Laboratory Practice-compliant infrastructure. We present a summary of benefits to having an effective QMS, as may be useful in guiding discussions with funders or administrators to promote interest and investment in a QMS, which ultimately supports shared, mutually beneficial outcomes.


Assuntos
Controle de Qualidade , Animais , Guias como Assunto , Camundongos , Estados Unidos
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19483, 2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862894

RESUMO

Dual-specificity phosphatase 8 (Dusp8) acts as physiological inhibitor for the MAPKs Jnk, Erk and p38 which are involved in regulating multiple CNS processes. While Dusp8 expression levels are high in limbic areas such as the hippocampus, the functional role of Dusp8 in hippocampus morphology, MAPK-signaling, neurogenesis and apoptosis as well as in behavior are still unclear. It is of particular interest whether human carriers of a DUSP8 allelic variant show similar hippocampal alterations to mice. Addressing these questions using Dusp8 WT and KO mouse littermates, we found that KOs suffered from mildly impaired spatial learning, increased locomotor activity and elevated anxiety. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and p38 and Jnk phosphorylation were unaffected, but phospho-Erk levels were higher in hippocampi of the KOs. Consistent with a decreased hippocampus size in Dusp8 KO mice, we found reduced volumes of the hippocampal subregions subiculum and CA4 in humans carrying the DUSP8 allelic variant SNP rs2334499:C > T. Overall, aberrations in morphology and behavior in Dusp8 KO mice and a decrease in hippocampal volume of SNP rs2334499:C > T carriers point to a novel, translationally relevant role of Dusp8 in hippocampus function that warrants further studies on the role of Dusp8 within the limbic network.

14.
Haematologica ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488556

RESUMO

Tissue factor is highly expressed in sub-endothelial tissue. The extracellular allosteric disulfide bond Cys186-Cys209 of human tissue factor shows high evolutionary conservation and in vitro evidence suggests that it significantly contributes to tissue factor procoagulant activity. To investigate the role of this allosteric disulfide bond in vivo, we generated a C213G mutant tissue factor mouse by replacing Cys213 of the corresponding disulfide Cys190-Cys213 in murine tissue factor. A bleeding phenotype was prominent in homozygous C213G tissue factor mice. Pre-natal lethality of 1/3rd of homozygous offspring was observed between E9.5 and E14.5 associated with placental hemorrhages. After birth, homozygous mice suffered from bleedings in different organs and reduced survival. Homozygous C213G tissue factor male mice showed higher incidence of lung bleedings and lower survival rates than females. In both sexes, C213G mutation evoked a reduced protein expression (about 10-fold) and severely reduced pro-coagulant activity (about 1000-fold). Protein glycosylation was impaired and cell membrane exposure decreased in macrophages in vivo. Single housing of homozygous C213G tissue factor males reduced the occurrence of severe bleeding and significantly improved survival, suggesting that inter-male aggressiveness might significantly account for the sex differences. These experiments show that the tissue factor allosteric disulfide bond is of crucial importance for normal in vivo expression, post-translational processing and activity of murine tissue factor. Although C213G tissue factor mice do not display the severe embryonic lethality of tissue factor knock-out mice, their postnatal bleeding phenotype emphasizes the importance of fully functional tissue factor for hemostasis.

15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(24): 11872-11877, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138708

RESUMO

Autoinflammatory syndromes are characterized by dysregulation of the innate immune response with subsequent episodes of acute spontaneous inflammation. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an autoinflammatory bone disorder that presents with bone pain and localized swelling. Ali18 mice, isolated from a mutagenesis screen, exhibit a spontaneous inflammatory paw phenotype that includes sterile osteomyelitis and systemic reduced bone mineral density. To elucidate the molecular basis of the disease, positional cloning of the causative gene for Ali18 was attempted. Using a candidate gene approach, a missense mutation in the C-terminal region of Fgr, a member of Src family tyrosine kinases (SFKs), was identified. For functional confirmation, additional mutations at the N terminus of Fgr were introduced in Ali18 mice by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing. N-terminal deleterious mutations of Fgr abolished the inflammatory phenotype in Ali18 mice, but in-frame and missense mutations in the same region continue to exhibit the phenotype. The fact that Fgr null mutant mice are morphologically normal suggests that the inflammation in this model depends on Fgr products. Furthermore, the levels of C-terminal negative regulatory phosphorylation of Fgr Ali18 are distinctly reduced compared with that of wild-type Fgr. In addition, whole-exome sequencing of 99 CRMO patients including 88 trios (proband and parents) identified 13 patients with heterozygous coding sequence variants in FGR, including two missense mutant proteins that affect kinase activity. Our results strongly indicate that gain-of-function mutations in Fgr are involved in sterile osteomyelitis, and thus targeting SFKs using specific inhibitors may allow for efficient treatment of the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/genética , Mutação com Ganho de Função/genética , Inflamação/genética , Quinases da Família src/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Osteomielite/genética , Fosforilação/genética
16.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(5): 839-849, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111503

RESUMO

Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiency is a fatal genetic disorder characterized by hemolytic anemia and neurological dysfunction. Although the enzyme defect in TPI was discovered in the 1960s, the exact etiology of the disease is still debated. Some aspects indicate the disease could be caused by insufficient enzyme activity, whereas other observations indicate it could be a protein misfolding disease with tissue-specific differences in TPI activity. We generated a mouse model in which exchange of a conserved catalytic amino acid residue (isoleucine to valine, Ile170Val) reduces TPI specific activity without affecting the stability of the protein dimer. TPIIle170Val/Ile170Val mice exhibit an approximately 85% reduction in TPI activity consistently across all examined tissues, which is a stronger average, but more consistent, activity decline than observed in patients or symptomatic mouse models that carry structural defect mutant alleles. While monitoring protein expression levels revealed no evidence for protein instability, metabolite quantification indicated that glycolysis is affected by the active site mutation. TPIIle170Val/Ile170Val mice develop normally and show none of the disease symptoms associated with TPI deficiency. Therefore, without the stability defect that affects TPI activity in a tissue-specific manner, a strong decline in TPI catalytic activity is not sufficient to explain the pathological onset of TPI deficiency.

17.
Exp Eye Res ; 188: 107632, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991053

RESUMO

During an ENU (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) mutagenesis screen, we observed a dominant small-eye mutant mouse with viable homozygotes. A corresponding mutant line was established and referred to as Aey69 (abnormality of the eye #69). Comprehensive phenotyping of the homozygous Aey69 mutants in the German Mouse Clinic revealed only a subset of statistically significant alterations between wild types and homozygous mutants. The mutation causes microphthalmia without a lens but with retinal hyperproliferation. Linkage was demonstrated to mouse chromosome 3 between the markers D3Mit188 and D3Mit11. Sequencing revealed a 358 A-> C mutation (Ile120Leu) in the Hist2h3c1 gene and a 71 T-> C (Val24Ala) mutation in the Gja8 gene. Detailed analysis of eye development in the homozygous mutant mice documented a perturbed lens development starting from the lens vesicle stage including decreasing expression of crystallins as well as of lens-specific transcription factors like PITX3 and FOXE3. In contrast, we observed an early expression of retinal progenitor cells characterized by several markers including BRN3 (retinal ganglion cells) and OTX2 (cone photoreceptors). The changes in the retina at the early embryonic stages of E11.5-E15.5 happen in parallel with apoptotic processes in the lens at the respective stages. The excessive retinal hyperproliferation is characterized by an increased level of Ki67. The hyperproliferation, however, does not disrupt the differentiation and appearance of the principal retinal cell types at postnatal stages, even if the overgrowing retina covers finally the entire bulbus of the eye. Morpholino-mediated knock-down of the hist2h3ca1 gene in zebrafish leads to a specific perturbation of lens development. When injected into zebrafish zygotes, only the mutant mouse mRNA leads to severe malformations, ranging from cyclopia to severe microphthalmia. The wild-type Hist2h3c1 mRNA can rescue the morpholino-induced defects corroborating its specific function in lens development. Based upon these data, it is concluded that the ocular function of the Hist2h3c1 gene (encoding a canonical H3.2 variant) is conserved throughout evolution. Moreover, the data highlight also the importance of Hist2h3c1 in the coordinated formation of lens and retina during eye development.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Histonas/genética , Doenças do Cristalino/genética , Microftalmia/genética , Mutação , Animais , Cristalinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização In Situ , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Doenças do Cristalino/embriologia , Doenças do Cristalino/metabolismo , Doenças do Cristalino/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microftalmia/embriologia , Microftalmia/metabolismo , Microftalmia/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra
18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 7, 2019 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664629

RESUMO

In humans, genetic variants of DLGAP1-4 have been linked with neuropsychiatric conditions, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While these findings implicate the encoded postsynaptic proteins, SAPAP1-4, in the etiology of neuropsychiatric conditions, underlying neurobiological mechanisms are unknown. To assess the contribution of SAPAP4 to these disorders, we characterized SAPAP4-deficient mice. Our study reveals that the loss of SAPAP4 triggers profound behavioural abnormalities, including cognitive deficits combined with impaired vocal communication and social interaction, phenotypes reminiscent of ASD in humans. These behavioural alterations of SAPAP4-deficient mice are associated with dramatic changes in synapse morphology, function and plasticity, indicating that SAPAP4 is critical for the development of functional neuronal networks and that mutations in the corresponding human gene, DLGAP4, may cause deficits in social and cognitive functioning relevant to ASD-like neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Associadas SAP90-PSD95/genética , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/metabolismo , Comportamento Social , Sinapses/metabolismo
19.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1865(9): 2083-2093, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557699

RESUMO

Mutations in the X chromosomal tRNA 2'­O­methyltransferase FTSJ1 cause intellectual disability (ID). Although the gene is ubiquitously expressed affected individuals present no consistent clinical features beyond ID. In order to study the pathological mechanism involved in the aetiology of FTSJ1 deficiency-related cognitive impairment, we generated and characterized an Ftsj1 deficient mouse line based on the gene trapped stem cell line RRD143. Apart from an impaired learning capacity these mice presented with several statistically significantly altered features related to behaviour, pain sensing, bone and energy metabolism, the immune and the hormone system as well as gene expression. These findings show that Ftsj1 deficiency in mammals is not phenotypically restricted to the brain but affects various organ systems. Re-examination of ID patients with FTSJ1 mutations from two previously reported families showed that several features observed in the mouse model were recapitulated in some of the patients. Though the clinical spectrum related to Ftsj1 deficiency in mouse and man is variable, we suggest that an increased pain threshold may be more common in patients with FTSJ1 deficiency. Our findings demonstrate novel roles for Ftsj1 in maintaining proper cellular and tissue functions in a mammalian organism.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Deficiência Intelectual/etiologia , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/genética , Metiltransferases/fisiologia , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Família , Feminino , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Dor Nociceptiva/etiologia , Dor Nociceptiva/patologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo
20.
Mol Neurobiol ; 56(6): 4215-4230, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291584

RESUMO

As part of the ßγ-superfamily, ßB2-crystallin (CRYBB2) is an ocular structural protein in the lens, and mutation of the corresponding gene can cause cataracts. CRYBB2 also is expressed in non-lens tissue such as the adult mouse brain and is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Nevertheless, the robustness of this association as well as how CRYBB2 may contribute to disease-relevant phenotypes is unknown. To add further clarity to this issue, we performed a comprehensive analysis of behavioral and neurohistological alterations in mice with an allelic series of mutations in the C-terminal end of the Crybb2 gene. Behavioral phenotyping of these three ßB2-mutant lines Crybb2O377, Crybb2Philly, and Crybb2Aey2 included assessment of exploratory activity and anxiety-related behavior in the open field, sensorimotor gating measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reflex, cognitive performance measured by social discrimination, and spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze. In each mutant line, we also quantified the number of parvalbumin-positive (PV+) GABAergic interneurons in selected brain regions that express CRYBB2. While there were allele-specific differences in individual behaviors and affected brain areas, all three mutant lines exhibited consistent alterations in PPI that paralleled alterations in the PV+ cell number in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN). The direction of the PPI change mirrored that of the TRN PV+ cell number thereby suggesting a role for TRN PV+ cell number in modulating PPI. Moreover, as both altered PPI and PV+ cell number are schizophrenia-associated endophenotypes, our result implicates mutated Crybb2 in the development of this neuropsychiatric disorder.


Assuntos
Endofenótipos/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Cadeia B de beta-Cristalina/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Contagem de Células , Éxons/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Parvalbuminas/metabolismo , Inibição Pré-Pulso , Filtro Sensorial , Cadeia B de beta-Cristalina/química
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