Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 40
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627791

RESUMO

Reverse osmosis membranes of aromatic polyamide (PA) reinforced with a crystalline cellulose nanofiber (CNF) were synthesized and their desalination performance was studied. Comparison with plain PA membranes shows that the addition of CNF reduced the matrix mobility resulting in a molecularly stiffer membrane because of the attractive forces between the surface of the CNFs and the PA matrix. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed complex formation between the carboxy groups of the CNF surface and the m- phenylenediamine monomer in the CNF-PA composite. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that the CNF-PA had higher hydrophilicity which was key for the higher water permeability of the synthesized nanocomposite membrane. The CNF-PA reverse osmosis nanocomposite membranes also showed enhanced antifouling performance and improved chlorine resistance. Therefore, CNF shows great potential as a nanoreinforcing material towards the preparation of nanocomposite aromatic PA membranes with longer operation lifetime due to its antifouling and chlorine resistance properties.

2.
ACS Nano ; 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338865

RESUMO

The role of additives in facilitating the growth of conventional semiconducting thin films is well-established. Apparently, their presence is also decisive in the growth of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), yet their role remains ambiguous. In this work, we show that the use of sodium bromide enables synthesis of TMD monolayers via a surfactant-mediated growth mechanism, without introducing liquefaction of metal oxide precursors. We discovered that sodium ions provided by sodium bromide chemically passivate edges of growing molybdenum disulfide crystals, relaxing in-plane strains to suppress 3D islanding and promote monolayer growth. To exploit this growth model, molybdenum disulfide monolayers were directly grown into desired patterns using predeposited sodium bromide as a removable template. The surfactant-mediated growth not only extends the families of metal oxide precursors but also offers a way for lithography-free patterning of TMD monolayers on various surfaces to facilitate fabrication of atomically thin electronic devices.

3.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208674

RESUMO

Doping lies at the heart of modern semiconductor technologies. Therefore, for two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), the significance of controlled doping is no exception. Recent studies have indicated that, by substitutionally doping 2D TMDs with a judicious selection of dopants, their electrical, optical, magnetic, and catalytic properties can be effectively tuned, endowing them with great potential for various practical applications. Herein, and inspired by the sol-gel process, we report a liquid-phase precursor-assisted approach for in situ substitutional doping of monolayered TMDs and their in-plane heterostructures with tunable doping concentration. This highly reproducible route is based on the high-temperature chalcogenation of spin-coated aqueous solutions containing host and dopant precursors. The precursors are mixed homogeneously at the atomic level in the liquid phase prior to the synthesis process, thus allowing for an improved doping uniformity and controllability. We further demonstrate the incorporation of various transition metal atoms, such as iron (Fe), rhenium (Re), and vanadium (V), into the lattice of TMD monolayers to form Fe-doped WS2, Re-doped MoS2, and more complex material systems such as V-doped in-plane WxMo1-xS2-MoxW1-xS2 heterostructures, among others. We envisage that our developed approach is universal and could be extended to incorporate a variety of other elements into 2D TMDs and create in-plane heterointerfaces in a single step, which may enable applications such as electronics and spintronics at the 2D limit.

4.
Nat Chem ; 12(3): 284-293, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094437

RESUMO

Functionalizing the surfaces of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) nanosheets with noble metals is important for electrically contacting them to devices, as well as improving their catalytic and sensing capabilities. Solution-phase deposition provides a scalable approach to the creation of metal-TMD hybrid systems, but controlling such processes remains challenging. Here we elucidate the different pathways by which gold and silver deposit at room temperature onto colloidal 1T-WS2, 2H-WS2, 2H-MoSe2, 2H-WSe2, 1T'-MoTe2 and Td-WTe2 few-layer nanostructures to produce several distinct classes of 0D-2D and 2D-2D metal-TMD hybrids. Uniform gold nanoparticles form on all of the TMDs. By contrast, silver deposits as nanoparticles with a bimodal size distribution on the disulfides and diselenides, and as atomically thin layers on the ditellurides. The various sizes and morphologies of these surface-bound metal species arise from the relative strengths of the interfacial metal-chalcogen bonds during the reduction of Au3+ or Ag+ by the TMDs.

5.
Nanoscale ; 12(3): 2047-2056, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912844

RESUMO

Defect engineering is important for tailoring the electronic and optical properties of two-dimensional materials, and the capability of generating defects of certain types at specific locations is meaningful for potential applications such as optoelectronics and quantum photonics. In this work, atomic defects are created in single-layer WSe2 using focused ion beam (FIB) irradiation, with defect densities spanning many orders of magnitude. The influences of defects are systematically characterized. Raman spectroscopy can only discern defects in WSe2 for a FIB dose higher than 1 × 1013 cm-2, which causes blue shifts of both A'1 and E' modes. Photoluminescence (PL) of WSe2 is more sensitive to defects. At cryogenic temperature, the low-energy PL induced by defects can be revealed, which shows redshifts and broadenings with increased FIB doses. Similar Raman shifts and PL spectrum changes are observed for the WSe2 film grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). A four microsecond-long lifetime is observed in the PL dynamics and is three orders of magnitude longer than the often observed delocalized exciton lifetime and becomes more dominant for WSe2 with increasing FIB doses. The ultra-long lifetime of PL in single-layer WSe2 is consistent with first-principles calculation results considering the creation of both chalcogen and metal vacancies by FIB, and can be valuable for photo-catalytic reactions, valleytronics and quantum light emissions owing to the longer carrier separation/manipulation time.

6.
Nano Lett ; 20(1): 284-291, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794217

RESUMO

One-dimensional defects in two-dimensional (2D) materials can be particularly damaging because they directly impede the transport of charge, spin, or heat and can introduce a metallic character into otherwise semiconducting systems. Current characterization techniques suffer from low throughput and a destructive nature or limitations in their unambiguous sensitivity at the nanoscale. Here we demonstrate that dark-field second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy can rapidly, efficiently, and nondestructively probe grain boundaries and edges in monolayer dichalcogenides (i.e., MoSe2, MoS2, and WS2). Dark-field SHG efficiently separates the spatial components of the emitted light and exploits interference effects from crystal domains of different orientations to localize grain boundaries and edges as very bright 1D patterns through a Cerenkov-type SHG emission. The frequency dependence of this emission in MoSe2 monolayers is explained in terms of plasmon-enhanced SHG related to the defect's metallic character. This new technique for nanometer-scale imaging of the grain structure, domain orientation and localized 1D plasmons in 2D different semiconductors, thus enables more rapid progress toward both applications and fundamental materials discoveries.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(26): 23261-23270, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252480

RESUMO

The current state-of-the-art positive electrode material for chloroaluminate ion batteries (AIBs) or dual-ion batteries (DIBs) is highly crystalline graphite; however, the rate capability of this material at high discharge currents is significantly reduced by the modest conductivity of graphite. This limitation is addressed through the use of graphene-based positive electrodes, which can improve the rate capability of these batteries due to their higher conductivity. However, conventional methods of graphene production induce a significant number of defects, which impair the performance of AIBs and DIBs. Herein, we report the use of a defect-free graphene positive electrode, which was produced using the electrochemical exfoliation of graphite in an aqueous solution with the aid of Co2+ as an antioxidant. The Co-treated graphene electrode achieved high capacities of 150 mAh g-1 in DIBs and 130 mAh g-1 in AIBs with high rate capability for both batteries. The charge-discharge mechanism of the batteries is examined using in situ Raman spectroscopy, and the results revealed that the intercalation density of [AlCl4]- or [PF6]- increased from a dilute staging index graphite intercalation compound (GIC) to a stage 1 GIC within the operating voltage window. The simple production method of high-quality graphene in conjunction with its high performance in DIBs should enable the use of graphene for DIB technologies.

8.
Sci Adv ; 5(5): eaav5003, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139746

RESUMO

Chemical doping constitutes an effective route to alter the electronic, chemical, and optical properties of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDs). We used a plasma-assisted method to introduce carbon-hydrogen (CH) units into WS2 monolayers. We found CH-groups to be the most stable dopant to introduce carbon into WS2, which led to a reduction of the optical bandgap from 1.98 to 1.83 eV, as revealed by photoluminescence spectroscopy. Aberration corrected high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (AC-HRSTEM) observations in conjunction with first-principle calculations confirm that CH-groups incorporate into S vacancies within WS2. According to our electronic transport measurements, undoped WS2 exhibits a unipolar n-type conduction. Nevertheless, the CH-WS2 monolayers show the emergence of a p-branch and gradually become entirely p-type, as the carbon doping level increases. Therefore, CH-groups embedded into the WS2 lattice tailor its electronic and optical characteristics. This route could be used to dope other 2D-TMDs for more efficient electronic devices.

9.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(3)2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871112

RESUMO

Graphene provides a unique platform for the detailed study of its dopants at the atomic level. Previously, doped materials including Si, and 0D-1D carbon nanomaterials presented difficulties in the characterization of their dopants due to gradients in their dopant concentration and agglomeration of the material itself. Graphene's two-dimensional nature allows for the detailed characterization of these dopants via spectroscopic and atomic resolution imaging techniques. Nitrogen doping of graphene has been well studied, providing insights into the dopant bonding structure, dopant-dopant interaction, and spatial segregation within a single crystal. Different configurations of nitrogen within the carbon lattice have different electronic and chemical properties, and by controlling these dopants it is possible to either n- or p-type dope graphene, grant half-metallicity, and alter nitrogen doped graphene's (NG) catalytic and sensing properties. Thus, an understanding and the ability to control different types of nitrogen doping configurations allows for the fine tuning of NG's properties. Here we review the synthesis, characterization, and properties of nitrogen dopants in NG beyond atomic dopant concentration.

11.
Chem Sci ; 10(44): 10310-10317, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110318

RESUMO

Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are well known catalysts as both bulk and nanoscale materials. Two-dimensional (2-D) TMDs, which contain single- and few-layer nanosheets, are increasingly studied as catalytic materials because of their unique thickness-dependent properties and high surface areas. Here, colloidal 2H-WS2 nanostructures are used as a model 2-D TMD system to understand how high catalytic activity and selectivity can be achieved for useful organic transformations. Free-standing, colloidal 2H-WS2 nanostructures containing few-layer nanosheets are shown to catalyze the selective hydrogenation of a broad scope of substituted nitroarenes to their corresponding aniline derivatives in the presence of other reducible functional groups. Microscopic and computational studies reveal the important roles of sulfur vacancy-rich basal planes and tungsten-terminated edges, which are more abundant in nanostructured 2-D materials than in their bulk counterparts, in enabling the functional group selectivity. At tungsten-terminated edges and on regions of the basal planes having high concentrations of sulfur vacancies, vertical adsorption of the nitroarene is favored, thus facilitating hydrogen transfer exclusively to the nitro group due to geometric effects. At lower sulfur vacancy concentrations on the basal planes, parallel adsorption of the nitroarene is favored, and the nitro group is selectively hydrogenated due to a lower kinetic barrier. These mechanistic insights reveal how the various defect structures and configurations on 2-D TMD nanostructures facilitate functional group selectivity through distinct mechanisms that depend upon the adsorption geometry, which may have important implications for the design of new and enhanced 2-D catalytic materials across a potentially broad scope of reactions.

12.
Nanoscale ; 10(26): 12723-12733, 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29946630

RESUMO

We explored the effect of substitutional boron doping on the electrical conductivity of a metallicity-separated single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) assembly. Boron atoms were introduced into semiconducting (S)- and metallic (M)-SWCNT assemblies using high temperature thermal diffusion and the concentration of the doped boron atoms was controlled by the thermal treatment temperature. Depending on the conduction mechanism of the SWCNT assembly, both positive and negative effects upon boron incorporation are observed. For the S-SWCNT sheet, the electrical resistivity decreased by about 1 order on introduction of a small amount of boron atoms, due to the localized state for hopping conduction. In contrast, we observed an increase in the electrical resistivity on boron doping for M-SWCNTs. The pristine and boron doped metallic SWCNTs exhibited a tendency of decreasing electrical resistivity in the presence of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the film, which indicated two-dimensional weak localization behavior. A detailed analysis of the resistivity and the magnetoresistance implied that an increase in the inelastic scattering event at the doped boron site reduced the phase coherence length, leading to an increase in the electrical resistivity.

13.
Nano Lett ; 18(3): 1651-1659, 2018 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29464959

RESUMO

Atomic-defect engineering in thin membranes provides opportunities for ionic and molecular filtration and analysis. While molecular-dynamics (MD) calculations have been used to model conductance through atomic vacancies, corresponding experiments are lacking. We create sub-nanometer vacancies in suspended single-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) via Ga+ ion irradiation, producing membranes containing ∼300 to 1200 pores with average and maximum diameters of ∼0.5 and ∼1 nm, respectively. Vacancies exhibit missing Mo and S atoms, as shown by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (AC-STEM). The longitudinal acoustic band and defect-related photoluminescence were observed in Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy, respectively. As the irradiation dose is increased, the median vacancy area remains roughly constant, while the number of vacancies (pores) increases. Ionic current versus voltage is nonlinear and conductance is comparable to that of ∼1 nm diameter single MoS2 pores, proving that the smaller pores in the distribution display negligible conductance. Consistently, MD simulations show that pores with diameters <0.6 nm are almost impermeable to ionic flow. Atomic pore structure and geometry, studied by AC-STEM, are critical in the sub-nanometer regime in which the pores are not circular and the diameter is not well-defined. This study lays the foundation for future experiments to probe transport in large distributions of angstrom-size pores.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos/química , Molibdênio/química , Nanoporos/ultraestrutura , Filtração/instrumentação , Transporte de Íons , Membranas Artificiais , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Porosidade
14.
Adv Mater ; 30(8)2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315867

RESUMO

2D materials cover a wide spectrum of electronic properties. Their applications are extended from electronic, optical, and chemical to biological. In terms of biomedical uses of 2D materials, the interactions between living cells and 2D materials are of paramount importance. However, biointerfacial studies are still in their infancy. This work studies how living organisms interact with transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. For the first time, cellular digestion of tungsten disulfide (WS2 ) monolayers is observed. After digestion, cells intake WS2 and become fluorescent. In addition, these light-emitting cells are not only viable, but also able to pass fluorescent signals to their progeny cells after cell division. By combining synthesis of 2D materials and a cell culturing technique, a procedure for monitoring the interactions between WS2 monolayers and cells is developed. These observations open up new avenues for developing novel cellular labeling and imaging approaches, thus triggering further studies on interactions between 2D materials and living organisms.


Assuntos
Tungstênio/química , Dissulfetos , Luz , Elementos de Transição
15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(32): 11096-11105, 2017 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28766944

RESUMO

Nanostructures of layered transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) alloys with tunable compositions are promising candidates for a broad scope of applications in electronics, optoelectronics, topological devices, and catalysis. Most TMD alloy nanostructures are synthesized as films on substrates using gas-phase methods at high temperatures. However, lower temperature solution routes present an attractive alternative with the potential for larger-scale, higher-yield syntheses of freestanding, higher surface area materials. Here, we report the direct solution synthesis of colloidal few-layer TMD alloys, MoxW1-xSe2 and WS2ySe2(1-y), exhibiting fully tunable metal and chalcogen compositions that span the MoSe2-WSe2 and WS2-WSe2 solid solutions, respectively. Chemical guidelines for achieving the targeted compounds are presented, along with comprehensive structural characterizations (X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, Raman, and UV-visible spectroscopies). High-resolution microscopic imaging confirms the formation of TMD alloys and identifies a random distribution of the alloyed elements. Analysis of the tilt-angle dependency of the intensities associated with atomic-resolution annular dark field imaging line scans reveals the types of point vacancies present in the samples, thus providing atomic-level insights into the structures of colloidal TMD alloy nanostructures that were previously only accessible for substrate-confined films. The A excitonic transition of the TMD alloy nanostructures can be readily adjusted between 1.51 and 1.93 eV through metal and chalcogen alloying, correlating the compositional modulation to the realization of tunable optical properties.

16.
Nano Lett ; 17(10): 5897-5907, 2017 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28820602

RESUMO

The strong in-plane anisotropy of rhenium disulfide (ReS2) offers an additional physical parameter that can be tuned for advanced applications such as logic circuits, thin-film polarizers, and polarization-sensitive photodetectors. ReS2 also presents advantages for optoelectronics, as it is both a direct-gap semiconductor for few-layer thicknesses (unlike MoS2 or WS2) and stable in air (unlike black phosphorus). Raman spectroscopy is one of the most powerful characterization techniques to nondestructively and sensitively probe the fundamental photophysics of a 2D material. Here, we perform a thorough study of the resonant Raman response of the 18 first-order phonons in ReS2 at various layer thicknesses and crystal orientations. Remarkably, we discover that, as opposed to a general increase in intensity of all of the Raman modes at excitonic transitions, each of the 18 modes behave differently relative to each other as a function of laser excitation, layer thickness, and orientation in a manner that highlights the importance of electron-phonon coupling in ReS2. In addition, we correct an unrecognized error in the calculation of the optical interference enhancement of the Raman signal of transition metal dichalcogenides on SiO2/Si substrates that has propagated through various reports. For ReS2, this correction is critical to properly assessing the resonant Raman behavior. We also implemented a perturbation approach to calculate frequency-dependent Raman intensities based on first-principles and demonstrate that, despite the neglect of excitonic effects, useful trends in the Raman intensities of monolayer and bulk ReS2 at different laser energies can be accurately captured. Finally, the phonon dispersion calculated from first-principles is used to address the possible origins of unexplained peaks observed in the Raman spectra, such as infrared-active modes, defects, and second-order processes.

17.
ACS Nano ; 11(9): 9191-9199, 2017 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28809534

RESUMO

Thermoplastic polymers subjected to a continuous tensile stress experience a state of mechanical instabilities, resulting in neck formation and propagation. The necking process with strong localized strain enables the transformation of initially brittle polymeric materials into robust, flexible, and oriented forms. Here we harness the polymer-based mechanical instabilities to control the fragmentation of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). We develop a simple and versatile nanofabrication tool to precisely fragment atom-thin TMDs sandwiched between thermoplastic polymers into ordered and atomically perfect TMD nanoribbons in arbitrary directions regardless of the crystal structures, defect content, and original geometries. This method works for a very broad spectrum of semiconducting TMDs with thicknesses ranging from monolayers to bulk crystals. We also explore the electrical properties of the fabricated monolayer nanoribbon arrays, obtaining an on/off ratio of ∼106 for such MoS2 arrays based field-effect transistors. Furthermore, we demonstrate an improved hydrogen evolution reaction with the resulting monolayer MoS2 nanoribbons, thanks to the largely increased catalytic edge sites formed by this physical fragmentation method. This capability not only enriches the fundamental study of TMD extreme and fragmentation mechanics, but also impacts on future developments of TMD-based devices.

18.
ACS Nano ; 11(5): 5103-5112, 2017 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28471652

RESUMO

Large-area (∼cm2) films of vertical heterostructures formed by alternating graphene and transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) alloys are obtained by wet chemical routes followed by a thermal treatment at low temperature. In particular, we synthesized stacked graphene and WxMo1-xS2 alloy phases that were used as hydrogen evolution catalysts. We observed a Tafel slope of 38.7 mV dec-1 and 96 mV onset potential (at current density of 10 mA cm-2) when the heterostructure alloy was annealed at 300 °C. These results indicate that heterostructures formed by graphene and W0.4Mo0.6S2 alloys are far more efficient than WS2 and MoS2 by at least a factor of 2, and they are superior compared to other reported TMD systems. This strategy offers a cheap and low temperature synthesis alternative able to replace Pt in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Furthermore, the catalytic activity of the alloy is stable over time, i.e., the catalytic activity does not experience a significant change even after 1000 cycles. Using density functional theory calculations, we found that this enhanced hydrogen evolution in the WxMo1-xS2 alloys is mainly due to the lower energy barrier created by a favorable overlap of the d-orbitals from the transition metals and the s-orbitals of H2; with the lowest energy barrier occurring for the W0.4Mo0.6S2 alloy. Thus, it is now possible to further improve the performance of the "inert" TMD basal plane via metal alloying, in addition to the previously reported strategies such as creation of point defects, vacancies and edges. The synthesis of graphene/W0.4Mo0.6S2 produced at relatively low temperatures is scalable and could be used as an effective low cost Pt-free catalyst.

19.
Sci Adv ; 3(4): e1602813, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28508048

RESUMO

Defects play a significant role in tailoring the optical properties of two-dimensional materials. Optical signatures of defect-bound excitons are important tools to probe defective regions and thus interrogate the optical quality of as-grown semiconducting monolayer materials. We have performed a systematic study of defect-bound excitons using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy combined with atomically resolved scanning electron microscopy and first-principles calculations. Spatially resolved PL spectroscopy at low temperatures revealed bound excitons that were present only on the edges of monolayer tungsten disulfide and not in the interior. Optical pumping of the bound excitons was sublinear, confirming their bound nature. Atomic-resolution images reveal that the areal density of monosulfur vacancies is much larger near the edges (0.92 ± 0.45 nm-2) than in the interior (0.33 ± 0.11 nm-2). Temperature-dependent PL measurements found a thermal activation energy of ~36 meV; surprisingly, this is much smaller than the bound-exciton binding energy of ~300 meV. We show that this apparent inconsistency is related to a thermal dissociation of the bound exciton that liberates the neutral excitons from negatively charged point defects. First-principles calculations confirm that sulfur monovacancies introduce midgap states that host optical transitions with finite matrix elements, with emission energies ranging from 200 to 400 meV below the neutral-exciton emission line. These results demonstrate that bound-exciton emission induced by monosulfur vacancies is concentrated near the edges of as-grown monolayer tungsten disulfide.

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(17): 15005-15014, 2017 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28426197

RESUMO

We show that hexagonal domains of monolayer tungsten disulfide (WS2) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with powder precursors can have discrete segmentation in their photoluminescence (PL) emission intensity, forming symmetric patterns with alternating bright and dark regions. Two-dimensional maps of the PL reveal significant reduction within the segments associated with the longest sides of the hexagonal domains. Analysis of the PL spectra shows differences in the exciton to trion ratio, indicating variations in the exciton recombination dynamics. Monolayers of WS2 hexagonal islands transferred to new substrates still exhibit this PL segmentation, ruling out local strain in the regions as the dominant cause. High-power laser irradiation causes preferential degradation of the bright segments by sulfur removal, indicating the presence of a more defective region that is higher in oxidative reactivity. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of topography and amplitude modes show uniform thickness of the WS2 domains and no signs of segmentation. However, AFM phase maps do show the same segmentation of the domain as the PL maps and indicate that it is caused by some kind of structural difference that we could not clearly identify. These results provide important insights into the spatially varying properties of these CVD-grown transition metal dichalcogenide materials, which may be important for their effective implementation in fast photo sensors and optical switches.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA