This research is framed in the area of biomathematics and contributes to the epidemiological surveillance entities in Colombia to clarify how breast cancer mortality rate (BCM) is spatially distributed in relation to the forest area index (FA) and circulating vehicle index (CV). In this regard, the World Health Organization has highlighted the scarce generation of knowledge that relates mortality from tumor diseases to environmental factors. Quantitative methods based on geospatial data science are used with cross-sectional information from the 2018 census; it's found that the BCM in Colombia is not spatially randomly distributed, but follows cluster aggregation patterns. Under multivariate modeling methods, the research provides sufficient statistical evidence in terms of not rejecting the hypothesis that if a spatial unit has high FA and low CV, then it has significant advantages in terms of lower BCM.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has placed stress on all National Health Systems (NHSs) worldwide. Recent studies on the disease have evaluated different variables, namely, quarantine models, mitigation efforts, damage to mental health, mortality of the population with chronic diseases, diagnosis, use of masks and social distancing, and mortality based on age. This study focused on the four NHSs recognized by the WHO. These systems are as follows: (1) The Beveridge model, (2) the Bismarck model, (3) the National Health Insurance (NHI) model, and (4) the "Out-of-Pocket" model. The study analyzes the response of the health systems to the pandemic by comparing the time in days required to double the number of disease-related deaths. The statistical analysis was limited to 56 countries representing 70% of the global population. Each country was grouped into the health system defined by the WHO. The study compared the median death toll DT, between health systems using Mood's median test method. The results show high variability of the temporal trends in each group; none of the health systems for the three analyzed periods maintain stable interquartile ranges (IQRs). Nevertheless, the results obtained show similar medians between the study groups. The COVID-19 pandemic saturates health systems regardless of their management structures, and the result measured with the time for doubling death rate variable is similar among the four NHSs.
AssuntosCOVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Máscaras , Quarentena , SARS-CoV-2
To support the understanding of recycling models applied to plastics, the main objective of this work is to offer a literature review of the different reverse logistics (RL) models for collecting plastic waste (PW). The methodology used for processing the scientific literature was content analysis, using the google scholar search engine. The main keywords used were RL and PW. This article is divided into two parts: the first part discusses the development of circular economy models and RL networks and raises the conceptual framework of the research, and the second part presents mathematical models and exploratory studies, proposed as a solution for RL problems of PW. Articles published between years 2014 and 2019 were reviewed. In total, 102 references were used, 70 of them are part of the literature review. According to our findings, we can state that the most widely used solution method for mathematical modeling is mixed-integer linear programming, and for exploratory studies, it was evaluations. About 93% of studies evaluated raw materials related to PW; only 13% of studies had models with stochastic processes; and 88% of the investigations used continuous variables, being the multiobjective functions one of the most used to provide solutions to RL problems. Regarding the mathematical models, 49% were evaluations, 9% corresponded to multicriteria analysis, 29% to linear and nonlinear programming, and 4% to another type of evaluation or model.
AssuntosGerenciamento de Resíduos , Modelos Econômicos , Modelos Teóricos , Plásticos , Reciclagem
This work proposes a new edge about the Chaotic Genetic Algorithm (CGA) and the importance of the entropy in the initial population. Inspired by chaos theory, the CGA uses chaotic maps to modify the stochastic parameters of Genetic Algorithm. The algorithm modifies the parameters of the initial population using chaotic series and then analyzes the entropy of such population. This strategy exhibits the relationship between entropy and performance optimization in complex search spaces. Our study includes the optimization of nine benchmark functions using eight different chaotic maps for each of the benchmark functions. The numerical experiment demonstrates a direct relation between entropy and performance of the algorithm.