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1.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(9): e27535, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal symptoms such as neck and shoulder pain/stiffness and low back pain are common health problems in the working population. They are the leading causes of presenteeism (employees being physically present at work but unable to be fully engaged). Recently, digital interventions have begun to be used to manage health but their effectiveness has not yet been fully verified, and adherence to such programs is always a problem. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the improvements in musculoskeletal symptoms in workers with neck/shoulder stiffness/pain and low back pain after the use of an exercise-based artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted interactive health promotion system that operates through a mobile messaging app (the AI-assisted health program). We expected that this program would support participants' adherence to exercises. METHODS: We conducted a two-armed, randomized, controlled, and unblinded trial in workers with either neck/shoulder stiffness/pain or low back pain or both. We recruited participants with these symptoms through email notifications. The intervention group received the AI-assisted health program, in which the chatbot sent messages to users with the exercise instructions at a fixed time every day through the smartphone's chatting app (LINE) for 12 weeks. The program was fully automated. The control group continued with their usual care routines. We assessed the subjective severity of the neck and shoulder pain/stiffness and low back pain of the participants by using a scoring scale of 1 to 5 for both the intervention group and the control group at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention by using a web-based form. We used a logistic regression model to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) of the intervention group to achieve to reduce pain scores with those of the control group, and the ORs of the subjective assessment of the improvement of the symptoms compared to the intervention and control groups, which were performed using Stata software (version 16, StataCorp LLC). RESULTS: We analyzed 48 participants in the intervention group and 46 participants in the control group. The adherence rate was 92% (44/48) during the intervention. The participants in the intervention group showed significant improvements in the severity of the neck/shoulder pain/stiffness and low back pain compared to those in the control group (OR 6.36, 95% CI 2.57-15.73; P<.001). Based on the subjective assessment of the improvement of the pain/stiffness at 12 weeks, 36 (75%) out of 48 participants in the intervention group and 3 (7%) out of 46 participants in the control group showed improvements (improved, slightly improved) (OR 43.00, 95% CI 11.25-164.28; P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the short exercises provided by the AI-assisted health program improved both neck/shoulder pain/stiffness and low back pain in 12 weeks. Further studies are needed to identify the elements contributing to the successful outcome of the AI-assisted health program. TRIAL REGISTRATION: University hospital Medical Information Network-Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) 000033894; https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000038307.

2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD013330, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication amongst people who are critically ill, and it is associated with an increased risk of death. For people with severe AKI, continuous kidney replacement therapy (CKRT), which is delivered over 24 hours, is needed when they become haemodynamically unstable. When CKRT is interrupted due to clotting of the extracorporeal circuit, the delivered dose is decreased and thus leading to undertreatment. OBJECTIVES: This review assessed the efficacy of non-pharmacological measures to maintain circuit patency in CKRT. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 25 January 2021 which includes records identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal, and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (parallel-group and cross-over studies), cluster RCTs and quasi-RCTs that examined non-pharmacological interventions to prevent clotting of extracorporeal circuits during CKRT.  DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three pairs of review authors independently extracted information including participants, interventions/comparators, outcomes, study methods, and risk of bias. The primary outcomes were circuit lifespan and death due to any cause at day 28. We used a random-effects model to perform quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis). We assessed risk of bias in included studies using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. Summary estimates of effect were obtained using a random-effects model, and results were expressed as risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes, and mean difference (MD) and 95% CI for continuous outcomes. Confidence in the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 20 studies involving 1143 randomised participants were included in the review. The methodological quality of the included studies was low, mainly due to the unclear randomisation process and blinding of the intervention. We found evidence on the following 11 comparisons: (i) continuous venovenous haemodialysis (CVVHD) versus continuous venovenous haemofiltration (CVVH) or continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF); (ii) CVVHDF versus CVVH; (iii) higher blood flow (≥ 250 mL/minute) versus standard blood flow (< 250 mL/minute); (iv) AN69 membrane (AN69ST) versus other membranes; (v) pre-dilution versus post-dilution; (vi) a longer catheter (> 20 cm) placing the tip targeting the right atrium versus a shorter catheter (≤ 20 cm) placing the tip in the superior vena cava; (vii) surface-modified double-lumen catheter versus standard double-lumen catheter with identical geometry and flow design; (viii) single-site infusion anticoagulation versus double-site infusion anticoagulation; (ix) flat plate filter versus hollow fibre filter of the same membrane type; (x) a filter with a larger membrane surface area versus a smaller one; and (xi) a filter with more and shorter hollow fibre versus a standard filter of the same membrane type. Circuit lifespan was reported in 9 comparisons. Low certainty evidence indicated that CVVHDF (versus CVVH: MD 10.15 hours, 95% CI 5.15 to 15.15; 1 study, 62 circuits), pre-dilution haemofiltration (versus post-dilution haemofiltration: MD 9.34 hours, 95% CI -2.60 to 21.29; 2 studies, 47 circuits; I² = 13%), placing the tip of a longer catheter targeting the right atrium (versus placing a shorter catheter targeting the tip in the superior vena cava: MD 6.50 hours, 95% CI 1.48 to 11.52; 1 study, 420 circuits), and surface-modified double-lumen catheter (versus standard double-lumen catheter: MD 16.00 hours, 95% CI 13.49 to 18.51; 1 study, 262 circuits) may prolong circuit lifespan. However, higher blood flow may not increase circuit lifespan (versus standard blood flow: MD 0.64, 95% CI -3.37 to 4.64; 2 studies, 499 circuits; I² = 70%). More and shorter hollow fibre filters (versus standard filters: MD -5.87 hours, 95% CI -10.18 to -1.56; 1 study, 6 circuits) may reduce circuit lifespan. Death from any cause was reported in four comparisons We are uncertain whether CVVHDF versus CVVH, CVVHD versus CVVH or CVVHDF, longer versus a shorter catheter, or surface-modified double-lumen catheters versus standard double-lumen catheters reduced death due to any cause, in very low certainty evidence. Recovery of kidney function was reported in three comparisons. We are uncertain whether CVVHDF versus CVVH, CVVHDF versus CVVH, or surface-modified double-lumen catheters versus standard double-lumen catheters increased recovery of kidney function. Vascular access complications were reported in two comparisons. Low certainty evidence indicated using a longer catheter (versus a shorter catheter: RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.74) may reduce vascular access complications, however the use of surface-modified double lumen catheters versus standard double-lumen catheters may make little or no difference to vascular access complications. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The use of CVVHDF as compared with CVVH, pre-dilution haemofiltration, a longer catheter, and surface-modified double-lumen catheter may be useful in prolonging the circuit lifespan, while higher blood flow and more and shorter hollow fibre filter may reduce circuit life. The Overall, the certainty of evidence was assessed to be low to very low due to the small sample size of the included studies. Data from future rigorous and transparent research are much needed in order to fully understand the effects of non-pharmacological interventions in preventing circuit coagulation amongst people with AKI receiving CKRT.

3.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 314, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461963

RESUMO

This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2021. Other selected articles can be found online at https://www.biomedcentral.com/collections/annualupdate2021 . Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from https://link.springer.com/bookseries/8901 .

4.
Clin Nutr ; 40(8): 5047-5052, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatemia may be a useful biomarker to identify thiamine deficiency in critically ill enterally-fed patients. The objective was to determine whether intravenous thiamine affects blood lactate, biochemical and clinical outcomes in this group. METHOD: This randomized clinical trial was conducted across 5 Intensive Care Units. Ninety critically ill adult patients with a serum phosphate ≤0.65 mmol/L within 72 h of commencing enteral nutrition were randomized to intravenous thiamine (200 mg every 12 h for up to 14 doses) or usual care (control). The primary outcome was blood lactate over time and data are median [IQR] unless specified. RESULTS: Baseline variables were well balanced (thiamine: lactate 1.2 [1.0, 1.6] mmol/L, phosphate 0.56 [0.44, 0.64] mmol/L vs. control: lactate 1.0 [0.8, 1.3], phosphate 0.54 [0.44, 0.61]). Patients randomized to the intervention received a median of 11 [7.5, 13.5] doses for a total of 2200 [1500, 2700] mg of thiamine. Blood lactate over the entire 7 days of treatment was similar between groups (mean difference = -0.1 (95 % CI -0.2 to 0.1) mmol/L; P = 0.55). The percentage change from lactate pre-randomization to T = 24 h was not statistically different (thiamine: -32 (-39, -26) vs. control: -24 (-31, -16) percent, P = 0.09). Clinical outcomes were not statistically different (days of vasopressor administration: thiamine 2 [1, 4] vs. control 2 [0, 5.5] days; P = 0.37, and deaths 9 (21 %) vs. 5 (11 %); P = 0.25). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill enterally-fed patients who developed hypophosphatemia, intravenous thiamine did not cause measurable differences in blood lactate or clinical outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12619000121167).

5.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 113, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264429

RESUMO

Among hypothetical cohorts of older osteoporotic women without prior fragility fracture in Japan, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of two treatment strategies using a simulation model. Annual intravenous zoledronic acid for 3 years was cost-saving compared with biannual subcutaneous denosumab for 3 years followed by weekly oral alendronate for 3 years. PURPOSE: Osteoporosis constitutes a major medical and health economic burden to society worldwide. Injectable treatments for osteoporosis require less frequent administration than oral treatments and therefore have higher persistence and adherence with treatment, which could explain better efficacy for fracture prevention. Although annual intravenous zoledronic acid and biannual subcutaneous denosumab are available, it remains unclear which treatment strategy represents a better value from a health economic perspective. Accordingly, we examined the cost-effectiveness of zoledronic acid for 3 years compared with sequential denosumab/alendronate (i.e., denosumab for 3 years followed by oral weekly alendronate for 3 years, making the total treatment duration 6 years) among hypothetical cohorts of community-dwelling osteoporotic women without prior fragility fracture in Japan at ages 65, 70, 75, or 80 years. METHODS: Using a previously validated and updated Markov microsimulation model, we obtained incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (Japanese yen [¥] (or US dollars [$]) per quality-adjusted life-year [QALY]) from the public healthcare and long-term care payer's perspective over a lifetime horizon with a willingness-to-pay of ¥5 million (or $47,500) per QALY. RESULTS: In the base case, zoledronic acid was cost-saving (i.e., more effective and less expensive) compared with sequential denosumab/alendronate. In deterministic sensitivity analyses, results were sensitive to changes in the efficacy of zoledronic acid or the cumulative persistence rate with zoledronic acid or denosumab. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, the probabilities of zoledronic acid being cost-effective were 98-100%. CONCLUSIONS: Among older osteoporotic women without prior fragility fracture in Japan, zoledronic acid was cost-saving compared with sequential denosumab/alendronate.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Idoso , Alendronato , Análise Custo-Benefício , Denosumab , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas por Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Ácido Zoledrônico
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073863

RESUMO

Changes in working styles and physical activities, and an increase in psychological stress during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, may have affected pain conditions among workers with pain; however, these associations are still poorly understood. Therefore, we conducted a web-based, cross-sectional study to investigate these changes among Japanese workers suffering from pain. A total of 1941 workers who were aged 20-64 years and suffered from body pain within 4 weeks prior to the study were included. Information was collected using a self-reported questionnaire between July and August 2020. Among the respondents, 15% reported that their pain worsened during the COVID-19 pandemic. Approximately half of the workers claimed to have decreased physical activity (47%) and increased psychological stress (47%) during the pandemic. Multivariable logistic regression analyses found that telework (odds ratio 2.27, 95% confidence interval 1.68-3.06), decreased physical activity (3.18, 2.38-4.27), and increased psychological stress (2.16, 1.64-2.84) were associated significantly with pain augmentation. The group of workers who participated in telework and had decreased physical activity comprised the highest proportion of those with augmented pain. Our findings suggest that measures, which consider physical activities, psychological aspects, and working styles, to alleviate pain may be required for the working population in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Dor , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Teletrabalho
7.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 40(4): 100897, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087432

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread globally and can cause a shortage of medical resources, in particular, mechanical ventilators. High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) are frequently used for acute respiratory failure patients as alternatives to invasive mechanical ventilation. They are drawing attention because of a potential role to save mechanical ventilators. However, their effectiveness and risk of viral spread are unclear. The latest network meta-analysis of pre-COVID-19 trials reported that treatment with non-invasive oxygenation strategies was associated with improved survival when compared with conventional oxygen therapy. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a lot of clinical research on COVID-19 related acute respiratory failure has been reported. Several observational studies and small trials have suggested HFNC or NPPV as an alternative of standard oxygen therapy to manage COVID-19 related acute respiratory failure, provided that appropriate infection prevention is applied by health care workers to avoid risks of the virus transmission. Awake proning is an emerging strategy to optimise the management of patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory failure. However, the benefits of awake proning have yet to be assessed in properly designed clinical research. Although HFNC and NPPV are probably effective for acute respiratory failure, the safety data are mostly based on observational and experimental reports. As such, they should be implemented carefully if adequate personal protective equipment and negative pressure rooms are available.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ventilação não Invasiva , Insuficiência Respiratória , Humanos , Pandemias , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Pain Physician ; 24(3): E299-E307, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, have been reported. However, associations between persistent chronic nonspecific low back pain (CNLBP) and ADHD have not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the positive rates of possible ADHD, as assessed by self-reported ADHD scales, in patients with persistent CNLBP, using data from self-reported questionnaires completed by patients and their families. This study also aimed to compare the self-reported scores obtained from existing standardized data for healthy individuals, and to examine whether the ADHD scale scores of patients with persistent CNLBP are associated with pain variables. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: The specialized pain clinic at our university hospital. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 60 consecutive patients with persistent CNLBP who were diagnosed with a possible somatic symptom disorder and were referred to a psychiatrist in our pain clinic. The Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) self-report (CAARS-S) and observer-rated (CAARS-O) questionnaires were utilized. We investigated the CAARS scores, and the association between the CAARS subscale scores and pain variables (pain duration and pain Numeric Rating Scale) in patients with persistent CNLBP. RESULTS: Of the 60 patients, 19 (31.7%) were positive on both CAARS-S and CAARS-O questionnaires (T-score > 65). The ADHD indices, which comprised subscales of the CAARS estimating the necessity of treatment for ADHD, were significantly higher in both male and female patients with persistent CNLBP than in the Japanese standardized sample (P < 0.005). CAARS-S hyperactivity/restlessness, CAARS-O hyperactivity/restlessness, and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition hyperactive-impulsive symptom subscale scores also correlated with the pain intensity (P < 0.05). LIMITATIONS: In this study, ADHD tendency was evaluated using only a self-reported questionnaire. Hence in the future, accurate and precise assessments of ADHD symptoms using structured clinical interviews conducted by ADHD experts are warranted. Additionally, the study only included patients with persistent CNLBP. Therefore in the future, it will be valuable to investigate ADHD scale scores (e.g., CAARS) among patients with CNLBP and nonspecific low back pain with larger sample sizes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed that the subscale scores on an ADHD scale were considerably high in patients with persistent CNLBP. As a previous study of our clinical experience indicates that persistent CNLBP can be substantially relieved by administering ADHD medications, ADHD screening is warranted in the treatment of persistent CNLBP.

9.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 120, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Moral distress occurs when professionals cannot carry out what they believe to be ethically appropriate actions because of constraints or barriers. We aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Japanese translation of the Measure of Moral Distress for Healthcare Professionals (MMD-HP). METHODS: We translated the questionnaire into Japanese according to the instructions of EORTC Quality of Life group translation manual. All physicians and nurses who were directly involved in patient care at nine departments of four tertiary hospitals in Japan were invited to a survey to assess the construct validity, reliability and factor structure. Construct validity was assessed with the relation to the intention to leave the clinical position, and internal consistency was assessed with Cronbach's alpha. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. RESULTS: 308 responses were eligible for the analysis. The mean total score of MMD-HP (range, 0-432) was 98.2 (SD, 59.9). The score was higher in those who have or had the intention to leave their clinical role due to moral distress than in those who do not or did not have the intention of leaving (mean 113.7 [SD, 61.3] vs. 86.1 [56.6], t-test p < 0.001). The confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha confirmed the validity (chi-square, 661.9; CMIN/df, 2.14; GFI, 0.86; CFI, 0.88; CFI/TLI, 1.02; RMSEA, 0.061 [90%CI, 0.055-0.067]) and reliability (0.91 [95%CI, 0.89-0.92]) of the instrument. CONCLUSIONS: The translated Japanese version of the MMD-HP is a reliable and valid instrument to assess moral distress among physicians and nurses.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/ética , Pessoal de Saúde/ética , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Princípios Morais , Psicometria/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Traduções , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estresse Psicológico
10.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 72, 2021 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866457

RESUMO

Using a Markov microsimulation model among hypothetical cohorts of community-dwelling older osteoporotic Japanese women with prior vertebral fracture over a lifetime horizon, we found that daily subcutaneous teriparatide for 2 years followed by weekly oral alendronate for 8 years was not cost-effective compared with alendronate monotherapy for 10 years. PURPOSE: Teriparatide has proven efficacy in reducing osteoporotic fractures, but with substantial cost. We examined the cost-effectiveness of sequential teriparatide/alendronate (i.e., daily subcutaneous teriparatide for 2 years followed by weekly oral alendronate for 8 years) compared with alendronate monotherapy for 10 years among community-dwelling older osteoporotic women with prior clinical or morphometric vertebral fracture in Japan. METHODS: Using a previously validated and updated Markov microsimulation model, we obtained incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (Japanese yen [¥] (or US dollars [$]) per quality-adjusted life year [QALY]) from the perspective of a single payer responsible for both public healthcare and long-term care. We assumed a lifetime horizon with a willingness-to-pay of ¥5million (or $47,500) per QALY in the base case. We modeled the cost of biosimilar teriparatide, which has been available since November 2019 in Japan, assuming the efficacy was the same as that of the brand version. RESULTS: In the base case, sequential teriparatide/alendronate was not cost-effective compared with alendronate monotherapy. In deterministic sensitivity analyses, sequential teriparatide/alendronate would become cost-effective with 85%, 50%, and 15% price discounts to teriparatide at ages 70, 75, and 80, respectively, compared to the current biosimilar cost. Otherwise, results were especially sensitive to changes that affected efficacy of teriparatide or alendronate. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, the probabilities of sequential teriparatide/alendronate being cost-effective were 0%, 1%, and 37% at ages 70, 75, and 80, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Among high-risk osteoporotic women in Japan, sequential teriparatide/alendronate was not cost-effective compared with alendronate monotherapy, even with the availability of biosimilar teriparatide.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alendronato , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Fraturas por Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Teriparatida
11.
J Crit Care ; 64: 10-17, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725556

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the prevalence, characteristic, outcome, and acid-base biomarker predictors of outcome for different acidemia subtypes. METHODS: We used national intensive care databases from three countries and classified acidemia subtypes as metabolic (standard base excess [SBE] < -2 mEq/L only), respiratory (PaCO2 > 42 mmHg only), and combined (both SBE < -2 mEq/L and PaCO2 > 42 mmHg) based on blood gas analysis in the first 24 h after ICU admission. To investigate acid-base predictors for hospital mortality, we applied the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve approach. RESULTS: We screened 643,689 ICU patients (2014-2018) and detected acidemia in 57.8%. The most common subtype was metabolic (42.9%), followed by combined (30.3%) and respiratory (25.9%). Combined acidemia had a mortality of 12.7%, compared with 11% for metabolic and 5.5% for respiratory. For combined acidemia, the best predictor of hospital mortality was pH. However, for metabolic or respiratory acidemia, it was SBE or PaCO2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In ICU patients with acidemia, mortality differs according to subtype and is highest in the combined subtype. Best acid-base predictors of mortality also differ according to subtype with best performance for pH in combined, SBE in metabolic, and PaCO2 in respiratory acidemia.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe compartmental frequencies of MRI-defined osteophytes and co-localized cartilage damage and evaluate the associations of osteophyte (OP) size with any ipsicompartmental cartilage damage in knees with incident tibiofemoral radiographic knee osteoarthritis (ROA). METHODS: We evaluated knees from the Osteoarthritis Initiative without ROA at baseline that developed ROA during a 4-year interval. Semi-quantitative MRI scoring of osteophytes and cartilage damage was performed at the time point when ROA was diagnosed, defined as Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≥ 2, using the MOAKS instrument. The frequencies of maximum osteophyte size and maximum grade of ipsicompartmental (i.e., patellofemoral, medial tibiofemoral, lateral tibiofemoral, posterior femur) cartilage damage were assessed. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the association of MRI-defined maximum osteophyte size with presence of any (excluding focal superficial defects) ipsicompartmental cartilage damage. RESULTS: 296 knees that did not have tibiofemoral ROA at the baseline visit but developed ROA during the 48- month observational period were included. In the patellofemoral, medial tibiofemoral and lateral tibiofemoral compartments, the most frequent OP grade was 1 (67.6%, 59.1% and 51.7%, respectively), and in the posterior femur it was 0 (51.7%). For all compartments except the posterior femur, a linear trend was found between increasing maximum OP size and the presence of any concomitant cartilage damage. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of knees with incident tibiofemoral ROA, the patellofemoral joint showed more severe cartilage damage than other compartments regardless of concomitant osteophyte size. In the posterior femur, cartilage damage was rare despite the presence or size of concomitant osteophytes.

13.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 45, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic acidosis is a major complication of critical illness. However, its current epidemiology and its treatment with sodium bicarbonate given to correct metabolic acidosis in the ICU are poorly understood. METHOD: This was an international retrospective observational study in 18 ICUs in Australia, Japan, and Taiwan. Adult patients were consecutively screened, and those with early metabolic acidosis (pH < 7.3 and a Base Excess < -4 mEq/L, within 24-h of ICU admission) were included. Screening continued until 10 patients who received and 10 patients who did not receive sodium bicarbonate in the first 24 h (early bicarbonate therapy) were included at each site. The primary outcome was ICU mortality, and the association between sodium bicarbonate and the clinical outcomes were assessed using regression analysis with generalized linear mixed model. RESULTS: We screened 9437 patients. Of these, 1292 had early metabolic acidosis (14.0%). Early sodium bicarbonate was given to 18.0% (233/1292) of these patients. Dosing, physiological, and clinical outcome data were assessed in 360 patients. The median dose of sodium bicarbonate in the first 24 h was 110 mmol, which was not correlated with bodyweight or the severity of metabolic acidosis. Patients who received early sodium bicarbonate had higher APACHE III scores, lower pH, lower base excess, lower PaCO2, and a higher lactate and received higher doses of vasopressors. After adjusting for confounders, the early administration of sodium bicarbonate was associated with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 0.85 (95% CI, 0.44 to 1.62) for ICU mortality. In patients with vasopressor dependency, early sodium bicarbonate was associated with higher mean arterial pressure at 6 h and an aOR of 0.52 (95% CI, 0.22 to 1.19) for ICU mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Early metabolic acidosis is common in critically ill patients. Early sodium bicarbonate is administered by clinicians to more severely ill patients but without correction for weight or acidosis severity. Bicarbonate therapy in acidotic vasopressor-dependent patients may be beneficial and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Acidose/tratamento farmacológico , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , APACHE , Acidose/epidemiologia , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Internacionalidade , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Bicarbonato de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Taiwan/epidemiologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527736

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aims were to assess 1.) whether odds for incident radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA) differ between men and women in regard to body mass index (BMI) and inflammatory magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers one and two years prior and 2.) whether presence of inflammation on MRI differs between normal-weight, and overweight/obese persons that develop ROA up to four years prior. METHODS: We studied 355 knees from the Osteoarthritis Initiative study that developed incident ROA and 355 matched controls. MRIs were read for effusion-synovitis and Hoffa-synovitis for up to four consecutive annual time points. Subjects were classified as normal-weight (BMI < 25), overweight (BMI ≥25/<30) or obese (BMI ≥30). Conditional logistic regression was used to assess odds of incident ROA for effusion-synovitis and Hoffa-synovitis at one and two years prior ROA incidence (i.e. "P-1" and "P-2") considering BMI category. Bivariate logistic regression was used to assess odds of inflammation for cases only. RESULTS: 178 (25.1%) participants were normal-weight, 283 (39.9%) overweight and 249 (35.1%) obese. At P-2 being overweight with Hoffa-synovitis (OR 3.26, 95%CI 1.39,7.65) or effusion-synovitis (3.56, 95%CI 1.45,8.75) was associated with greater odds of incident ROA in women. For those with incident ROA there were no increased odds of synovitis in the overweight/obese subgroup for most time points but increased odds for effusion-synovitis were observed at P-2 (OR 2.21, 95%CI 1.11,4.43). CONCLUSIONS: Presence of inflammatory markers seems to play a role especially in overweight women while obese women have increased odds for ROA also in the absence of these markers.

15.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0243811, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471804

RESUMO

Production and perception of birdsong critically depends on early developmental experience. In species where singing is a sexually dimorphic trait, early life song experience may affect later behavior differently between sexes. It is known that both male and female songbirds acquire a life-long memory of early song experience, though its function remains unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that male and female birds express a preference for their fathers' song, but do so differently depending on the developmental stage. We measured preference for their father's song over an unfamiliar one in both male and female Bengalese finches at multiple time points across ontogeny, using phonotaxis and vocal response as indices of preference. We found that in males, selective approach to their father's song decreased as they developed while in females, it remained stable regardless of age. This may correspond to a higher sensitivity to tutor song in young males while they are learning and a retained sensitivity in females because song is a courtship signal that is used throughout life. In addition, throughout development, males vocalized less frequently during presentation of their father's song compared to unfamiliar song, whereas females emitted more calls to their father's song. These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of why songbirds acquire and maintain such a robust song memory.


Assuntos
Tentilhões/fisiologia , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Memória , Caracteres Sexuais , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Feminino , Aprendizagem , Masculino
17.
Eur Spine J ; 30(2): 402-409, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211189

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the Core Outcome Measures Index-Neck (COMI-Neck) in patients undergoing cervical spine surgery. METHODS: A total of 177 patients undergoing cervical spine surgery for spinal disorders from April to December 2017 were enrolled. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) included EuroQOL, Neck Disability Index, and treatment satisfaction. To address whether the questionnaire's scores relate to other outcomes based on a predefined hypothesis, the correlations between the COMI-Neck and the other PROs were measured (Spearman's rank correlation coefficients). The minimum clinically important difference (MCID) of the COMI summary score was calculated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve with a 7-point Likert scale of satisfaction with the treatment results. To assess reproducibility, another group of 59 volunteers with chronic neck pain were asked to reply to the COMI-Neck twice with an interval of 7-14 days. RESULTS: The COMI summary score showed no floor or ceiling effects preoperatively or postoperatively. Each of the COMI domains and the COMI summary score correlated to the hypothesized extent with the scores of the reference questionnaires (ρ = 0.40-0.79). According to the ROC curve with satisfaction (including "very satisfied" and "satisfied"), the area under the curve and MCID of the COMI summary score were 0.78 and 2.1. The intraclass correlation coefficient and the minimum detectable change (MDC 95%) of the COMI summary score were 0.97 and 0.77. CONCLUSION: The Japanese version of the COMI-Neck is valid and reliable for Japanese-speaking patients with cervical spinal disorders.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Humanos , Japão , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 34(4): 210-213, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A joint infectious disease-podiatry clinic (JIDPC) in which an infectious diseases physician and a podiatrist see patients with diabetic foot infections together once a week was initiated in January 2017. This study was designed to investigate if the JIDPC can improve patient adherence and reduce recurrent infections. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with diabetic foot infection admitted to Wheeling Hospital from March 2013 to December 2018 was performed. Initially, the patients were followed by infectious diseases and podiatry in their clinics separately (preintervention group). Beginning January 2017, they were followed together at the JIDPC (postintervention group). Recurrent infection, mortality, and loss to follow-up were compared using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Surgeries were performed in 52.5% of preintervention group participants (n = 99) and 81.9% of postintervention group participants (n = 55; P < .001). The preintervention group was more likely to be lost to follow-up (30.3% vs 9.1%; odds ratio [OR], 4.35 [confidence interval (CI), 1.58-11.99]), but the association was attenuated with further adjustment for surgery (OR 3.35 [CI, 1.17-9.62]). The risk of infection recurrence in 6 months was significantly higher in the preintervention group (36.1% vs 20.8%; OR, 2.16 [CI, 0.99-4.71]), but with further adjustment for surgery, this was not significant (P = .067; OR, 2.17 [CI, 0.95-4.94]). Mortality and 90-day readmission were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of JIDPCs may decrease the incidence of recurrent infections among patients with diabetic foot infections.

19.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(8): 1343-1351, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356972

RESUMO

Rationale: Understanding the magnitude of moral distress and its associations may point to solutions. Objectives: To understand the magnitude of moral distress and other measures of wellness in Canadian critical care physicians, to determine any associations among these measures, and to identify potentially modifiable factors. Methods: This was an online survey of Canadian critical care physicians whose e-mail addresses were registered with either the Canadian Critical Care Society or the Canadian Critical Care Trials Group. We used validated measures of moral distress, burnout, compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and resilience. We also measured selected individual, practice, and workload characteristics. Results: Of the 499 physicians surveyed, 239 (48%) responded and there were 225 usable surveys. Respondents reported moderate scores of moral distress (107 ± 59; mean ± standard deviation, maximum 432), one-third of respondents had considered leaving or had previously left a position because of moral distress, about one-third met criteria for burnout syndrome, and a similar proportion reported medium-high scores of compassion fatigue. In contrast, about one-half of respondents reported a high score of compassion satisfaction, and overall, respondents reported a moderate score of resilience. Each of the "negative" wellness measures (moral distress, burnout, and compassion fatigue) were associated directly with each of the other "negative" wellness measures, and inversely with each of the "positive" wellness measures (compassion satisfaction and resilience), but moral distress was not associated with resilience. Moral distress was lower in respondents who were married or partnered compared with those who were not, and the prevalence of burnout was lower in respondents who had been in practice for longer. There were no differences in any of the wellness measures between adult and pediatric critical care physicians. Conclusions: Canadian critical care physicians report moderate scores of moral distress, burnout, and compassionate fatigue, and moderate-high scores of compassion satisfaction and resilience. We found no modifiable factors associated with any wellness measures. Further quantitative and qualitative studies are needed to identify interventions to reduce moral distress, burnout, and compassion fatigue.

20.
Crit Care Med ; 48(12): e1356-e1357, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255122
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