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2.
JCI Insight ; 52019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112525

RESUMO

Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated gene delivery can efficiently target muscle tissues to serve as "biofactories" for secreted proteins in prophylactic and therapeutic scenarios. Nevertheless, efficient rAAV-mediated gene delivery is often limited by host immune responses against the transgene product. The development of strategies to prevent anti-transgene immunity is therefore crucial. The employment of endogenous microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation to detarget transgene expression from antigen presenting cells (APCs) has shown promise for reducing immunogenicity. However, the mechanisms underlying miRNA-mediated modulation of anti-transgene immunity by APC detargeting are not fully understood. Using the highly immunogenic ovalbumin (OVA) protein as a proxy for foreign antigens, we show that rAAV vectors containing miR142 binding sites efficiently repress co-stimulatory signals in dendritic cells, significantly blunt the cytotoxic T cell response, allow for sustained transgene expression in skeletal myoblasts, and attenuate clearance of transduced muscle cells in mice. Furthermore, the blunting of humoral immunity against circulating OVA correlates with detargeting of OVA expression from APCs. This demonstrates that incorporating APC-specific miRNA binding sites into rAAV vectors provides an effective strategy for reducing transgene-specific immune response. This approach holds promise for clinical applications where the safe and efficient delivery of a prophylactic or therapeutic protein is desired.

3.
Immunity ; 50(3): 567-575.e5, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850342

RESUMO

Long-term delivery of anti-HIV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors holds promise for the prevention and treatment of HIV infection. We describe a therapy trial in which four rhesus monkeys were infected with SHIV-AD8 for 86 weeks before receiving the AAV-encoded mAbs 3BNC117, 10-1074, and 10E8. Although anti-drug antibody (ADA) responses restricted mAb delivery, one monkey successfully maintained 50-150 µg/mL of 3BNC117 and 10-1074 for over 2 years. Delivery of these two mAbs to this monkey resulted in an abrupt decline in plasma viremia, which remained undetectable for 38 successive measurements over 3 years. We generated two more examples of virologic suppression using AAV delivery of a cocktail of four mAbs in a 12-monkey study. Our results provide proof of concept for AAV-delivered mAbs to produce a "functional cure." However, they also serve as a warning that ADAs may be a problem for practical application of this approach in humans.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Dependovirus/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Células HEK293 , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Viremia/imunologia
4.
Mol Ther ; 27(3): 650-660, 2019 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704961

RESUMO

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) delivery of potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs is a promising approach for the prevention of HIV-1 infection. The immunoglobulin G (IgG)1 subtype is usually selected for this application, because it efficiently mediates antibody effector functions and has a somewhat longer half-life. However, the use of IgG1-Fc has been associated with the generation of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) that correlate with loss of antibody expression. In contrast, we have shown that expression of the antibody-like molecule eCD4-Ig bearing a rhesus IgG2-Fc domain showed reduced immunogenicity and completely protected rhesus macaques from simian-HIV (SHIV)-AD8 challenges. To directly compare the performance of the IgG1-Fc and the IgG2-Fc domains in a prophylactic setting, we compared AAV1 expression of rhesus IgG1 and IgG2 forms of four anti-HIV bNAbs: 3BNC117, NIH45-46, 10-1074, and PGT121. Interestingly, IgG2-isotyped bNAbs elicited significantly lower ADA than their IgG1 counterparts. We also observed significant protection from two SHIV-AD8 challenges in macaques expressing IgG2-isotyped bNAbs, but not from those expressing IgG1. Our data suggest that monoclonal antibodies isotyped with IgG2-Fc domains are less immunogenic than their IgG1 counterparts, and they highlight ADAs as a key barrier to the use of AAV1-expressed bNAbs.

5.
Eur J Immunol ; 49(3): 462-475, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578679

RESUMO

Immune checkpoints are regulators of immune cells and play key roles in the modulation of immune responses. The role of checkpoints in autoimmune disease is poorly understood but likely to be central since checkpoint inhibition during cancer treatment can cause autoimmunity. We generated a high-dimensional single-cell proteomics data set from PBMCs of healthy individuals and patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) by mass cytometry, enabling systems-wide analyses of immune cell frequencies and cell type-specific expression patterns of 12 immune checkpoints. Subtle but significant changes in immune cell frequencies and checkpoint expression were observed between UC patients on different treatment regimens and between patients and healthy controls. Most strikingly, UC patients showed a reduced number of peripheral NK-cells and those cells showed an altered phenotype including increased TIGIT expression. Based on these results, we modulated NK-cell function ex vivo through targeting of TIGIT pathway members. In summary, we describe a pattern of changes in immune cell abundance and checkpoint expression as a basis for UC patient stratification and we show modulation of a corresponding immune cell subset through checkpoint targeting. Our approach can be used for the identification of pathogenic immune cell subsets and guide target selection in autoimmunity and chronic inflammation.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caspase activation and recruitment domain 11 (CARD11) encodes a scaffold protein in lymphocytes that links antigen receptor engagement with downstream signaling to nuclear factor κB, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1. Germline CARD11 mutations cause several distinct primary immune disorders in human subjects, including severe combined immune deficiency (biallelic null mutations), B-cell expansion with nuclear factor κB and T-cell anergy (heterozygous, gain-of-function mutations), and severe atopic disease (loss-of-function, heterozygous, dominant interfering mutations), which has focused attention on CARD11 mutations discovered by using whole-exome sequencing. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the molecular actions of an extended allelic series of CARD11 and to characterize the expanding range of clinical phenotypes associated with heterozygous CARD11 loss-of-function alleles. METHODS: Cell transfections and primary T-cell assays were used to evaluate signaling and function of CARD11 variants. RESULTS: Here we report on an expanded cohort of patients harboring novel heterozygous CARD11 mutations that extend beyond atopy to include other immunologic phenotypes not previously associated with CARD11 mutations. In addition to (and sometimes excluding) severe atopy, heterozygous missense and indel mutations in CARD11 presented with immunologic phenotypes similar to those observed in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 loss of function, dedicator of cytokinesis 8 deficiency, common variable immunodeficiency, neutropenia, and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked-like syndrome. Pathogenic variants exhibited dominant negative activity and were largely confined to the CARD or coiled-coil domains of the CARD11 protein. CONCLUSION: These results illuminate a broader phenotypic spectrum associated with CARD11 mutations in human subjects and underscore the need for functional studies to demonstrate that rare gene variants encountered in expected and unexpected phenotypes must nonetheless be validated for pathogenic activity.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(8): 083603, 2018 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192618

RESUMO

An atom irradiated by an off-resonant laser field near a surface is expected to experience the sum of two fundamental potentials, the optical potential of the laser field and the Casimir-Polder potential of the surface. Here, we report a new nonadditive potential, namely, the laser-induced Casimir-Polder potential, which arises from a correlated coupling of the atom with both the laser and the quantum vacuum. We apply this result to an experimentally realizable scenario of an atomic mirror with an evanescent laser beam leaking out of a surface. We show that the nonadditive term is significant for realistic experimental parameters, transforming potential barriers into potential wells, which can be used to trap atoms near surfaces.

8.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(4): 527-536, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948574

RESUMO

PURPOSE: All reported patients with hypomorphic X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) due to c.664C>T (p.R222C) mutations in the gene (IL2RG) encoding the common γ chain (γc) have presented with opportunistic infections within the first year of life, despite the presence of nearly normal NK and T cell numbers. Reporting five children of one extended family with hemizygous mutations in IL2RG, we explore potential diagnostic clues and extend our comprehension of the functional impact of this mutation. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing (WES); detailed immune phenotyping; cytokine-induced STAT phosphorylation; B, T, and NK cell activation; and quantification of sjTRECs in five Arab children with c.664C>T (p.R222C) IL2RG mutation. RESULTS: The mean age at clinical presentation with respiratory tract infection or diarrhea was 6.8 (range: 2-12) months. None of the children presented with opportunistic infections. Diagnostic clues were early onset in the first year of life, and a suggestive family history associated with reduced naïve CD4 T cells and absent switched memory B cells. Number and phenotype of NK cells and innate-like lymphocytes were normal. The diagnosis was made by WES and corroborated by absent STAT phosphorylation and reduced functional response after IL-2 and IL-21 stimulation. Four patients underwent successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: As early diagnosis and treatment are important, a high index of suspicion in the diagnosis of c.664C>T (p.R222C) X-SCID is needed. This requires prompt genetic testing by next generation sequencing in order to avoid unnecessary delays in the definite diagnosis since immunological work up may not be discriminating. Assays directly testing cytokine signaling or cytokine-dependent functions are helpful in confirming the functional impact of the identified hypomorphic variants.

9.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 96(10): 1060-1071, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29790605

RESUMO

Premature T-cell immunosenescence with CD57+ CD8+ T-cell accumulation has been linked to immunodeficiency and autoimmunity in primary immunodeficiencies including activated PI3 kinase delta syndrome (APDS). To address whether CD57 marks the typical senescent T-cell population seen in adult individuals or identifies a distinct population in APDS, we compared CD57+ CD8+ T cells from mostly pediatric APDS patients to those of healthy adults with similarly prominent senescent T cells. CD57+ CD8+ T cells from APDS patients were less differentiated with more CD27+ CD28+ effector memory T cells showing increased PD1 and Eomesodermin expression. In addition, transition of naïve to CD57+ CD8+ T cells was not associated with the characteristic telomere shortening. Nevertheless, they showed the increased interferon-gamma secretion, enhanced degranulation and reduced in vitro proliferation typical of senescent CD57+ CD8+ T cells. Thus, hyperactive PI3 kinase signaling favors premature accumulation of a CD57+ CD8+ T-cell population, which shows most functional features of typical senescent T cells, but is different in terms of differentiation and relative telomere shortening. Initial observations indicate that this specific differentiation state may offer the opportunity to revert premature T-cell immunosenescence and its potential contribution to inflammation and immunodeficiency in APDS.

10.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(429)2018 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29467301

RESUMO

Recent evidence has revealed that oncogenic mutations may confer immune escape. A better understanding of how an oncogenic mutation affects immunosuppressive programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression may help in developing new therapeutic strategies. We show that oncogenic JAK2 (Janus kinase 2) activity caused STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and STAT5 phosphorylation, which enhanced PD-L1 promoter activity and PD-L1 protein expression in JAK2V617F-mutant cells, whereas blockade of JAK2 reduced PD-L1 expression in myeloid JAK2V617F-mutant cells. PD-L1 expression was higher on primary cells isolated from patients with JAK2V617F-myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) compared to healthy individuals and declined upon JAK2 inhibition. JAK2V617F mutational burden, pSTAT3, and PD-L1 expression were highest in primary MPN patient-derived monocytes, megakaryocytes, and platelets. PD-1 (programmed death receptor 1) inhibition prolonged survival in human MPN xenograft and primary murine MPN models. This effect was dependent on T cells. Mechanistically, PD-L1 surface expression in JAK2V617F-mutant cells affected metabolism and cell cycle progression of T cells. In summary, we report that in MPN, constitutive JAK2/STAT3/STAT5 activation, mainly in monocytes, megakaryocytes, and platelets, caused PD-L1-mediated immune escape by reducing T cell activation, metabolic activity, and cell cycle progression. The susceptibility of JAK2V617F-mutant MPN to PD-1 targeting paves the way for immunomodulatory approaches relying on PD-1 inhibition.

11.
Eur Respir J ; 51(1)2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29371382

RESUMO

The value of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unclear. The RIMTCORE (Routine Inspiratory Muscle Training within COPD Rehabilitation) randomised controlled trial examined the effectiveness of IMT added to pulmonary rehabilitation.In total, 611 COPD patients (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage II-IV) received a 3-week inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation, of which 602 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analyses. The intervention group (n=300) received highly intensive IMT and the control group (n=302) received sham IMT. The primary outcome was maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax). The secondary outcomes were 6-min walk distance, dyspnoea, quality of life and lung function. Outcomes were assessed pre- and post-pulmonary rehabilitation. ANCOVA was used.The intervention group showed higher effects in PImax (p<0.001) and forced inspiratory volume in 1 s (p=0.013). All other outcomes in both study groups improved significantly, but without further between-group differences. Sex and pulmonary rehabilitation admission shortly after hospitalisation modified quality of life effects.IMT as an add-on to a 3-week pulmonary rehabilitation improves inspiratory muscle strength, but does not provide additional benefits in terms of exercise capacity, quality of life or dyspnoea. A general recommendation for COPD patients to add IMT to a 3-week pulmonary rehabilitation cannot be made.

12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(2): 704-717.e5, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28601685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) cause susceptibility to a range of infections, autoimmunity, immune dysregulation, and combined immunodeficiency. Disease manifestations can be mild or severe and life-threatening. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been used in some patients with more severe symptoms to treat and cure the disorder. However, the outcome of HSCT for this disorder is not well established. OBJECTIVE: We sought to aggregate the worldwide experience of HSCT in patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations and to assess outcomes, including donor engraftment, overall survival, graft-versus-host disease, and transplant-related complications. METHODS: Data were collected from an international cohort of 15 patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations who had undergone HSCT using a variety of conditioning regimens and donor sources. Retrospective data collection allowed the outcome of transplantation to be assessed. In vitro functional testing was performed to confirm that each of the identified STAT1 variants was in fact a GOF mutation. RESULTS: Primary donor engraftment in this cohort of 15 patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations was 74%, and overall survival was only 40%. Secondary graft failure was common (50%), and posttransplantation event-free survival was poor (10% by 100 days). A subset of patients had hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis before transplant, contributing to their poor outcomes. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that HSCT for patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations is curative but has significant risk of secondary graft failure and death.

13.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 6(1): 81-96, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29094511

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: New therapeutic strategies to modulate the immune response of human and equine allergic asthma are still under extensive investigation. Immunomodulating agents stimulating T-regulatory cells offer new treatment options beyond conventional symptomatic treatment or specific immunotherapy for human and equine allergic airway diseases, with the goal of a homoeostatic T-helper cell balance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a nebulized gelatin nanoparticle-CpG formulation (CpG-GNP) with and without specific allergens for the treatment of spontaneous allergic equine asthma as a model for human asthma. METHODS: Twenty equine asthma-affected horses were treated either with CpG-GNP alone or CpG-GNP with allergens. Two specific allergens were selected for each horse based on history and an in-vitro test. Each horse received seven administrations of the respective nebulized composition and was examined before treatment, immediately after and 6 weeks after the treatment course. RESULTS: Clinical parameters such as breathing rate, indirect interpleural measurement, arterial blood gases, amount of tracheal mucus and percentage of neutrophils and cytokines in tracheal washes and serum samples were evaluated. Treatment with CpG-GNP alone as well as in combinations with relevant allergens resulted in clinical improvement of nasal discharge, breathing rate, amount of secretion and viscosity, neutrophil percentage and partial oxygen pressure directly after and 6 weeks after treatment. There were no significant differences between the two treatments in clinical parameters or local cytokine profiles in the tracheal wash fluid (IL-10, IFN-g, and IL-17). IL-4 concentrations decreased significantly in both groups. CONCLUSION: Nonspecific CpG-GNP-based immunotherapy shows potential as a treatment for equine and possibly also human allergic asthma.

14.
J Virol ; 91(22)2017 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28878078

RESUMO

Exposure to dengue virus (DENV) is thought to elicit lifelong immunity, mediated by DENV-neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). However, Abs generated by primary infections confer serotype-specific protection, and immunity against other serotypes develops only after subsequent infections. Accordingly, the induction of these nAb responses acquired after serial DENV infections has been a long-sought-after goal for vaccination. Nonetheless, it is still unclear if tetravalent vaccines can elicit or recall nAbs. In this study, we have characterized the responses from a volunteer who had been previously exposed to DENV and was immunized with the live attenuated tetravalent vaccine Butantan-DV, developed by the NIH and Butantan Institute. Eleven days after vaccination, we observed an ∼70-fold expansion of the plasmablast population. We generated 21 monoclonal Abs (MAbs) from singly sorted plasmablasts. These MAbs were the result of clonal expansions and had significant levels of somatic hypermutation (SHM). Nineteen MAbs (90.5%) neutralized at least one DENV serotype at concentrations of 1 µg/ml or less; 6 of the 21 MAbs neutralized three or more serotypes. Despite the tetravalent composition of the vaccine, we observed a neutralization bias in the induced repertoire: DENV3 was targeted by 18 of the 19 neutralizing MAbs (nMAbs). Furthermore, the P3D05 nMAb neutralized DENV3 with extraordinary potency (concentration to achieve half-maximal neutralization [Neut50] = 0.03 µg/ml). Thus, the Butantan-DV vaccine engendered a mature, antigen-selected B cell repertoire. Our results suggest that preexisting responses elicited by a previous DENV3 infection were recalled by immunization.IMPORTANCE The dengue epidemic presents a global public health challenge that causes widespread economic burden and remains largely unchecked by existing control strategies. Successful control of the dengue epidemic will require effective prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. Several vaccine clinical efficacy trials are approaching completion, and the chances that one or more live attenuated tetravalent vaccines (LATVs) will be introduced worldwide is higher than ever. While it is widely accepted that dengue virus (DENV)-neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers are associated with protection, the Ab repertoire induced by LATVs remain uncharacterized. Here, we describe the isolation of potent (Neut50 < 0.1 µg/ml) nAbs from a DENV-seropositive volunteer immunized with the tetravalent vaccine Butantan-DV, which is currently in phase III trials.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vacinas contra Dengue/imunologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Adulto , Vacinas contra Dengue/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Estados Unidos
15.
Mol Ther ; 25(10): 2323-2331, 2017 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28750738

RESUMO

Development of vaccines against mosquito-borne Flaviviruses is complicated by the occurrence of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), which can increase disease severity. Long-term delivery of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) has the potential to effectively block infection and represents an alternative to vaccination. The risk of ADE may be avoided by using prophylactic nAbs harboring amino acid mutations L234A and L235A (LALA) in the immunoglobulin G (IgG) constant region. Here, we used recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) to deliver the anti-dengue virus 3 (DENV3) nAb P3D05. While the administration of rAAV-P3D05-rhesus immunoglobulin G1 (rhIgG1)-LALA to rhesus macaques engendered DENV3-neutralizing activity in serum, it did not prevent infection. The emergence of viremia following DENV3 challenge was delayed by 3-6 days in the rAAV-treated group, and replicating virus contained the envelope mutation K64R. This neutralization-resistant variant was also confirmed by virus outgrowth experiments in vitro. By delivering P3D05 with unmutated Fc sequences, we further demonstrated that DENV3 also evaded wild-type nAb prophylaxis, and serum viral loads appeared to be higher in the presence of low levels of unmutated P3D05-rhIgG1. Our study shows that a vectored approach for long-term delivery of nAbs with the LALA mutations is promising, but prophylaxis using a single nAb is likely insufficient at preventing DENV infection and replication.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dependovirus/genética , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Macaca mulatta , Masculino
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(6): e0005655, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604797

RESUMO

The isolation of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmAbs) against the Zika virus (ZIKV) might lead to novel preventative strategies for infections in at-risk individuals, primarily pregnant women. Here we describe the characterization of human mAbs from the plasmablasts of an acutely infected patient. One of the 18 mAbs had the unusual feature of binding to and neutralizing ZIKV despite not appearing to have been diversified by affinity maturation. This mAb neutralized ZIKV (Neut50 ~ 2 µg/ml) but did not react with any of the four dengue virus serotypes. Except for the expected junctional diversity created by the joining of the V-(D)-J genes, there was no deviation from immunoglobulin germline genes. This is a rare example of a human mAb with neutralizing activity in the absence of detectable somatic hypermutation. Importantly, binding of this mAb to ZIKV was specifically inhibited by human plasma from ZIKV-exposed individuals, suggesting that it may be of value in a diagnostic setting.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Epitopos Imunodominantes/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Zika virus , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/genética , Anticorpos Antivirais/genética , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecção por Zika virus/sangue , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(4): 1302-1310.e4, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27658761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Absent T-cell immunity resulting in life-threatening infections provides a clear rationale for hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Combined immunodeficiencies (CIDs) and "atypical" SCID show reduced, not absent T-cell immunity. If associated with infections or autoimmunity, they represent profound combined immunodeficiency (P-CID), for which outcome data are insufficient for unambiguous early transplant decisions. OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare natural histories of severity-matched patients with/without subsequent transplantation and to determine whether immunologic and/or clinical parameters may be predictive for outcome. METHODS: In this prospective and retrospective observational study, we recruited nontransplanted patients with P-CID aged 1 to 16 years to compare natural histories of severity-matched patients with/without subsequent transplantation and to determine whether immunologic and/or clinical parameters may be predictive for outcome. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were recruited (median age, 9.6 years). Thirteen of 51 had a genetic diagnosis of "atypical" SCID and 14 of 51 of CID. About half of the patients had less than 10% naive T cells, reduced/absent T-cell proliferation, and at least 1 significant clinical event/year, demonstrating their profound immunodeficiency. Nineteen patients (37%) underwent transplantation within 1 year of enrolment, and 5 of 51 patients died. Analysis of the HSCT decisions revealed the anticipated heterogeneity, favoring an ongoing prospective matched-pair analysis of patients with similar disease severity with or without transplantation. Importantly, so far neither the genetic diagnosis nor basic measurements of T-cell immunity were good predictors of disease evolution. CONCLUSIONS: The P-CID study for the first time characterizes a group of patients with nontypical SCID T-cell deficiencies from a therapeutic perspective. Because genetic and basic T-cell parameters provide limited guidance, prospective data from this study will be a helpful resource for guiding the difficult HSCT decisions in patients with P-CID.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/patologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa
19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(40): 12330-3, 2016 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27584723

RESUMO

Ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide natural products (RiPPs) exhibit diverse structures and bioactivities and are classified into distinct biosynthetic families. A recently reported family is the proteusins, with the prototype members polytheonamides being generated by almost 50 maturation steps, including introduction of d-residues at multiple positions by an unusual radical SAM epimerase. A region in the protein-like N-terminal leader of proteusin precursors is identified that is crucial for epimerization. It resembles a precursor motif previously shown to mediate interaction in thioether bridge-formation in class I lanthipeptide biosynthesis. Beyond this region, similarities were identified between proteusin and further RiPP families, including class I lanthipeptides. The data suggest that common leader features guide distinct maturation types and that nitrile hydratase-like enzymes are ancestors of several RiPP classes.

20.
Eur J Immunol ; 46(11): 2639-2649, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27615517

RESUMO

Tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) associates with interferon (IFN) alpha receptor, IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) beta and other cytokine receptor subunits for signal transduction, in response to various cytokines, including type-I and type-III IFNs, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-23. Data on TYK2 dependence on cytokine responses and in vivo consequences of TYK2 deficiency are inconsistent. We investigated a TYK2 deficient patient, presenting with eczema, skin abscesses, respiratory infections and IgE levels >1000 U/mL, without viral or mycobacterial infections and a corresponding cellular model to analyze the role of TYK2 in type-III IFN mediated responses and NK-cell function. We established a novel simple diagnostic monocyte assay to show that the mutation completely abolishes the IFN-α mediated antiviral response. It also partly reduces IL-10 but not IL-6 mediated signaling associated with reduced IL-10Rß expression. However, we found almost normal type-III IFN signaling associated with minimal impairment of virus control in a TYK2 deficient human cell line. Contrary to observations in TYK2 deficient mice, NK-cell phenotype and function, including IL-12/IL-18 mediated responses, were normal in the patient. Thus, preserved type-III IFN responses and normal NK-cell function may contribute to antiviral protection in TYK2 deficiency leading to a surprisingly mild human phenotype.


Assuntos
Interferons/imunologia , Síndrome de Job/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , TYK2 Quinase/deficiência , TYK2 Quinase/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/virologia , Eczema/etiologia , Eczema/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Camundongos , Mutação , Receptores de Citocinas/imunologia , Receptores de Interleucina-10/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-10/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Pele/patologia , TYK2 Quinase/genética , TYK2 Quinase/imunologia
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