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1.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(6): 528-538, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833324

RESUMO

Two species of Synactinernus sea anemones were found in Japanese waters. Synactinernus flavus Carlgren, 1918, the only described species of this genus, is rediscovered from off the Goto Islands a century after the original description. Synactinernus flavus was once synonymized with Isactinernus quadrilobatus Carlgren, 1918; however, we show that, based on morphological (including examination of type specimens) and molecular (using nuclear 18S rDNA) evidence, these species are completely different. The other species, Synactinernus churaumi sp. nov., was found off Ishigaki Island and Okinawa Island by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV), and had been kept for 15 years in a tank at the Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium. There are clear differences between these two species; therefore, we describe the second species and revise the diagnosis of Synactinernus.


Assuntos
Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Zootaxa ; 4661(3): zootaxa.4661.3.7, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716701

RESUMO

The genus Edwardsia de Quatrefages, 1842 is the group of worm-like sea anemones of the family Edwardsiidae, characterized by having nemathybomes on their body wall and physa at their aboral end. This genus accommodates a lot of species, but only three have been known from Japanese waters. In this study, we report Edwardsia aff. tuberculata Duben and Koren, 1847 and describe a new species E. alternobomen sp. nov. from seas around Japan. Both are characterized by prominent, papillae-like nemathybomes which contain unusually large nematocysts. Some nematocysts of E. alternobomen sp. nov. are over 200 µm in length, which are the largest reported for a member of Edwardsiidae.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Anêmonas-do-Mar , Animais , Japão , Nematocisto , Oceanos e Mares
3.
Zootaxa ; 4657(3): zootaxa.4657.3.3, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716770

RESUMO

Two new species of thinly encrusting sponge Hamacantha (Demospongiae, Merliida, Hamacanthidae) are described from Japan. Hamacantha (Vomerula) mamoi sp. nov. was collected from Sagami Bay, and Hamacantha (Vomerula) umisachii sp. nov. from off Hachijo Island. This is the first record of Hamacantha and the Hamacanthidae from Japan. H. (V.) mamoi sp. nov. is characterized by having styles, two types of diancistras and one of sigmas. Only two known species have the same spicule composition: H. (V.) acerata Lévi, 1993 and H. (V.) esperioides Ridley Dendy, 1886, described from New Caledonia, and south-west Africa and south-east South America, respectively. H. (V.) acerata has larger diancistras and much smaller sigmas compared with those of H. (V.) mamoi sp. nov. H. (V.) esperioides can be separated by having larger styles and smaller sigmas than those of H. (V.) mamoi sp. nov. H. (V.) umisachii sp. nov is characterized by having styles, diancistras, cyrtancistra-like diancistras and sigmas. Hamacantha (V.) carteri Topsent, 1904 seems to have similar spicule composition, however the size of all spicule types is different.


Assuntos
Poríferos , Animais , Ilhas , Japão , Namíbia , Nova Caledônia , América do Sul
4.
Zootaxa ; 4543(2): 241-260, 2019 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647304

RESUMO

A new species, Fibularia coffea sp. nov., occurs from shallow waters in Japan. This new species is distinguished from the other species of Fibularia by the following characters: test height is low, oral surface is slightly depressed toward the peristome, number of pores of petal III continues to increase with the test growth, reaching over 30 at TL > 7.5 mm, and black pigments form symmetric pentaradial on aboral surface in living animals. Two further Japanese species, Fibularia japonica and F. ovulum, are redescribed based on the type specimens (F. japonica) and additional specimens (F. ovulum), respectively. A tabular key to the extant species of Fibularia is also provided. A partial fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) of the type specimens of F. coffea sp. nov. and the additional specimen of F. japonica was sequenced for barcoding in future works.


Assuntos
Equinodermos , Ouriços-do-Mar , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Equinodermos/genética , Japão
5.
Zookeys ; (794): 1-21, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416337

RESUMO

Scolanthus is one genus of Edwardsiidae, a speciose family of burrowing worm-like sea anemones characterized by lacking a physa-like aboral end and by possessing nemathybomes on the whole body except at the distal end. This genus has been recorded worldwide, but there have been no specimens collected from Japan. In this study, we discovered four Scolanthus species in Japan for the first time: Scolanthusarmatus (Carlgren, 1931) and Scolanthuskopepe sp. n. from the Ogasawara Islands, Scolanthusena sp. n. from Ena Bay, Kanagawa, and Scolanthusisei sp. n. from Sugashima Island, Mie.

6.
Zoolog Sci ; 35(2): 179-187, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29623787

RESUMO

Previous phylogenetic studies of the family Gorgonocephalidae (brittle stars and basket stars) have identified three subfamilies, Astrotominae, Astrothamninae, and Gorgonocephalinae. The genus Astroclon was tentatively assigned to the subfamily Astrothamninae in previous studies, but its morphology is enigmatic and molecular data of the genus was insufficient. Therefore, the systematic position of Astroclon required confirmation to reconstruct the accurate systematics of the Euryalida. In the present study, we sought to clarify the subfamilial classification in the family Gorgonocephalidae (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea: Euryalida). We revisited molecular phylogenetics of the Gorgonocephalidae including Astroclon and the major taxa in the family. The molecular analysis supported monophyly of the two species of Astroclon and its clear separation from Astrothamninae. The two Astroclon species were also distinguished from the other two subfamilies, Astrotominae and Gorgonocephalinae. Astroclon and three other subfamilies were divided in the basal position of the Gorgonocephalidae, and were assigned to subfamilies. A new subfamily, Astrocloninae was monotypically established for Astroclon in addition to the previous three subfamilies. Morphology of the first ventral arm plates and tentacle pores also supported distinctiveness of the new subfamily.


Assuntos
Equinodermos/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Equinodermos/anatomia & histologia , Equinodermos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Zootaxa ; 4392(2): 289-310, 2018 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29690406

RESUMO

A revision of the genus Astrodendrum Döderlein (Ophiuroidea, Euryalida, Gorgonocephalidae) is based on 14 specimens, including the holotypes of Astrodendrum galapagense A. H. Clark and Astroconus capense Mortensen and a syntype of Gorgonocephalus sagaminus Döderlein. A new species Astrodendrum spinulosum is described from the Pacific coast of Japan. It is distinguished from its congeners in having conical external ossicles on aboral side of the disc; bulges on lateral edges of proximal arms; 1 terminal projection on each arm spine of proximal portion of the arm; 2 or 3 secondary teeth on each hook-shaped arm spine of distal portion of the arm. A taxonomic key to all six species of the genus Astrodendrum is provided.


Assuntos
Equinodermos , Animais , Japão , Coluna Vertebral
8.
Zootaxa ; 4350(1): 121-135, 2017 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29245569

RESUMO

Complete redescriptions of sea cucumbers in the genus Apostichopus Liao, 1980 are provided using the type specimens and specimens deposited in the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba, Japan. The genus consists of A. armatus (Selenka, 1867) and A. japonicus (Selenka, 1867), which can be distinguished by some spicules in the dorsal body wall; the rim of reduced table spicules in A. armatus is spinous, while that in A. japonicus is smooth. Spicules from the tentacles, papillae, tube feet, and cloaca are similar for both species.


Assuntos
Pepinos-do-Mar , Animais , Japão
9.
Zookeys ; (663): 1-19, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28769615

RESUMO

The first morphological observation of a euryalid brittle star, Asteronyx loveni, using non-destructive X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) was performed. The body of euryalids is covered by thick skin, and it is very difficult to observe the ossicles without dissolving the skin. Computed tomography with micrometer resolution (approximately 4.5-15.4 µm) was used to construct 3D images of skeletal ossicles and soft tissues in the ophiuroid's body. Shape and positional arrangement of taxonomically important ossicles were clearly observed without any damage to the body. Detailed pathways inside the vertebral ossicles, lateral arm plates, and arm spines for passage of nerves and water vascular structures were observed. Inter-vertebral muscles were also observed. Forms and 3D arrangements of many important taxonomical characters of the euryalids were scrutinized by µCT in high enough resolution for taxonomic description of ophiuroids.

10.
Zoolog Sci ; 33(4): 448-53, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27498806

RESUMO

In the present study, we report the identification of a sea anemone, Antennapeachia setouchi, collected in the Seto Inland Sea, which represents a new genus and new species. This new species has unusual tentacle and mesenterial arrangements that have not been observed in other species of Haloclavidae. There are 12 regular marginal tentacles and two 'antenna tentacles,' with the latter always rising upward and located on the oral disk near the mouth; the species is also characterized by its peculiar mesenterial pairs, consisting of a macrocneme and a microcneme. Furthermore, this species shows an interesting behavior: it can inflate its body like a balloon, lift above the seafloor, and drift with the sea current. The presence of a single, strong siphonoglyph, physa-like aboral end, and the lack of sphincter muscle classify this sea anemone within Haloclavidae. It resembles Peachia species, but cannot be classified in this genus as the new species has two pairs of mesenteries, consisting of a macrocneme and a microcneme, and irregular antenna tentacles. Therefore, we propose a new genus Antennapeachia to accommodate this species.


Assuntos
Anêmonas-do-Mar/anatomia & histologia , Anêmonas-do-Mar/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Japão
11.
PLoS One ; 10(10): e0139463, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26509273

RESUMO

Current taxonomy offers numerous approaches and methods for species delimitation and description. However, most of them are based on the adult characters and rarely suggest a dynamic representation of developmental transformations of taxonomically important features. Here we show how the underestimation of ontogenetic changes may result in long term lack of recognition of a new species of one of the most common ophiacanthid brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from the North Pacific. Based on vast material collected predominantly by various Japanese expeditions in the course of more than 50 years, and thorough study of appropriate type material, we revise the complex of three common species of the ophiuroid genus Ophiacantha which have been persistently confused with each other. The present study thus reveals the previously unrecognized new species Ophiacantha kokusai sp.nov. which is commonly distributed off the Pacific coast of Japan. The new species shows developmental differentiation from the closely related species Ophiacantha rhachophora H. L. Clark, 1911 and retains clearly expressed early juvenile features in the adult morphology. Another species, Ophiacantha clypeata Kyte, 1977, which had been separated from O. rhachophora, is in turn shown to be just a juvenile stage of another North Pacific species, Ophiacantha trachybactra H.L. Clark, 1911. For every species, detailed morphological data from both adult and juvenile specimens based on scanning electron microscopy are presented. A special grinding method showing complex internal features has been utilized for the first time. For all three species in this complex, a clear bathymetric differentiation is revealed: O. rhachophora predominantly inhabits shallow waters, 0-250 m, the new species O. kokusai lives deeper, at 250-600 m, and the third species, O. trachybactra, is found at 500-2,000 m. The present case clearly highlights the importance of considering developmental transformations, not only for a limited number of model organisms, but as part of the taxonomic process.


Assuntos
Equinodermos/classificação , Equinodermos/fisiologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Equinodermos/ultraestrutura , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura Ambiente
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25964010

RESUMO

Two arginine kinase cDNAs (AK1 and AK2) were isolated from the marine feather star Tropiometra afra macrodiscus, and the gene structure (exon/intron organization) of AK1 was determined. The cDNA-derived amino acid sequences and the exon/intron organization of the Tropiometra AK1 gene were homologous to those of a human creatine kinase (CK) as well as the AK of the sea cucumber Stichopus. Phylogenetic analysis also supports the close relationship between human CKs and echinoderm AKs, indicating that the latter AKs evolved from an ancestral CK gene. We observed that the Tropiometra AK1 gene has a novel C-terminal extension (approximately 50 amino acid residues) encoded by a unique exon. Moreover, a typical prenylation signal sequence (CSLL) was found at the C-terminal end of this extension, suggesting that AK1 is anchored to a membrane. AK2 had no such C-terminal extension. This is the first finding of a prenylation signal in metazoan phosphagen kinases. Recombinant Tropiometra AK1 and AK2 enzymes were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, and their kinetic constants were determined. Both enzymes showed activity comparable to that of typical invertebrate AKs.


Assuntos
Arginina Quinase/química , Arginina Quinase/metabolismo , Equinodermos/enzimologia , Prenilação de Proteína , Sinais Direcionadores de Proteínas , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Arginina Quinase/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Éxons/genética , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
13.
Zookeys ; (545): 1-26, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26798290

RESUMO

Five sea cucumber species including one new species of the genus Stichopus are reported from the shallow coral reefs of Straits of Malacca. The new species Stichopus fusiformiossa has unusual fusiform spicules in the tentacles, which are not found in the other species of the genus. Pseudo-tables and large perforated plates are newly recorded for Stichopus hermanni Semper, 1868 and Stichopus vastus Sluiter, 1887, respectively.

14.
Syst Parasitol ; 88(1): 75-83, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24711114

RESUMO

A new combination and a new species of onchobothriid tapeworm are described from triakid sharks. We found Platybothrium xiamenensis Wang & Yang, 2001 and Erudituncus musteli (Yamaguti, 1952) from Hemitriakis japanica (Müller & Henle). Based on the morphology of the hooks P. xiamenensis is transferred to the genus Erudituncus Healy, Scholz & Caira, 2001. The specimens studied by us differ from the original description in the number of proglottids and testes and in the size of the cirrus-sac. However, we consider them conspecific with E. xiamenensis due to the consistent hook morphology and laciniations in both descriptions and believe the differences reflect intraspecific variation. The type-host of E. xiamenensis was reported as Mustelus griseus Pietschmann. However, in the present study, this parasite was found only in H. japanica and never in M. griseus although many specimens of the latter host were examined. This suggests that the type-host in the original description has probably been misidentified. We found another undescribed species in M. griseus, Calliobothrium shirozame n. sp., which is distinguished from the congeners by having a unique combination of the number of laciniations: four in the cephalic peduncle, six in the immature proglottids and four in the mature proglottids.


Assuntos
Cestoides/anatomia & histologia , Cestoides/classificação , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Tubarões/parasitologia , Animais , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 69(3): 566-80, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23906601

RESUMO

Previous molecular analysis of the order Euryalida (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea), has identified three monophyletic families, the Euryalidae, Asteronychidae and Gorgonocephalidae. However, family-level relationships have remained unresolved due to inadequate taxon sampling and insufficient molecular markers. Here, we present a family-level revision of the Euryalida based on sequences from mitochondrial genes (16S rRNA and COI) and a nuclear gene (18S rRNA) from 83 euryalid ophiuroids. The monophyly of the three families, Euryalidae, Asteronychidae and Gorgonocephalidae is confirmed. The Euryalidae and Asteronychidae+Gorgonocephalidae are assigned to superfamilies, the Euryalidea and the Gorgonocephalidea, respectively. Three subclades within the family Gorgonocephalidae are identified and assigned to three subfamilies; Astrotominae includes Astrocrius, Astrohamma and Astrotoma, Astrothamninae (subfamily nov.) includes Astrothamnus and Astrothrombus with Gorgonocephalinae including the remaining genera. Morphological characters are consistent with the newly recognised superfamilies and subfamilies.


Assuntos
Equinodermos/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Equinodermos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23792378

RESUMO

Precious corals are soft corals belonging to the family Coralliidae (Anthozoa: Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) and class Anthozoa, whose skeletal axes are used for jewelry. The family Coralliidae includes ca. 40 species and was originally thought to comprise of the single genus Corallium. In 2003, Corallium was split into two genera, Corallium and Paracorallium, and seven species were moved to this newly identified genus on the bases of morphological features. Previously, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of two precious corals Paracorallium japonicum and Corallium konojoi, in order to clarify their systematic positions. The two genomes showed high nucleotide sequence identity, but their gene order arrangements were not identical. Here, we determined three complete mitochondrial genome sequences from the one specimen of Mediterranean Corallium rubrum and two specimens of Corallium elatius coming from Kagoshima (South Japan). The circular mitochondrial genomes of C. rubrum and C. elatius are 18,915bp and 18,969-18,970bp in length, respectively, and encode 14 typical octocorallian protein-coding genes (nad1-6, nad4L, cox1-3, cob, atp6, atp8, and mtMutS, which is an octocoral-specific mismatch repair gene homologue), two ribosomal RNA genes (rns and rnl), and one transfer RNA (trnM). The overall nucleotide differences between C. konojoi and each C. elatius haplotype (T2007 and I2011) are only 10 and 11 nucleotides, respectively; this degree of similarity indicates that C. elatius and C. konojoi are very closely related species. Notably, the C. rubrum mitochondrial genome shows more nucleotide sequence identity to P. japonicum (99.5%) than to its congeneric species C. konojoi (95.3%) and C. elatius (95.3%). Moreover, the gene order arrangement of C. rubrum was the same as that of P. japonicum, while that of C. elatius was the same as C. konojoi. Phylogenetic analysis based on three mitochondrial genes from 24 scleraxonian species shows that the family Coralliidae is separated into two distinct groups, recovering Corallium as a paraphyletic genus. Our results indicate that the currently accepted generic classification of Coralliidae should be reconsidered.


Assuntos
Antozoários/genética , Genes Mitocondriais , Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , Antozoários/classificação , Composição de Bases , DNA Intergênico , Ordem dos Genes , Região de Controle de Locus Gênico , Filogenia , RNA/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Zookeys ; (129): 1-15, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21998552

RESUMO

Squamophis, a new genus of brittle star is described. Two species are included in the genus: Squamophis amamiensis (Okanishi & Fujita, 2009) from south-western Japan and Squamophis albozosteressp. n. from north-western Australia. Squamophisgen. n. is distinguished from the other genera of the family Asteroschematidae by the following characters: each radial shield is single-layered and is completely covered by plate-shaped epidermal ossicles, and the relative length of the longest arm spine throughout the arms is as long as the length of the corresponding arm segment. Squamophis albozosteressp. n. is distinguished from Squamophis amamiensis in having white, slightly domed, plate-shaped epidermal ossicles on the aboral side of the body, the ossicles on aboral and lateral portion of the arms form transverse rows, and the other part of aboral side of disc and basal to middle portion of arms are brown but tip of the arms are light purple.

18.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 61(2): 392-9, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21798356

RESUMO

The existing taxonomy of Euryalida, one of the two orders of the Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata), is uncertain and characterized by controversial delimitation of taxonomic ranks from genus to family-level. Their phylogeny was not studied in detail until now. We investigated a dataset of sequence from a mitochondrial gene (16S rRNA) and two nucleic genes (18S rRNA and 28S rRNA) for 49 euryalid ophiuroids and four outgroup species from the order Ophiurida. The monophyly of the order Euryalida was supported as was the monophyly of Asteronychidae, Gorgonocephalidae and an Asteroschematidae+Euryalidae clade. However, the group currently known as the Asteroschematidae was paraphyletic with respect to the Euryalidae. The Asteroschematidae+Euryalidae clade, which we recognise as an enlarged Euryalidae, contains three natural groups: the Asteroschematinae (Asteroschema and Ophiocreas), a new subfamily Astrocharinae (Astrocharis) and the Euryalinae with remaining genera. These subfamilies can be distinguished by internal ossicle morphology.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Equinodermos/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Núcleo Celular/genética , Equinodermos/genética , Genes de RNAr , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Gene ; 476(1-2): 27-37, 2011 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21310221

RESUMO

Precious coral are taxonomically a group of corals that belong to the family Coralliidae within the order Alcyonacea, subclass Octocorallia, and class Anthozoa, whose skeletal axes are used for jewelry. They are distributed in the Mediterranean Sea and in waters adjacent to Japan, Taiwan, Midway Island and the Hawaiian Islands. The genus Corallium of the family Coralliidae was recently divided into two genera, Corallium and Paracorallium, based on morphological observations, but insufficient molecular evidence to support this classification has been presented to date. We determined for the first time the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of two precious corals P. japonicum and C. konojoi, in order to clarify their systematic positions. The circular mitochondrial genomes of P. japonicum and C. konojoi are 18,913bp and 18,969bp in length, respectively, and encode 13 typical energy pathway protein coding genes (nad1-6, nad4L, cox1-3, cob, atp6 and atp8), two ribosomal RNA genes (rns and rnl), a transfer RNA (trnM) and a mismatch repair gene homologue msh1. The two genomes have an overall nucleotide sequence identity of 97.5%, which is comparable to that between Acanella eburnea and Keratoisidinae sp. belonging to Octocorallia. Surprisingly, however, their gene arrangements were not identical. Phylogenetic analyses using seven complete mitochondrial genome sequences belonging to species in the subclass Octocorallia indicated that within the subclass, at least three gene order rearrangement events occurred during evolution. Our results support the validity of the morphological classification that separated the family Coralliidae into two genera, Corallium and Paracorallium.


Assuntos
Antozoários/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , Antozoários/classificação , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA/genética , DNA Intergênico/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Ordem dos Genes , Rearranjo Gênico , Sequências Repetidas Invertidas , Japão , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Zoolog Sci ; 28(2): 148-57, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21303207

RESUMO

A revision of the genus Astrocharis Koehler (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea: Asteroschematidae) is based on 41 specimens, including three syntypes of Astrocharis virgo Koehler, one syntype of Astrocharis ijimai Matsumoto and the holotype of Astrocharis gracilis Mortensen. Astrocharis gracilis is a junior subjective synonym of A. ijimai. A. virgo and A. ijimai are redescribed. A new species, Astrocharis monospinosa is described from southwestern Japan. A tabular key to the three species of the genus Astrocharis is provided.


Assuntos
Estrelas-do-Mar/anatomia & histologia , Estrelas-do-Mar/classificação , Animais , Demografia , Japão , Oceano Pacífico
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