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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10832, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616738

RESUMO

The genomic diversity of Plasmodium malariae malaria parasites is understudied, partly because infected individuals tend to present with low parasite densities, leading to difficulties in obtaining sufficient parasite DNA for genome analysis. Selective whole genome amplification (SWGA) increases the relative levels of pathogen DNA in a clinical sample, but has not been adapted for P. malariae parasites. Here we design customized SWGA primers which successfully amplify P. malariae DNA extracted directly from unprocessed clinical blood samples obtained from patients with P. malariae-mono-infections from six countries, and further test the efficacy of SWGA on mixed infections with other Plasmodium spp. SWGA enables the successful whole genome sequencing of samples with low parasite density (i.e. one sample with a parasitaemia of 0.0064% resulted in 44% of the genome covered by ≥ 5 reads), leading to an average 14-fold increase in genome coverage when compared to unamplified samples. We identify a total of 868,476 genome-wide SNPs, of which 194,709 are unique across 18 high-quality isolates. After exclusion of the hypervariable subtelomeric regions, a high-quality core subset of 29,899 unique SNPs is defined. Population genetic analysis suggests that P. malariae parasites display clear geographical separation by continent. Further, SWGA successfully amplifies genetic regions of interest such as orthologs of P. falciparum drug resistance-associated loci (Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, Pfcrt, Pfk13 and Pfmdr1), and several non-synonymous SNPs were detected in these genes. In conclusion, we have established a robust SWGA approach that can assist whole genome sequencing of P. malariae, and thereby facilitate the implementation of much-needed large-scale multi-population genomic studies of this neglected malaria parasite. As demonstrated in other Plasmodia, such genetic diversity studies can provide insights into the biology underlying the disease and inform malaria surveillance and control measures.

2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008433, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574163

RESUMO

Mosquitoes are of major importance to human and animal health due to their ability to transmit various pathogens. In Europe the role of mosquitoes in public health has increased with the introduction of alien Aedes mosquitoes such as the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus; the Asian bush mosquito, Ae. japonicus; and Ae. koreicus. In Austria, Ae. japonicus has established populations in various regions of the country. Aedes albopictus is not known to overwinter in Austria, although isolated findings of eggs and adult female mosquitoes have been previously reported, especially in Tyrol. Aedes koreicus had not so far been found in Austria. Within the framework of an alien mosquito surveillance program in the Austrian province of Tyrol, ovitraps were set up weekly from May to October, 2018, at 67 sites- 17 in East Tyrol and 50 in North Tyrol. Sampling was performed at highways and at urban and rural areas. DNA obtained from mosquito eggs was barcoded using molecular techniques and sequences were analysed to species level. Eggs of alien Aedes species were found at 18 out of 67 sites (27%). Both Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus were documented at highways and urban areas in both East and North Tyrol. Aedes koreicus was found in East Tyrol. During this mosquito surveillance program, eggs of Ae. albopictus, Ae. japonicus, and Ae. koreicus were documented in the Austrian province of Tyrol. These findings not only show highways to be points of entry, but also point to possible establishment processes of Ae. japonicus in Tyrol. Moreover, Ae. koreicus was documented in Austria for the first time.

3.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 139: 103-111, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351241

RESUMO

Acanthocephalan parasites were collected from the intestinal tracts of 137 predominantly wild fish (1 barbel Barbus barbus, 3 European chub Squalius cephalus, 13 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and 120 brown trout Salmo trutta) from 12 localities. The condition factor, intensity of acanthocephalan infection and pathological lesions, if applicable, were documented. Routine bacteriology and virology were performed, and the brown trout were additionally tested for the presence of the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsolioides bryosalmonae by PCR. In total, 113 acanthocephalans were barcoded by sequencing a section of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Barcoding of the acanthocephalan tissues resulted in 77 sequences, of which 56 were assigned to Echinorhynchus truttae (3 genotypes), 11 to Pomphorhynchus tereticollis (9 genotypes), 9 to Acanthocephalus sp. (5 genotypes) and 1 to Neoechinorhynchida. Most of these genotypes were detected for the first time. Statistically, the acanthocephalan infection did not have an impact on the condition factor of the brown trout. Infection with P. tereticollis caused more severe pathological changes in the digestive tract than E. truttae. The present study provides new data regarding the distribution of acanthocephalan species in Austria and their impact on individual fish. In addition, new barcoding data from acanthocephalan parasites are presented, and the occurrence of P. tereticollis in European chub in Austria and in brown and rainbow trout in general was confirmed for the first time.

4.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 19: 100370, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057397

RESUMO

The domestic yak Bos mutus grunniens is an important livestock animal in parts of Asia, especially of the Himalayan region, where people rely on it for meat, wool, milk and labour. In its countries of origin, the yak is commonly infected with the ascarid Toxocara vitulorum. This parasite mainly infects cattle (Bos taurus) and domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalus) and is most commonly found in sub-tropical regions, but has been occasionally reported in more temperate climates, including several Central European countries. Here we describe a fatal case of toxocarosis in a yak calf in Tyrol in May 2018, which is the first report of these parasites in yaks in Austria. A moribund calf had to be euthanized and gross pathology showed masses of cream-coloured, up to 25 cm long nematodes filling the whole of the small intestine, as well as parts of the colon. PCR of parts of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene was performed and sequence analysis confirmed the helminths as Toxocara vitulorum.

5.
Parasitol Res ; 119(3): 1001-1009, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056024

RESUMO

A retrospective study based on cases of canine dirofilariosis presented to the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna or diagnosed by private practitioners throughout Austria, from 1998 to 2018 was conducted to investigate the long-term development and current state of canine dirofilarial infections in Austria. Included in this study were 146 dogs which were tested positive for D. immitis and/or D. repens. The most commonly used diagnostic methods and the probable geographical origins of the infections were evaluated and the treatment protocols applied were compared with each other and with the literature. The results show that most infections were found due to screening for common travel infections using antigen-ELISA or PCR-testing, or by the incidental finding of microfilariae. Remarkably, only 24.3% of all cases presented showed clinical signs indicating canine dirofilariosis. Regarding the origin and travel history of the dogs, thirteen different countries could be identified. The three treatment protocols used showed a similar outcome after 8 months of treatment and minor side effects, which is consistent with the literature. An alarming increase in reported infections with both D. immitis and D. repens in Austria was noted since 2014. The number of documented cases had almost tripled by 2018, raising severe concerns about the threat of it becoming endemic in Austria. Therefore, the existing recommendations in current guidelines regarding canine dirofilariosis should be widely publicised and more strictly enforced. Prophylactic measures for dogs travelling abroad and diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for dogs imported from endemic countries should be obligatorily established throughout Europe, to reduce the risk of further spread of canine filarial infections to non-endemic regions.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Microfilárias/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Dirofilariose/transmissão , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Microfilárias/classificação , Microfilárias/genética , Microfilárias/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Viagem
6.
Parasitol Res ; 119(2): 737-740, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834491

RESUMO

In the framework of a mosquito-monitoring program conducted from 2014 to 2018, non-culicid dipteran bycatch was identified to species-level with a focus on Diptera of medical and veterinary importance as part of a biodiversity initiative and barcoding project ("Austrian Barcode of Life"). Two species hitherto not known from Austria, the regularly sampled synanthropic moth fly Clogmia albipunctata (Psychodidae) and a single specimen of the louse fly Ornithoica turdi (Hippoboscidae), were collected in Vienna and Lower Austria. We confirmed identification results using a barcoding approach and provide the first reference sequence for O. turdi.


Assuntos
Dípteros/fisiologia , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Animais , Áustria , Biodiversidade , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Dípteros/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Psychodidae/genética
7.
Parasitol Res ; 118(9): 2735-2740, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375956

RESUMO

Knowledge about vector-borne pathogens important for human and veterinary medicine in wild ruminants in Tyrol (Austria) is scarce. Blood samples from Alpine ibex (Capra ibex; n = 44), Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra; n = 21), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus; n = 18) and red deer (Cervus elaphus; n = 6) were collected over a period of 4 years (2015-2018) in four regions in North Tyrol, with a primary focus on the Kaunertal. Blood spots on filter paper were tested for the presence of DNA of vector-borne pathogens (Anaplasmataceae, Piroplasmida, Rickettsia and filarioid helminths). Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia capreoli were detected in two of 89 (2.3%) blood samples. Rickettsia spp., Theileria spp. and filarioid helminths were not documented. One Alpine chamois was positive for A. phagocytophilum and B. capreoli. Moreover, an ibex from the Kaunertal region was positive for A. phagocytophilum. While the ibex was a kid less than 1 year old, the chamois was an adult individual. Further research is recommended to evaluate effects of climate change on infection rates of North Tyrolean wild ruminants by these pathogens and the distribution of their vectors.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolamento & purificação , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/classificação , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Animais , Áustria , Babesia/classificação , Babesia/genética , Cervos/microbiologia , Cervos/parasitologia , Vetores de Doenças , Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/genética , Rupicapra/microbiologia , Rupicapra/parasitologia , Theileria/classificação , Theileria/genética
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300125

RESUMO

Despite close association between camels and humans, molecular based studies on vector-borne pathogens infecting camels are scarce compared to other animals in Iran. The current study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of vector-borne bacteria in the blood of dromedaries by molecular tools. A total of 200 peripheral blood samples were collected from apparently healthy animals. Microscopic examination was performed on Giemsa-stained blood smears, and drops of blood were spotted on Whatman FTA® cards for molecular analyses. Genomic DNA was extracted from the cards, and PCR amplification followed by sequencing of positive samples was carried out for the detection of Anaplasmataceae, spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, Bartonella spp. and Borrelia spp. Intra-cytic forms of any blood pathogens could not be detected by light microscopy. PCR results revealed 30 animals (15%) to be infected with Anaplasmataceae bacteria. Analyses of sequences revealed a strain of Anaplasma sp. identical to Candidatus Anaplasma camelii isolated from camels, cattle and deer in Asia and Africa. Neither SFG rickettsiae, nor Borrelia or Bartonella species were found. Further studies for determining epidemiological role of camels and its zoonotic potential are recommended. This paper reviews the current knowledge on camels' tickborne bacteria including microscopy, serology and molecular studies.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose/sangue , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Camelus/microbiologia , Vetores de Doenças , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasma/imunologia , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/sangue , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Masculino , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsia/imunologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/sangue , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(12): 2119-2126, 2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium ovale curtisi and wallikeri are perceived as relapsing malarial parasites. Contrary to Plasmodium vivax, direct evidence for this hypothesis is scarce. The aim of this prospective study was to characterize the reappearance patterns of ovale parasites. METHODS: P. ovale spp. infected patients were treated with artemether-lumefantrine and followed biweekly for up to 1 year for the detection of reappearing parasitemia. Molecular analysis of reappearing isolates was performed to identify homologous isolates by genotyping and to define cases of relapse following predefined criteria. RESULTS: At inclusion, 26 participants were positive for P. ovale curtisi and/or P. ovale wallikeri. The median duration of follow-up was 35 weeks. Reappearance of the same P. ovale species was observed in 46% of participants; 61% of P. ovale curtisi and 19% of P. ovale wallikeri infection-free intervals were estimated to end with reappearance by week 32. Based on the predefined criteria, 23% of participants were identified with 1 or 2 relapses, all induced by P. ovale curtisi. CONCLUSION: These findings are in line with the currently accepted relapse theory inasmuch as the reappearance of P. ovale curtisi strains following initial blood clearance was conclusively demonstrated. Interestingly, no relapse of P. ovale wallikeri was observed.

10.
Data Brief ; 24: 103937, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080854

RESUMO

High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis is a post-PCR analysis method used for identifying genetic variation in nucleic acid sequences. These data are presenting the identity of the 33 samples used for a qPCR-HRM and a nested snapback methods validation. In addition we are presenting the high resolution melting profiles of P. ovale curtisi (Poc) and P. ovale wallikeri (Pow) in the following conditions: after a direct qPCR run and after a nested snapback run. The qPCR-HRM of artificial mixture of Poc and Pow plasmids (200 copies/µl, each) at different proportions are showing the melting pattern of co-infections with both species. The sequencing methodology of the clpc gene fragment of 12 randomly selected samples is described and their likeness to published sequences is shown in a maximum likelihood tree. "Novel high resolution melting and snapback assays for simultaneous detection and differentiation of Plamodium ovale spp." [1].

11.
Parasitol Res ; 118(5): 1633-1638, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877440

RESUMO

Systematic, continuous mosquito surveillance is considered the most reliable tool to predict the spread and establishment of alien mosquito species such as the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), Japanese bush mosquito (Aedes japonicus), and the transmission risk of mosquito-borne arboviruses to humans. Only single individuals of Ae. albopictus have been found in Austria so far. However, it is likely that the species will be able to establish populations in the future due to global trade and traffic as well as increasing temperatures in the course of global climate change. In summer 2017, a project surveilling the oviposition of newly introduced Aedes mosquitoes, using ovitraps, was set up by means of citizen scientists and researchers and was performed in six federal provinces of Austria-Tyrol, Carinthia, Vienna, Lower Austria, Styria, and Burgenland. Eggs of Ae. albopictus were identified in Tyrol during the months August and September, while Ae. japonicus was found in Lower Austria, Styria, and Burgenland. In Vienna and Carinthia, all ovitraps were negative for Aedes eggs; however, Ae. japonicus was found for the first time in Vienna in July 2017 during routine sampling of adult mosquitoes. With this project, we demonstrated the benefits of citizen scientists for ovitrap-based mosquito surveillance. The finding of Ae. albopictus eggs in Northern Tyrol is not yet a proof of the establishment of a self-sustaining population, although it indicates the ongoing introduction of this species along main traffic routes from Italy, where this mosquito is well established. The risk of establishment of the tiger mosquito in the Lower Inn Valley is therefore a given and informing the public about preventive measures to hinder and delay this development is highly recommended.


Assuntos
Aedes/anatomia & histologia , Aedes/classificação , Espécies Introduzidas , Oviposição/fisiologia , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão , Arbovirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Áustria , Mudança Climática , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
12.
Parasitol Res ; 118(5): 1385-1391, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919062

RESUMO

Subterranean cavities serve as resting places and hibernation shelters for mosquitoes. In Europe, members of the genus Culex are often the most abundant insects on cave walls. Culex pipiens L., the common house mosquito, exists in two physically very similar, yet genetically and ecologically distinct biotypes (or forms, 'f.'), namely Cx. pipiens f. pipiens and Cx. pipiens f. molestus. Autogeny and stenogamy of the latter form have been interpreted as adaptations to underground habitats. The epigean occurrence of the two biotypes and their hybrids was recently examined in Eastern Austria, but the hypogean distribution of the Cx. pipiens complex and morphologically similar non-members such as Cx. torrentium is unknown. Considering the key role of Culex mosquitoes in the epidemiology of certain zoonotic pathogens, the general paucity of data on species composition and relative abundance in subterranean shelters appears unfortunate.For a first pertinent investigation in Austria, we collected mosquitoes in four eastern federal states. Based on analyses of the ACE2 gene and the CQ11 microsatellite locus, 150 female and three male mosquitoes of the genus Culex, two females of the genus Culiseta and a single female of the genus Anopheles were determined to species level or below. In our catches, Cx. pipiens f. pipiens exceeded the apparent abundance of the purportedly cave-adapted Cx. pipiens f. molestus many times over. Records of Cx. hortensis and Cx. territans, two species rarely collected in Austria, lead us to infer that underground habitats host a higher diversity of culicine mosquitoes than previously thought.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Anopheles/classificação , Cavernas , Culex/classificação , DNA/genética , Ecossistema , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Áustria , Culex/genética , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética
13.
Acta Trop ; 192: 75-81, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711423

RESUMO

Plasmodium ovale spp. are two of the six species of apicomplexan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium commonly causing disease in humans. A recent phylogeny study has identified both Plasmodium ovale species (P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri) as two sympatric occurring species. The actual prevalence and clinical relevance of P. ovale spp. are likely underestimated due to low parasitemia and mixed infections, which pose a major challenge to microscopic diagnosis and are frequently undetectable using malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs). The aim of this work is to develop a HRM-based assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi. Thirty three well-documented P. ovale spp. samples from previous studies were used for this study. The newly developed High Resolution Melting (HRM) assay targeting the apicoplast genome was highly specific to both P. ovale species. Adding a snapback tail at the 5' end of the forward primer for a nested HRM PCR, increased the melting temperature (Tm) difference between the two species. To our knowledge this study reports the first direct HRM assay developed on the apicoplast genome, specific for both P. ovale species. This method provides added value to the WHO open request of developing new practical malaria diagnostic methods for the malaria elimination program and could contribute to a quick and efficient diagnosis of low-level parasitemia, symptomatic or asymptomatic, as well as mixed or single P. ovale infections.


Assuntos
Malária/parasitologia , Plasmodium ovale/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Microscopia , Filogenia
14.
Parasitol Res ; 118(4): 1261-1269, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783859

RESUMO

Avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) and kinetoplastid (Trypanosoma spp.) parasites are common vector-borne pathogens in birds worldwide; however, knowledge about vector competence of different mosquito species is currently lacking. For a pilot project examining vector competence of mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex and Culex torrentium for protozoan parasites in the city of Vienna, 316 individual mosquitoes were sampled in the months June-August 2017 around the campus of the Veterinary University of Vienna. Since vector competence for avian Plasmodium can only be ascertained by finding infectious sporozoites in mosquito salivary glands, special emphasis was on examining these, or at least insect thoraxes, which contain the salivary glands. After species identification, the mosquitoes were processed in three different ways to determine the best method of visually detecting protozoan parasites in salivary glands: (1) microscopic examination of individual, fixed and Giemsa-stained salivary glands, (2) microscopic examination of stained sections of individually fixed and embedded mosquito thoraxes and (3) stained sections of individual whole insects. Material from all three groups was also subjected to PCR to detect avian haemosporidian and trypanosomatid parasite DNA. PCR was performed on all 316 collected mosquitoes, with 37 pools (n = 2-10) of 263 individuals and 53 single individuals in all together 90 PCR reactions. Avian Plasmodium was found in 18 (20%) and trypanosomatid parasites were found in 10 (11.1%) of the examined samples and pools yielded a higher proportion of positives than did individual samples. Six different species of protozoan parasites were identified, namely Plasmodium vaughani SYAT05 which was the most common, P. elongatum GRW6, P. relictum SGS1, Trypanosoma avium, T. culicavium and Crithidia dedva. Seventy-seven mosquito salivary glands were dissected and stained with Giemsa solution. Of these, one (1.3%) featured sporozoites and one (1.3%) trypanosomatid parasites. While the trypanosomes were identified as T. avium, the avian Plasmodium species were present in a mixed infection with P. vaughani SYAT05 as the dominant species. In conclusion, mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex are very likely vectors of different avian Plasmodium and Trypanosoma species and PCR was the most successful and reliable method for parasite detection in mosquito samples, delivering higher rates and more accurate results. The visual detection of parasite stages in the salivary glands was more difficult and only a few specimens were detected using Giemsa stain and chromogenic in situ hybridization. For further studies on vector competence of different protozoan parasites in mosquitoes, the use of PCR-based methods would be preferable.


Assuntos
Culex/parasitologia , Malária Aviária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Glândulas Salivares/parasitologia , Esporozoítos/isolamento & purificação , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Aves/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Malária Aviária/parasitologia , Projetos Piloto , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Trypanosoma/classificação , Trypanosoma/genética
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 663, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30567586

RESUMO

Dirofilaria repens is a nematode affecting domestic and wild canids, transmitted by several species of mosquitoes. It usually causes a non-pathogenic subcutaneous infection in dogs and is the principal agent of human dirofilariosis in the Old World. In the last decades, D. repens has increased in prevalence in areas where it has already been reported and its distribution range has expanded into new areas of Europe, representing a paradigmatic example of an emergent pathogen. Despite its emergence and zoonotic impact, D. repens has received less attention by scientists compared to Dirofilaria immitis. In this review we report the recent advances of D. repens infection in dogs and humans, and transmission by vectors, and discuss possible factors that influence the spread and increase of this zoonotic parasite in Europe. There is evidence that D. repens has spread faster than D. immitis from the endemic areas of southern Europe to northern Europe. Climate change affecting mosquito vectors and the facilitation of pet travel seem to have contributed to this expansion; however, in the authors' opinion, the major factor is likely the rate of undiagnosed dogs continuing to perpetuate the life-cycle of D. repens. Many infected dogs remain undetected due to the subclinical nature of the disease, the lack of rapid and reliable diagnostic tools and the poor knowledge and still low awareness of D. repens in non-endemic areas. Improved diagnostic tools are warranted to bring D. repens diagnosis to the state of D. immitis diagnosis, as well as improved screening of imported dogs and promotion of preventative measures among veterinarians and dog owners. For vector-borne diseases involving pets, veterinarians play a significant role in prevention and should be more aware of their responsibility in reducing the impact of the zoonotic agents. In addition, they should enhance multisectorial collaboration with medical entomologists and the public health experts, under the concept and the actions of One Health-One Medicine.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria repens/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Animais , Culicidae/parasitologia , Culicidae/fisiologia , Dirofilaria repens/classificação , Dirofilaria repens/genética , Dirofilaria repens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Dirofilariose/transmissão , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 489, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bats are among the most widely distributed mammals worldwide and can represent hosts or reservoirs for a number of different pathogens. Bartonella spp. are opportunistic bacterial pathogens, which are transmitted by a large variety of arthropods. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and host-associations of these Gram-negative bacteria in heart tissues of bats collected in four different countries from eastern and central Europe and to analyze their phylogenetic relationship with other bat-associated bartonellae. RESULTS: The results of this study show for the first time the presence of Bartonella spp. DNA in heart tissues of bats from central and eastern Europe. The overall prevalence of the infection was 1.38%. Phylogenetic analysis identified four new Bartonella spp. sequences, which were closely related with other Bartonella previously isolated from bats in Europe and North America. CONCLUSIONS: The gltA sequences of Bartonella spp. showed considerable heterogeneity in the phylogenetic analysis resulting in six different clades. Our study demonstrated the presence of Bartonella spp. only in heart tissues of bats from Romania, with two new bat species recorded as hosts (Myotis cf. alcathoe and Pipistrellus pipistrellus).


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/genética , Quirópteros/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Coração/microbiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Bartonella/patogenicidade , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/transmissão , Quirópteros/anatomia & histologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Europa Oriental/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Romênia/epidemiologia
18.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol ; 2018: 9754695, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29736197

RESUMO

Information on mosquito-borne filarioid helminths in Austria is scarce, but recent discoveries of Dirofilaria repens indicate autochthonous distribution of this parasite in Eastern Austria. In the current xenomonitoring study, more than 48,000 mosquitoes were collected in Eastern Austria between 2013 and 2015, using different sampling techniques and storage conditions, and were analysed in pools with molecular tools for the presence of filarioid helminth DNA. Overall, DNA of D. repens, Setaria tundra, and two unknown filarioid helminths were documented in twenty mosquito pools within the mitochondrial cox1 gene (barcode region). These results indicate that S. tundra, with roe deer as definite hosts, is common in Eastern Austria, with most occurrences in floodplain mosquitoes (e.g., Aedes vexans). Moreover, DNA of D. repens was found in an Anopheles plumbeus mosquito close to the Slovakian border, indicating that D. repens is endemic in low prevalence in Eastern Austria. This study shows that xenomonitoring is an adequate tool to analyse the presence of filarioid helminths, but results are influenced by mosquito sampling techniques, storage conditions, and molecular protocols.

19.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0196052, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29672618

RESUMO

Trypanosomatid flagellates have not been studied in Austria in any detail. In this study, specific nested PCR, targeted on the ribosomal small subunit, was used to determine the occurrence and diversity of trypanosomatids in wild-caught mosquitoes sampled across Eastern Austria in the years 2014-2015. We collected a total of 29,975 mosquitoes of 19 species divided in 1680 pools. Of these, 298 (17.7%), representing 12 different mosquito species, were positive for trypanosomatid DNA. In total, seven trypanosomatid spp. were identified (three Trypanosoma, three Crithidia and one Herpetomonas species), with the highest parasite species diversity found in the mosquito host Coquillettidia richiardii. The most frequent parasite species belonged to the mammalian Trypanosoma theileri/cervi species complex (found in 105 pools; 6.3%). The avian species T. culicavium (found in 69 pools; 4.1%) was only detected in mosquitoes of the genus Culex, which corresponds to their preference for avian hosts. Monoxenous trypanosomatids of the genus Crithidia and Herpetomonas were found in 20 (1.3%) mosquito pools. One third (n = 98) of the trypanosomatid positive mosquito pools carried more than one parasite species. This is the first large scale study of trypanosomatid parasites in Austrian mosquitoes and our results are valuable in providing an overview of the diversity of these parasites in Austria.


Assuntos
Culicidae/parasitologia , Trypanosoma/classificação , Animais , Áustria , Biodiversidade , DNA de Protozoário , DNA Ribossômico , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Trypanosoma/genética , Tripanossomíase/parasitologia , Tripanossomíase/transmissão
20.
Malar J ; 17(1): 78, 2018 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29426330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria caused by Plasmodium ovale spp. has been neglected by and large from research and has received only little scientific attention during the past decades. Ovale malaria is considered to feature relapses by liver hypnozoites although scientific evidence for this paradigm is scarce. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, the case of a 16-year-old male, who presented with fevers to the outpatient department in Vienna, Austria, after travelling to Uganda and Papua New Guinea is described. Infection with Plasmodium malariae was diagnosed by microscopy and the patient was treated accordingly with a full course of supervised artemether-lumefantrine. He was discharged in good clinical condition with a negative blood smear. One month after initial diagnosis, he returned complaining of fever. Thick blood smear was positive again for malaria parasites, which were confirmed as P. ovale wallikeri by PCR. Retrospective analysis revealed the identical Plasmodium spp. in the initial blood samples. Molecular analysis of various gene loci (nuclear porbp2, 18S rRNA and potra genes) gave identical results providing further evidence for relapse by an identical parasite genotype. Consecutively, the patient was retreated with artemether-lumefantrine and received a regimen of primaquine according to WHO guidelines. CONCLUSION: Conclusive evidence for relapses with P. ovale spp. is rare. The presented case provides convincing confirmation for the relapse paradigm based on re-appearing parasitaemia following supervised treatment in a non-endemic region with a parasite strain of identical genotype.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/prevenção & controle , Malária/prevenção & controle , Plasmodium ovale/isolamento & purificação , Primaquina/administração & dosagem , Prevenção Secundária , Adolescente , Áustria , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Humanos , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Papua Nova Guiné , Recidiva , Uganda
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