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1.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12198, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The health effects of telework, which was introduced extensively in the immediate context of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis in Japan, on teleworkers, their families, and non-teleworkers, are unknown. Accordingly, we developed a rapid health impact assessment (HIA) to evaluate positive and negative health effects of telework on these groups and recommended easily implementable countermeasures. METHODS: Immediately after an emergency was declared in Japan, we implemented a rapid, five-step HIA. We screened and categorized health effects of telework for the three above-mentioned groups, extracting their content, directionality, and likelihood. Following a scoping exercise to determine the HIA's overall implementation, five experienced occupational health physicians appraised and prioritized the screened items and added new items. We outlined specific countermeasures and disseminated the results on our website. A short-term evaluation was conducted by three external occupational health physicians and three nurses. RESULTS: Following screening and appraisal, 59, 29, and 27 items were listed for teleworkers, non-teleworkers, and family members of teleworkers, respectively, covering work, lifestyle, disease and medical care, and home and community. Targeted countermeasures focused on the work environment, business management, communications, and lifestyles for teleworkers; safety and medical guidelines, work prioritization, and regular communication for non-teleworkers; and shared responsibilities within families and communication outside families for family members of teleworkers. CONCLUSION: The HIA's validity and the countermeasures' practical applicability were confirmed by the external evaluators. They can be easily applied and adapted across diverse industries to mitigate the wider negative effects of telework and enhance its positive effects.


Assuntos
Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Saúde do Trabalhador , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Comunicação , Segurança Computacional , Exercício Físico , Família , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde/métodos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Japão , Estilo de Vida , Segurança , Gerenciamento do Tempo , Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243635, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301520

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: This cross-sectional study analyzed the effect of treatment with hypnotics for sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, on daytime work functioning by phase of treatment in Japanese workers. METHODS: Subjects were respondents (n = 36,375) to a questionnaire survey conducted in 2015 to assess work functioning impairment in 15 companies in Japan. The questionnaire results were analyzed together with the respondents' healthcare data extracted from public health insurance claims. Work functioning impairment was measured using the Work Functioning Impairment Scale (WFun). The status of treatment for insomnia was determined using data on diseases and prescribed drugs extracted from health insurance claims from the past 16 months. The odds ratio of severe work functioning impairment according to on-treatment duration and off-treatment duration was estimated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The risk of severe work functioning impairment was significantly higher in subjects with insomnia who were being treated with hypnotics for 1 month or longer compared to non-insomnia subjects. This increased risk tended to be reduced with longer on-treatment duration. For subjects who had previously received hypnotics treatment for insomnia, the risk of severe work functioning impairment was significantly increased in all subgroups stratified by time from discontinuation of the prescription. This increased risk tended to be reduced with longer off-treatment duration. CONCLUSIONS: Workers who are or were receiving hypnotics to treat insomnia may have a higher risk of daytime functioning impairment. Those with protracted insomnia require careful assessment of the risks and benefits of prescription hypnotics.

3.
Arch Environ Occup Health ; : 1-5, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208030

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the association between fatigue and near-miss incidents and between irregular lifestyles and fatigue in ambulance personnel. In this cross-sectional study, we used a self-administered questionnaire and ambulance dispatch records during November 2017. We performed multiple logistic regression; in total, 254 ambulance staff were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The adjusted odds of near-miss incidents were 3.19 times higher for participants with higher fatigue than for those with normal fatigue, with statistical significance. Fatigue was significantly associated with the monthly number of ambulance dispatches, office working hours, mealtimes, daytime napping hours, and napping hours during a night shift. In this study, we demonstrated a positive association between fatigue and near-miss incidents among ambulance personnel. Additionally, our results suggest that irregular lifestyles are a root cause of fatigue in ambulance personnel.

4.
Surg Today ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104876

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is little evidence to demonstrate the impact of heparin bridging (HB) in major surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits and risks of HB in lung cancer surgery by comparing HB and non-HB (NHB) groups. METHODS: We extracted patients who were taking an anticoagulant, were diagnosed with lung cancer, and underwent lung resection between April 2014 and March 2018 from a nationwide database in Japan. We compared the HB and NHB groups to determine the benefits and risks of HB. The proportion of postoperative thromboembolism and bleeding events between the HB and NHB groups was the primary outcome. We performed propensity score matching to remove any HB assignment bias. RESULTS: We selected 2416 patients, and among these, 1068 patients had HB and 1348 did not. Propensity score matching extracted 1500 patients: 750 with HB and 750 without HB. After matching, a Chi-square test showed no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative thromboembolism (1.5% vs 0.9%, p value = 0.343) and bleeding events (5.9% vs 4.0%, p value = 0.124) between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative thromboembolism and bleeding in the patients with and those without HB.

5.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 280, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to toner, a substance used in photocopiers and printers, has been associated with siderosilicosis and other adverse effects. However, these findings are limited, and there is insufficient evidence on the long-term effects of toner exposure. Using longitudinal analysis, this study aimed to examine the effects of work involving toner exposure on the respiratory system over time. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study in a Japanese toner and copier manufacturing enterprise between 2003 and 2013. The cohort included a total of 1468 workers, which comprised 887 toner-handling workers and 581 non-toner-handling workers. We subdivided the toner-handling workers into two groups according to the toner exposure concentration, based on the baseline survey in 2003. We compared the chest X-ray results, respiratory function indicators, and serum and urinary biomarkers of inflammation, allergy, and oxidative stress among the three groups: high-concentration toner exposure group, low-concentration toner exposure group, and non-toner-handling group. To consider the effects of individual differences on the longitudinal data, we used a linear mixed model. RESULTS: Similar chest X-ray results, the biomarkers, and most of the respiratory function indicators were found in the non-toner-handling and toner-handling groups. There were no significant yearly changes in the percentage of vital capacity (%VC) in the high-concentration toner exposure group, while there was a significant yearly increase in %VC in the low-concentration toner exposure group and non-toner-handling group. The yearly change in each group was as follows: high-concentration toner exposure group, - 0.11% (95% confidence interval [CI], - 0.29 to 0.08; P = 0.250); low-concentration toner exposure group, 0.13% (95% CI, 0.09-0.17; P < 0.001); and non-toner-handling group, 0.15% (95% CI, 0.01-0.20; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In our 10-year prospective study, toner-handling work was not associated with the deterioration of respiratory function and an increase in biomarker values for inflammation, allergy, and oxidative stress. This finding suggests that toner-handling work is irrelevant to the onset of respiratory disease and has minimal adverse effects on the respiratory system under a well-managed work environment.

6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 73-78, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065296

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the factors associated with mortality among patients with necrotizing soft-tissue infection (NSTI) in Japan using inpatient data from the Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) Database. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using a population retrieved from the Japanese DPC inpatient database of patients who underwent surgical operations from 2014 through 2017. The associations between the covariates and mortality were estimated using multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: In total, 4597 patients were registered in this study, with an overall mortality rate of 6.9%. Multilevel logistic regression analysis revealed that higher age, lower body mass index (BMI<18.5kg/m2), pre-existing cancer diagnosis, sepsis at admission, maintenance dialysis, antithrombin III use, and anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) antibiotic use were associated with a high mortality rate among NSTI patients. However, sex, underlying diabetes mellitus, ambulance use at admission, intravenous immunoglobulin use, higher hospital case volume, and frequency of operations were not associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to report the association of lower BMI, antithrombin III use, and anti-MRSA antibiotic use with a higher mortality rate among NSTI patients.

7.
J UOEH ; 42(3): 267-274, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879191

RESUMO

International immigration into Japan is increasing. It would make sense that investigating the health status of immigrants would be associated with improvements in their health and would be beneficial in building a complete social security system in which minorities can live safely and securely. The objective of this study is to describe the health status of immigrants in Japan and to explore the association between self-rated health status and employment status. As a result, half of those surveyed had some health problem, particularly a lot of mental stress. We did not find a significant relationship between self-rated health status and employment status, but it seems that people who stay in Japan 5 years or more tend to have poor self-rated health status. The factors associated with poor self-rated mental health status were being a non-employee, and having visited a hospital 1 time or more during the past 12 months. A system of mental stress care would be the most necessary health care for international students in Japan.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emprego , Nível de Saúde , Saúde do Trabalhador , Autoavaliação , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Fisiológico , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15712, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973248

RESUMO

This study investigated the association between the duration of pharmacotherapy treatment for depression, or discontinuation from treatment, and work functioning impairment. This was a retrospective cohort study examining 30,409 workers. Work functioning impairment was assessed using a questionnaire, and treatment status was assessed using medical claims data. Odds ratios (ORs) of workers with severe work functioning impairment compared with healthy workers (control group) were calculated using logistic regression analysis. Continuous medical treatment was associated with severely impaired work functioning regardless of treatment period [continuous medical treatment; 4 months <: OR = 3.2, 4 months ≥, 10 months <: OR = 2.6, 10 months ≥, 14 months <: OR = 2.3, 14 months ≥, 16 months <: OR = 2.3, which are all statistically significant (p < 0.05)]. Workers who initially received pharmacotherapy treatment but discontinued in < 11 months had a significantly higher OR (treatment discontinuation period; 3 months <: OR = 2.3, 3 months ≥, 8 months <; OR = 2.0, 8 months ≥, 11 months <; OR = 3.0), while those who discontinued at ≥ 11 months did not (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.5). The sensitivity analysis excluding participants with at least one psychiatric comorbidity other than depression did not change the final result. It is important for the occupational health practitioners and attending psychiatrists to follow up in cooperation with each other, paying attention to the decrease in work functioning in addition to the symptoms.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15384, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958851

RESUMO

Only a few reports have examined vascular endothelial function before and after educational hospitalization and the factors that affect it in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to assess vascular endothelial function before and after educational hospitalization and identify factors that affect it. In 65 patients with T2DM who underwent peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT) before and after hospitalization, vascular endothelial function (reactive hyperemia index [RHI]), glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and blood pressure were assessed before and after hospitalization. The primary endpoint was hospitalization-induced changes in vascular endothelial function. Educational hospitalization significantly improved the natural logarithmically scaled RHI (L_RHI) from 0.555 ± 0.212 to 0.625 ± 0.245 (p = 0.012). Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified hypoglycemia during hospitalization as the single factor that significantly altered vascular endothelial function (p = 0.019). The odds of achieving normal vascular endothelial function were 0.08 times lower (95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.67) for each episode of hypoglycemia. Furthermore, multivariable analysis identified hypoglycemia during hospitalization as the single factor that worsened L_RHI. Our study showed that educational hospitalization of patients with T2DM improved vascular endothelial function, and that the development of hypoglycemic episodes had a significant negative impact on normalization of vascular endothelial function.

10.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(5): H1078-H1086, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946269

RESUMO

Mixed venous oxygen (O2) saturation ([Formula: see text]) is an important measure for evaluating the sufficiency of cardiac output (CO) relative to whole body O2 consumption (V̇o2), while clinical use is limited to the required invasive catheterization. According to Fick's equation, V̇o2 (mL/min) = CO (L/min) × Hb (g/dL) × 1.36 (mL/g) × ([Formula: see text] - [Formula: see text])/10 (Hb = hemoglobin concentration, [Formula: see text] = arterial blood O2 saturation). Because V̇o2, CO, Hb, and [Formula: see text] can be measured noninvasively with expired gas analysis, echocardiography, a simple blood test, and percutaneous O2 saturation, respectively, [Formula: see text] can be calculated noninvasively. We hypothesized that noninvasively calculated [Formula: see text] shows a significant correlation and agrees well with invasively measured [Formula: see text]. In 47 patients (29 men; mean age, 70 ± 12 yr) who underwent right heart catheterization, [Formula: see text] was directly measured by sampling pulmonary artery blood. Noninvasively calculated [Formula: see text] was also obtained by the method described above. The calculated [Formula: see text] was significantly correlated with the measured [Formula: see text] (r = 0.79, P < 0.001) and was significantly smaller than the measured [Formula: see text] (70 ± 5.1 vs. 72.1 ± 4.9%, P < 0.001). Bias at [Formula: see text] was -2.2% (95% confidence interval, -3.2 to -1.1%) with limits of agreement from -9.5 to 5.2%, demonstrating acceptable agreement. The optimal cutoff value of calculated [Formula: see text] was 69% for reduced measured [Formula: see text] < 70% with an area under the curve of 0.94. Reduced calculated [Formula: see text] < 69% indicated a sensitivity of 92.9% and a specificity of 90.9% for reduced measured [Formula: see text] < 70%. Noninvasive [Formula: see text] calculated from echocardiography, expired gas analysis, percutaneous arterial blood O2 saturation, and hemoglobin level significantly correlated and agreed well with direct [Formula: see text] measured by catheterization. This novel method allows for practical evaluation of [Formula: see text] to assess the sufficiency of CO according to whole body metabolism.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Clinical use of mixed venous oxygen saturation ([Formula: see text]) is limited to the required invasive procedure. With Fick's equation, expired gas analysis, echocardiography, simple blood tests, and percutaneous oxygen saturation, [Formula: see text] can be calculated noninvasively. We hypothesized that noninvasively calculated [Formula: see text] shows a significant correlation and agrees well with invasively measured [Formula: see text]. The present study examined the relationship between measured [Formula: see text] and calculated [Formula: see text] in patients who underwent right heart catheterization and demonstrated acceptable agreement. This novel method can expand the indication of evaluating [Formula: see text].

11.
J Occup Health ; 62(1): e12167, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951282

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to estimate a risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases for each worker and to determine whether this risk is associated with the incidence and costs of presenteeism, absenteeism, and medical/drug treatments. METHODS: Established risk equations were used to estimate the 10-year probability of developing coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke in male workers aged 40-65 years who were recruited from four pharmaceutical companies in Japan. The incidence of presenteeism was defined as existence of presenteeism for the past a month, and the incidence of absenteeism was defined as existence of sick-leave for the past three months by a self-administered questionnaire. Each cost was calculated based on the human capital method. Data on medical/drug treatments were collected from health insurance claims. RESULTS: The risks were calculated for 6047 workers. Individuals at moderate and high risk of coronary artery disease had a significantly higher rate of presenteeism and absenteeism than workers at low risk. Workers at moderate and high risk of ischemic stroke also had a significantly higher rate of presenteeism and absenteeism than workers at low risk. Mean costs for absenteeism and medical/drug treatments increased with the risk of developing coronary artery disease or ischemic stroke, while costs for presenteeism did not. CONCLUSIONS: To prevent the costs of presenteeism, workers not only at high risk but also at low and moderate risk of developing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases should receive health care services.

12.
J Occup Health ; 62(1): e12147, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the factors that influence occupational physicians' decision to issue an employer warning. METHODS: The interview was conducted with 10 Japan Society for Occupational Health certified occupational physicians (COPs) and certified senior occupational physicians (CSOPs) to create nine fictive scenarios in which an occupational physician may need to consider issuing a warning. Sixteen CSOPs assessed the seriousness of the problem in each of nine scenarios where they may need to consider issuing an employer warning. Next, using a survey questionnaire, 597 COPs and CSOPs were asked to rate how likely they were to issue a warning in each of the nine scenarios, and answer items on their characteristics and number of previously issued warnings. A multilevel logistic regression analysis nested for various scenarios was used to assess the odds ratio (OR) of being likely to issue a warning. RESULTS: Valid questionnaires were obtained from 117 participants (19.6%). The ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were as follows: mean score of seriousness of the problem, 5.90 (4.50-7.75); years of experience as occupational physician, 1.04 (1.02-1.06); women, 1.75 (1.20-2.54); being a part-time occupational physician without in-house experience, 2.08 (1.31-3.29); and having previously issued two or more times warnings, 1.99 (1.29-3.06), compared with those who had never issued a warning. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational physicians' likelihood to issue a warning was associated with the seriousness of the problem as assessed in various scenarios, years of experience as occupational physician, gender, employment type, experience as in-house occupational physician, and number of past warnings.

13.
Urology ; 145: 60-65, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between overactive bladder (OAB) and indoor temperatures in the living room and bedroom. METHODS: Questionnaire data and indoor temperature measurements were obtained from a baseline survey collected during the winter months from November 2014 to March 2019. We performed multiple logistic regression to assess the relationships between OAB and indoor temperatures in the living room and bedroom. RESULTS: The prevalence of overactive bladder was 16.4% among 4782 participants living in 2453 dwellings. The odds of having OAB were higher for participants whose average living room temperature at bedtime was lower than 12°C than for those whose average bedtime living room temperature was at least 18°C (adjusted odds ratio = 1.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-2.00). No association was observed between bedroom temperature and OAB. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that thermal comfort in the living room-but not in the bedroom-may improve OAB symptoms. Additionally, using sufficient bedding may prevent cold bedrooms from having a negative impact in terms of OAB. Future studies should focus on housing interventions and education regarding lifestyle modification in patients with OAB.

14.
Ann Epidemiol ; 47: 19-24, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713503

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Premature mortality offers an alternative approach for monitoring the burden of mortality; however, little is known about its measures for stomach cancer. In the present study, we investigated temporal changes in premature mortality because of stomach cancer in the Japanese population from 1980 to 2015. METHODS: Mortality data for stomach cancer were obtained from the World Health Organization mortality database. Years of life lost (YLL) was calculated using Japanese life tables. The average lifespan shortened was calculated and defined as the ratio of YLL in relation to the expected lifespan. RESULTS: Over a 35-year time frame, the age-standardized rates adjusted to the World Standard Population for deaths from stomach cancer substantially decreased in both sexes. The results from the average YLL (AYLL) measure showed that lifespan of stomach cancer patients was prolonged by about 3 and 5 years in men and women, respectively. The average lifespan shortened measure showed that stomach cancer led to a loss of 18.5% of lifespan among men and of 21.9% among women in 1980, but these numbers were reduced to 13.6% and 14.5%, respectively, in 2015. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated decreasing trends in premature mortality for stomach cancer in Japan over a 35-year period.


Assuntos
Expectativa de Vida , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Tábuas de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Gástricas/etnologia
15.
J Occup Health ; 62(1): e12152, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We set out to investigate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the CDC core healthy day measures assessing health-related quality of life (CDC HRQOL-4) in Japanese workers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1360 Japanese workers of one Japanese company located in Kyushu. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to evaluate the internal consistency of CDC HRQOL-4 items. The concurrent validity was tested by assessing whether the CDC HRQOL-4 items correlated well with the corresponding domains of the SF-8 and the overall WFun score. The construct validity was tested by assessing the ability of the CDC HRQOL-4 to discriminate groups with and without any current disease, pain, mental problem, and sleeping disorder. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha for three of the four CDC HRQOL-4 items was 0.80, which is greater than the minimal standard (0.70) recommended for internal consistency reliability. Correlation coefficients ranging from 0.25 to 0.67 were obtained between CDC HRQOL-4 items and the SF-8 domains and WFun score. Workers with any current disease, mental problem, pain or sleeping disorder reported higher numbers of unhealthy days, and a higher odd of poor health than those without such problems. Japanese version of the CDC HRQOL-4 shows a good concurrent validity with the SF-8 and the WFun tool and good construct validity among Japanese workers in the current study. CONCLUSIONS: Japanese version of the CDC HRQOL-4 is a reliable and valid instrument that may be used to assess overall health and physically and mentally unhealthy days in Japanese workers.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traduções , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
World J Surg ; 44(11): 3852-3861, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study compared the short-term outcomes and costs of laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG) with those of open distal gastrectomy (ODG) for gastric cancer using a nationwide administrative database in Japan. METHOD: Overall, 37,752 patients with gastric cancer who underwent distal gastrectomy at 1074 hospitals in the fiscal year 2012-2013 were evaluated using a diagnosis procedure combination database in Japan. We performed a retrospective analysis via a multilevel analysis (MLA) of the short-term surgical results and costs of the LDG and ODG groups. The models included the age, sex, comorbid complications, smoking, body mass index (BMI), activity of daily living (ADL), stage, and the number of cases of gastrectomy per facility for adjustment. The in-hospital mortality relative to the hospital volume was also compared. RESULTS: The LDG group required postoperative blood transfusion less frequently and had fewer postoperative complications, shorter hospitalization, and lower operative mortality than the ODG group. While this stage did not correlate with the in-hospital mortality, the surgical method, age, sex, ADL, BMI, comorbidity, and yearly volume showed a correlation. A significant association in the in-hospital mortality was observed between low- and very-high-volume hospitals. CONCLUSION: In this large nationwide cohort of patients with gastric cancer using an MLA, LDG was shown to be safer with lower mortality and postoperative complication rates than ODG.

17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1106, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer represented the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in Japan. Although physical activity has been reported protective against breast cancer, scientific evidence is limited on the risk of breast cancer according to job category or occupational activity in Japanese. Our objective was to examine the association of job category and occupational activity with breast cancer incidence in Japanese female workers using the data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study. METHODS: A prospective cohort study involving 19,041 women aged 40-79 years who have reported their occupational data and followed-up from 1988 to 2009. All variables were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Cancer incidence data were obtained from 24 areas of the JACC study through cancer population data registration, or review of hospital records. The Cox proportional hazard models were operated to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: There were 138 incident cases of breast cancer during 13.3 years median follow-up period. Office workers compared with manual workers were at a higher risk of breast cancer after adjusting for reproductive health factors and physical activity indicators; the multivariable HR (95% CI) was 1.65 (1.07-2.55). Also, women who had mainly a sitting position during work compared with those moving during work had the higher risk: the multivariable HR (95%CI) of 1.45 (1.01-2.12). The excess risk of breast cancer was observed for office workers when time spent in walking was < 30 min/ day; HR (95% CI) was 1.11 (1.01-1.23), and for women mainly at a sitting position during work when time spent in walking was 30-59 min or < 30 min/day; HRs (95% CIs) were 1.87 (1.07-3.27) and 1.74 (1.07-2.83), respectively. CONCLUSION: The job category and occupational activity were associated with risk of breast cancer incidence. A high risk was observed in office workers and in women with a sitting position during work. These observed increased risks were evident in women with less daily walking activity.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Occup Health ; 62(1): e12138, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710699

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of self-reported medication use for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia by comparison with health insurance claims among employees of large-sized companies in Japan. METHODS: Participants were 61 676 participants of 13 large-sized companies in Japan. Self-reports on medication use were obtained through web- or paper-based questionnaires conducted at the annual health checkup in fiscal year 2016. Health insurance claims for medication were obtained from corporate health insurance associations from April 1, 2016, to March 31, 2017. Agreement rate, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), and kappa statistics of self-reporting were examined for different reference periods (1-, 2-, and 3- months, and 1-year). Subgroup analysis was conducted stratified by sex, age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. RESULTS: Agreement, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 0.98, 0.90, 0.98, 0.87, and 0.99 for hypertension, 0.99, 0.89, 1.00, 0.89, and 1.00 for diabetes, and 0.98, 0.86, 0.99, 0.83, and 0.99 for dyslipidemia, respectively, between self-reports and claims data for 3 months. Kappa statistics were highest with the 3-month reference period of claims data for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. No major concordance was observed between the subgroups. CONCLUSION: This validation of self-reported medication use for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia showed almost perfect reliability among employees of large-sized companies in Japan.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Autorrelato , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
J Occup Health ; 62(1): e12111, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: At the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, run by the Tokyo Electric Power Company, new procedures were introduced as part of the fitness for duty program in July 2016. These were designed to ensure that treatment and further investigations identified as necessary during health examinations were carried out. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of the initiative by testing whether workers who needed further health examinations obtained them promptly, and whether the number with unmet health needs decreased and the number of workers being treated increased. METHODS: The primary contractors reported aggregated quarterly results of health examinations of both their own and their subcontractors' employees, and follow-up visits to medical institutions were also reported over the next two quarters. The study used data for the period from July 2016 to December 2018. Incident rate ratios were estimated using a multilevel Poisson regression model, including the logarithm of the number of workers who took health examination for each primary contractor company as offset. The linear trend was assessed by treating the number of periods as a continuous variable. RESULTS: The incident rate ratio for workers who needed treatment having a follow-up examination promptly showed a significant decrease over time. The incident rate ratio for those with unmet needs decreased, and those being treated increased over time. CONCLUSIONS: The findings showed that the initiative was effective, with the number of early visits for further health examinations increasing and a decrease in the number of people with unmet health needs.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde do Trabalhador , Exame Físico , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Humanos , Relatório de Pesquisa , Tóquio
20.
Indoor Air ; 30(6): 1317-1328, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573794

RESUMO

The WHO Housing and health guidelines recommend a minimum indoor temperature of 18°C to prevent cold-related diseases. In Japan, indoor temperatures appear lower than in Euro-American countries because of low insulation standards and use of partial intermittent heating. This study investigated the actual status of indoor temperatures in Japan and the common characteristics of residents who live in cold homes. We conducted a nationwide real-world survey on indoor temperature for 2 weeks in winter. Cross-sectional analyses involving 2190 houses showed that average living room, changing room, and bedroom temperatures were 16.8°C, 13.0°C, and 12.8°C, respectively. Comparison of average living room temperature between prefectures revealed a maximum difference of 6.7°C (Hokkaido: 19.8°C, Kagawa: 13.1°C). Compared to the high-income group, the odds ratio for living room temperature falling below 18°C was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.04-1.84) and 2.07 (95% CI: 1.28-3.33) for the middle- and low-income groups. The odds ratio was 1.96 (95% CI: 1.19-3.22) for single-person households, compared to households living with housemates. Furthermore, lower room temperature was correlated with local heating device use and a larger amount of clothes. These results will be useful in the development of prevention strategies for residents who live in cold homes.

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