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1.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(9): 1541-1549, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465152

RESUMO

AIMS: While a centralized system for the care of patients with a sarcoma has been advocated for decades, regional variations in survival remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate regional variations in survival and the impact of national policies in patients with a soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) in the UK. METHODS: The study included 1,775 patients with a STS who were referred to a tertiary sarcoma centre. The geographical variations in survival were evaluated according to the periods before and after the issue of guidance by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in 2006 and the relevant evolution of regional management. RESULTS: There had been a significant difference in survival between patients referred from the North East, North West, East Midlands, West Midlands, South West, and Wales in the pre-NICE era (five-year disease-specific survival (DSS); South West, 74% vs North East, 47% (p = 0.045) or West Midlands, 54% (p = 0.049)), which was most evident for patients with a high-grade STS. However, this variation disappeared in the post-NICE era, in which the overall DSS for high-grade STS improved from 47% to 68% at five years (p < 0.001). Variation in the size of the tumour closely correlated with the variation in DSS, and the overall size of the tumour and incidence of metastasis at the time of diagnosis also decreased after the national policies were issued. CONCLUSION: The survival of patients with a STS improved and regional variation corrected after the introduction of national policies, as a result of a decreasing size of tumour and incidence of metastasis at the time of diagnosis, particularly in patients with a high-grade STS. This highlights the positive impact of national guidelines on regional variation in the presentation, management, and outcome in patients with a STS. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(9):1541-1549.


Assuntos
Extremidades , Política de Saúde , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/mortalidade , Neoplasias Torácicas/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Características de Residência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medicina Estatal , Taxa de Sobrevida , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
2.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 51(10): 1541-1546, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34345896

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Limb-salvage following resection of bone sarcomas of the foot are challenging due to the complicated anatomy, adjacent neurovascular structures and few durable reconstruction options. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 50 patients with primary malignant bone sarcoma of the foot who underwent surgery including chondrosarcoma (n = 23), Ewing's sarcoma (n = 14) and osteosarcoma (n = 13). RESULTS: Median follow-up was 68 months. The primary sites were metatarsal (n = 18), phalanges (n = 15), calcaneus (n = 13) and others (n = 4). The 5-year disease-specific survivals were 100, 83 and 83% in chondrosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and osteosarcoma, respectively. Below knee amputation, ray/toe amputation, excision and curettage were performed in 21, 24, 2 and 3 patients, respectively. Below knee amputation was performed in 94% of mid/hindfoot tumours. Surgical margins were wide/radical, marginal and intralesional margin in 42, 5 and 3 patients. Three patients (6%) developed local recurrence, whereas, local recurrence was not observed in patients with wide/radical margins. Postoperative complications occurred in 3 patients (6%; surgical site infection n = 2 and delayed wound healing n = 1). Mean MSTS functional score was 26 points (range, 19-30). CONCLUSIONS: Good local control was achieved with acceptable functional outcomes and post-operative complications; almost all mid/hindfoot tumours required below knee amputation achieving wide/radical margins without local recurrence.

3.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(8): 1405-1413, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334040

RESUMO

AIMS: Rotating-hinge knee prostheses are commonly used to reconstruct the distal femur after resection of a tumour, despite the projected long-term burden of reoperation due to complications. Few studies have examined the factors that influence their failure and none, to our knowledge, have used competing risk models to do so. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for failure of a rotating-hinge knee distal femoral arthroplasty using the Fine-Gray competing risk model. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 209 consecutive patients who, between 1991 and 2016, had undergone resection of the distal femur for tumour and reconstruction using a rotating-hinge knee prosthesis. The study endpoint was failure of the prosthesis, defined as removal of the femoral component, the tibial component, or the bone-implant fixation; major revision (exchange of the femoral component, tibial component, or the bone-implant fixation); or amputation. RESULTS: Multivariate Fine-Gray regression analyses revealed different hazards for each Henderson failure mode: percentage of femoral resection (p = 0.001) and extent of quadriceps muscle resection (p = 0.005) for overall prosthetic failure; extent of quadriceps muscle resection (p = 0.002) and fixation of femoral component (p = 0.011) for type 2 failure (aseptic loosening); age (p = 0.009) and percentage of femoral resection (p = 0.019) for type 3 failure (mechanical failure); and type of joint resection (p = 0.037) for type 4 (infection) were independent predictors. A bone stem ratio of > 2.5 reliably predicted aseptic loosening. CONCLUSION: We identified independent risk factors for overall and cause-specific prosthetic failure after rotating-hinge knee distal femoral arthroplasty using a competing risk Fine-Gray model. A bone stem ratio > 2.5 reliably predicts aseptic loosening. An accurate knowledge of the risks of distal femoral arthroplasty after resection for tumour assists surgical planning and managing patient expectations. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(8):1405-1413.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Femorais/cirurgia , Prótese do Joelho , Falha de Prótese , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Desenho de Prótese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 88(3): 513-524, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma (OS) is a malignant bone tumor primarily affecting children and adolescents. The prognosis of chemotherapy-refractory OS patients is poor. We developed a tumor suppressor p53-expressing oncolytic adenovirus (OBP-702) that exhibits antitumor effects against human OS cells. Here, we demonstrate the chemosensitizing effect of OBP-702 in human OS cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities of doxorubicin (DOX) and OBP-702 were assessed using parental and DOX-resistant OS cells (U2OS, MNNG/HOS) and a DOX-resistant MNNG/HOS xenograft tumor model. RESULTS: DOX-resistant OS cells exhibited high multidrug resistant 1 (MDR1) expression, which was suppressed by OBP-702 or MDR1 siRNA, resulting in enhanced DOX-induced apoptosis. Compared to monotherapy, OBP-702 and DOX combination therapy significantly suppressed tumor growth in the DOX-resistant MNNG/HOS xenograft tumor model. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that MDR1 is an attractive therapeutic target for chemoresistant OS. Tumor-specific virotherapy is thus a promising strategy for reversing chemoresistance in OS patients via suppression of MDR1 expression.

5.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 20(8): 1388-1399, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088832

RESUMO

Colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) is a primary regulator of the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of monocyte/macrophage that sustains the protumorigenic functions of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Considering current advances in understanding the role of the inflammatory tumor microenvironment, targeting the components of the sarcoma microenvironment, such as TAMs, is a viable strategy. Here, we investigated the effect of PLX3397 (pexidartinib) as a potent inhibitor of the CSF1 receptor (CSF1R). PLX3397 was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat tenosynovial giant cell tumor and reprogram TAMs whose infiltration correlates with unfavorable prognosis of sarcomas. First, we confirmed by cytokine arrays of tumor-conditioned media (TCM) that cytokines including CSF1 are secreted from LM8 osteosarcoma cells and NFSa fibrosarcoma cells. The TCM, like CSF1, stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), polarized BMDMs toward an M2 (TAM-like) phenotype, and strikingly promoted BMDM chemotaxis. In vitro administration of PLX3397 suppressed pERK1/2 stimulation by CSF1 or TCM, and reduced M2 polarization, survival, and chemotaxis in BMDMs. Systemic administration of PLX3397 to the osteosarcoma orthotopic xenograft model significantly suppressed the primary tumor growth and lung metastasis, and thus improved metastasis-free survival. PLX3397 treatment concurrently depleted TAMs and FOXP3+ regulatory T cells and, surprisingly, enhanced infiltration of CD8+ T cells into the microenvironments of both primary and metastatic osteosarcoma sites. Our preclinical results show that PLX3397 has strong macrophage- and T-cell-modulating effects that may translate into cancer immunotherapy for bone and soft-tissue sarcomas.

6.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(6): 1150-1154, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058869

RESUMO

AIMS: Controversy exists as to what should be considered a safe resection margin to minimize local recurrence in high-grade pelvic chondrosarcomas (CS). The aim of this study is to quantify what is a safe margin of resection for high-grade CS of the pelvis. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 105 non-metastatic patients with high-grade pelvic CS of bone who underwent surgery (limb salvage/amputations) between 2000 and 2018. There were 82 (78%) male and 23 (22%) female patients with a mean age of 55 years (26 to 84). The majority of the patients underwent limb salvage surgery (n = 82; 78%) compared to 23 (22%) who had amputation. In total, 66 (64%) patients were grade 2 CS compared to 38 (36%) grade 3 CS. All patients were assessed for stage, pelvic anatomical classification, type of resection and reconstruction, margin status, local recurrence, distant recurrence, and overall survival. Surgical margins were stratified into millimetres: < 1 mm; > 1 mm but < 2 mm; and > 2 mm. RESULTS: The disease--specific survival (DSS) at five years was 69% (95% confidence interval (CI) 56% to 81%) and 51% (95% CI 31% to 70%) for grade 2 and 3 CS, respectively (p = 0.092). The local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) at five years was 59% (95% CI 45% to 72%) for grade 2 CS and 42% (95% CI 21% to 63%) for grade 3 CS (p = 0.318). A margin of more than 2 mm was a significant predictor of increased LRFS (p = 0.001). There was a tendency, but without statistical significance, for a > 2 mm margin to be a predictor of improved DSS. Local recurrence (LR) was a highly significant predictor of DSS, analyzed in a competing risk model (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Obtaining wide margins in the pelvis remains challenging for high-grade pelvic CS. On the basis of our study, we conclude that it is necessary to achieve at least a 2 mm margin for optimal oncological outcomes in patients with high-grade CS of the pelvis. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(6):1150-1154.


Assuntos
Condrossarcoma/cirurgia , Margens de Excisão , Ossos Pélvicos/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Condrossarcoma/mortalidade , Condrossarcoma/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Ossos Pélvicos/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
7.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(6): 1142-1149, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058874

RESUMO

AIMS: Time to treatment initiation (TTI) is generally defined as the time from the histological diagnosis of malignancy to the initiation of first definitive treatment. There is no consensus on the impact of TTI on the overall survival in patients with a soft-tissue sarcoma. The purpose of this study was to determine if an increased TTI is associated with overall survival in patients with a soft-tissue sarcoma, and to identify the factors associated with a prolonged TTI. METHODS: We identified 23,786 patients from the National Cancer Database who had undergone definitive surgery between 2004 and 2015 for a localized high-grade soft-tissue sarcoma of the limbs or trunk. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine the relationship between a number of factors and overall survival. We calculated the incidence rate ratio (IRR) using negative binomial regression models to identify the factors that affected TTI. RESULTS: Patients in whom the time to treatment initiation was prolonged had poorer overall survival than those with a TTI of 0 to 30 days. These were: 31 to 60 days (hazard ratio (HR) 1.08, p = 0.011); 61 to 90 days (HR 1.11, p = 0.044); and 91 days (HR 1.22; p = 0.003). The restricted cubic spline showed that the hazard ratio increased substantially with a TTI longer than 50 days. Non-academic centres (vs academic centres; IRR ranging from 0.64 to 0.86; p < 0.001) had a shorter TTI. Those insured by Medicaid (vs private insurance; IRR 1.34), were uninsured (vs private insurance; IRR 1.17), or underwent a transition in care (IRR 1.62) had a longer TTI. CONCLUSION: A time to treatment initiation of more than 30 days after diagnosis was independently associated with poorer survival. The hazard ratio showed linear increase, especially if the TTI was more than 50 days. We recommend starting treatment within 30 days of diagnosis to achieve the highest likelihood of cure for localized high-grade soft-tissue sarcomas in the limbs and trunk, even when a patient needs to be referred to a specialist centre. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(6):1142-1149.


Assuntos
Sarcoma/mortalidade , Sarcoma/cirurgia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Idoso , Extremidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tórax , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252381, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086725

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The survival impact of geographic access to specialized care remains unknown in patients with soft-tissue sarcomas (STS). This study aimed to clarify the association between the patient travel distance and survival outcome and investigate the factors lying behind it. METHODS: A total of 34 528 patients with STS registered in the National Cancer Data Base, diagnosed from 2004-2016, were investigated. RESULTS: Tumor stage correlated with travel distance: patients with metastatic disease stayed closer to home. However, the type of facility showed greatest variation: 37.0%, 51.0%, 73.5%, and 75.9% of patients with ≤10 miles, 10.1-50 miles, 50.1-100 miles, and >100 miles, respectively (P<0.001), had a sarcoma care at academic/research centers. On a multivariable analysis, reduced mortality risk was associated with longer (versus short) travel distance (>100 miles: HR = 0.877; P = 0.001) and management at academic/research (versus non-academic/research) centers (HR = 0.857; P<0.001). The greatest divergence was seen in patients traveling very long distance (>100 miles) to an academic/research center, with a 26.9% survival benefit (HR = 0.731; P<0.001), compared with those traveling short distance (≤10 miles; 95.4% living in metropolitan area) to a non-academic/research center. There was no significant correlation between travel distance and survival in patients who had care at academic/research centers, whereas a survival benefit of management at academic/research centers was observed in every group of travel distance, regardless of tumor stage. CONCLUSIONS: This national study demonstrated that increased travel distance was associated with superior survival, attributable to a higher proportion of patients receiving sarcoma care at distant academic/research centers. These data support centralized care for STS. Overcoming referral and travel barriers may enable more patients to be treated at specialized centers and may further improve survival rates for patients with STS, even when it imposes an increased travel burden.

9.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 47(10): 2618-2626, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Locally recurrent disease following surgical resection of Ewing sarcoma (ES) confers a poor prognosis. Limited evidence is available evaluating non-selective use of pre-operative radiotherapy (RT) for patients with pelvic ES and its effect on local control and survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 49 consecutive patients with pelvic ES were identified retrospectively from a prospectively collated database. Patients either received non-selective pre-operative RT and surgery (n = 27), or selective post-operative RT (n = 22) (surgery alone (n = 11) or surgery and post-operative RT (n = 11)). RESULTS: Patients who had non-selective pre-operative radiotherapy appeared to have a higher LRFS, 88.0% compared to 66.5% in the selective RT group (p = 0.096, Kaplan Meier; p = 0.028, Chi-squared). Administration of non-selective, pre-operative RT to all patients with pelvic ES elevates the LFRS to that of the good responder group (≥90% tumour necrosis and margins, p = 0.880). There was no difference in metastasis-free survival, 60.0% and 54.5% (p = 0.728) and overall survival (OS), 57.7% and 63.6% (p = 0.893). The majority of pre-operative RT patients had both good necrosis (≥90%) (p = 0.003) and widely excised tumours, 81.5% vs 59.1% (p = 0.080). Tumour volume ≥250 ml was associated with worse LRFS (p = 0.045) and post-operative complications (p = 0.017). There may be improved LRFS (p = 0.057) with pre-operative proton-beam RT compared to surgery and selective post-operative RT. CONCLUSION: Pre-operative photon or proton-beam RT to all pelvic ES may improve LRFS compared to the selective delivery of post-operative RT. Radiotherapy delivered to all patients results in a greater percentage of highly necrotic tumours at surgical excision, enabling a greater proportion of patients with wide resection margins.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250643, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886686

RESUMO

Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is a rare cancer that develops from soft tissues in any part of the body. Despite major advances in the treatment of STS, patients are often refractory to conventional radiotherapy, leading to poor prognosis. Enhancement of sensitivity to radiotherapy would therefore improve the clinical outcome of STS patients. We previously revealed that the tumor-specific, replication-competent oncolytic adenovirus OBP-301 kills human sarcoma cells. In this study, we investigated the radiosensitizing effect of OBP-301 in human STS cells. The in vitro antitumor effect of OBP-301 and ionizing radiation in monotherapy or combination therapy was assessed using highly radiosensitive (RD-ES and SK-ES-1) and moderately radiosensitive (HT1080 and NMS-2) STS cell lines. The expression of markers for apoptosis and DNA damage were evaluated in STS cells after treatment. The therapeutic potential of combination therapy was further analyzed using SK-ES-1 and HT1080 cells in subcutaneous xenograft tumor models. The combination of OBP-301 and ionizing radiation showed a synergistic antitumor effect in all human STS cell lines tested, including those that show different radiosensitivity. OBP-301 was found to enhance irradiation-induced apoptosis and DNA damage via suppression of anti-apoptotic myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL1), which was expressed at higher levels in moderately radiosensitive cell lines. The combination of OBP-301 and ionizing radiation showed a more profound antitumor effect compared to monotherapy in SK-ES-1 (highly radiosensitive) and HT1080 (moderately radiosensitive) subcutaneous xenograft tumors. OBP-301 is a promising antitumor reagent to improve the therapeutic potential of radiotherapy by increasing radiation-induced apoptosis in STS.


Assuntos
Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Tolerância a Radiação , Sarcoma/terapia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/terapia , Adenoviridae/genética , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Terapia Combinada , Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/genética , Terapia Viral Oncolítica , Radiação Ionizante , Sarcoma/metabolismo , Sarcoma/patologia , Sarcoma/radioterapia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/radioterapia , Transplante Heterólogo
11.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 320, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumor of bone is a benign, locally aggressive neoplasm. Surgical resection is the preferred treatment method. However, for cases in which resection poses an increased risk to the patient, denosumab (anti-RANKL monoclonal antibody) is considered. Secukinumab is an anti-IL-17 antibody that is used in psoriatic arthritis to reduce bone resorption and articular damage. CASE PRESENTATION: One case of giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) in a patient treated with secukinumab for psoriatic arthritis demonstrated findings significant for intra-lesional calcifications. Histologic examination showed ossification, new bone formation, and remodeling. A paucity of osteoclast type giant cells was noted. Real-time quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed decreased osteoclast function compared to treatment-naive GCTB. CONCLUSIONS: Secukinumab may play a role in bone remodeling for GCTB. Radiologists, surgeons, and pathologists should be aware of this interaction, which can cause lesional ossification. Further research is required to define the therapeutic potential of this drug for GCTB and osteolytic disease.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Neoplasias Ósseas , Tumor de Células Gigantes do Osso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Denosumab/uso terapêutico , Tumor de Células Gigantes do Osso/diagnóstico por imagem , Tumor de Células Gigantes do Osso/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Osteogênese
12.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(4): 795-803, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789467

RESUMO

AIMS: Limb salvage for pelvic sarcomas involving the acetabulum is a major surgical challenge. There remains no consensus about what is the optimum type of reconstruction after resection of the tumour. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical outcomes in these patients according to the methods of periacetabular reconstruction. METHODS: The study involved a consecutive series of 122 patients with a periacetabular bone sarcoma who underwent limb-salvage surgery involving a custom-made prosthesis in 65 (53%), an ice-cream cone prosthesis in 21 (17%), an extracorporeal irradiated autograft in 18 (15%), and nonskeletal reconstruction in 18 (15%). RESULTS: The rates of major complications necessitating further surgery were 62%, 24%, 56%, and 17% for custom-made prostheses, ice-cream cone prostheses, irradiated autografts and nonskeletal reconstructions, respectively (p = 0.001). The ten-year cumulative incidence of failure of the reconstruction was 19%, 9%, 33%, and 0%, respectively. The major cause of failure was deep infection (11%), followed by local recurrence (6%). The mean functional Musculoskeletal Tumour Society (MSTS) scores were 59%, 74%, 64%, and 72%, respectively. The scores were significantly lower in patients with major complications than in those without complications (mean 52% (SD 20%) vs 74% (SD 19%); p < 0.001). For periacetabular resections involving the ilium, the mean score was the highest with custom-made prostheses (82% (SD 10%)) in patients without any major complication; however, nonskeletal reconstruction resulted in the highest mean scores (78% (SD 12%)) in patients who had major complications. For periacetabular resections not involving the ilium, significantly higher mean scores were obtained with ice-cream cone prostheses (79% (SD 17%); p = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Functional outcome following periacetabular reconstruction is closely associated with the occurrence of complications requiring further surgery. For tumours treated with periacetabular and iliac resection, skeletal reconstruction may result in the best outcomes in the absence of complications, whereas nonskeletal reconstruction is a reasonable option if the risk of complications is high. For tumours requiring periacetabular resection without the ilium, reconstruction using an ice-cream cone prosthesis supported by antibiotic-laden cement is a reliable option. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(4):795-803.


Assuntos
Acetábulo/cirurgia , Salvamento de Membro/métodos , Osteossarcoma/cirurgia , Ossos Pélvicos/cirurgia , Acetábulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transplante Ósseo/métodos , Criança , Feminino , Prótese de Quadril , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteossarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Ossos Pélvicos/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802565

RESUMO

Sarcomas are complex tissues in which sarcoma cells maintain intricate interactions with their tumor microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a major component of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in the tumor microenvironment and have a dominant role as orchestrators of tumor-related inflammation. TAMs promote tumor growth and metastasis, stimulate angiogenesis, mediate immune suppression, and limit the antitumor activity of conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Evidence suggests that the increased infiltration of TAMs and elevated expression of macrophage-related genes are associated with poor prognoses in most solid tumors, whereas evidence of this in sarcomas is limited. Based on these findings, TAM-targeted therapeutic strategies, such as inhibition of CSF-1/CSF-1R, CCL2/CCR2, and CD47/SIRPα, have been developed and are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. While most of the therapeutic challenges that target sarcoma cells have been unsuccessful and the prognosis of sarcomas has plateaued since the 1990s, several clinical trials of these strategies have yielded promising results and warrant further investigation to determine their translational benefit in sarcoma patients. This review summarizes the roles of TAMs in sarcomas and provides a rationale and update of TAM-targeted therapy as a novel treatment approach for sarcomas.

14.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 26(6): 1139-1146, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acetabular reconstruction using an ice-cream cone prosthesis has been a reliable reconstruction option following pelvic tumour resection. However, it remains unknown which factor determines the success of this procedure. We aimed to determine risk factors for complications and functional loss in acetabular reconstruction using an ice-cream cone prosthesis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-four patients with malignant bone tumours who underwent acetabular reconstruction using an ice-cream cone prosthesis between 2004 and 2016 were studied. The bone-stem ratio was calculated as the ratio of the inserted length into the bone per the entire stem length. RESULTS: A total of 26 (48%) patients had at least one complication and 11 patients (20%) required surgical interventions. The complication rates were 71% and 40% with a bone-stem ratio ≤ 50% and > 50%, respectively (p = 0.026), and the bone-stem ratio significantly stratified the risk of complications (≤ 50%: OR, 4.67 versus > 50%; p = 0.048). The mean MSTS score at the final follow-up was 60% (range 23-97%): the scores were significantly lower in patients with complications/leg-length discrepancy (52%) than in those without (79%; p = 0.002). The mean score with a bone-stem ratio ≤ 50% was significantly lower than the score with a ratio > 50%, especially in patients who underwent non-navigated reconstructions (33% versus 64%; p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The inserted length of the coned stem into residual bone was predictive of complications and functional outcome. Surgical indication for this procedure should be considered with the size of the remaining ilium to stabilise the prosthesis with a coned stem longer than half length.

15.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(3): 569-577, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641420

RESUMO

AIMS: Urgent referral to a specialist centre for patients with a soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) has been recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the UK since 2006. However, the impact of this recommendation on the prognosis for these patients remains unclear. We aimed to determine the impact of the NICE guidelines on the disease-specific survival (DSS) of patients with an STS. METHODS: A total of 2,427 patients with an STS referred to a supraregional centre in the ten-year periods before (n = 1,386) and after (n = 1,041) the issue of the NICE guidelines were evaluated. RESULTS: The mean size of the tumour was significantly smaller at the time of diagnosis (10.3 cm (SD 6.5) vs 9.1 cm (SD 6.2); p < 0.001) and the number of patients who had undergone an inadvertent excision significantly decreased (28% (n = 389) vs 20% (n = 204); p < 0.001) following the introduction of the NICE guidelines. The five-year DSS was 63% in the pre-NICE and 71% in post-NICE groups (p < 0.001). The improved survival was more significant for those with a high-grade tumour (pre-NICE, 48%; post-NICE, 68%; p < 0.001). In those with a high-grade tumour, the mean size of the tumour (11.6 cm (SD 6.2) vs 9.6 cm (SD 5.8); p < 0.001) and the number of patients with metastasis at the time of diagnosis (15% (n = 124 vs 10% (n = 80); p = 0.007) significantly decreased in the post-NICE group. CONCLUSION: An improvement in survival was seen after the introduction of the NICE guidelines, especially in patients with a high-grade STS. More patients were referred at an earlier stage, indicating a clearer pathway after the issue of national policy for the management of STSs in the UK. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(3):569-577.


Assuntos
Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Sarcoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
16.
Curr Med Imaging ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655874

RESUMO

The use of a navigation system allows precise resection of a tumor and accurate reconstruction of the resultant defect thereby sparing important anatomical structures and preserving function. It is an "image-based" system where the imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) is required to supply the software with data. The fusion of the preoperative imaging provides pre-operative information about local anatomy and extent of the tumor, so that it allows an accurate preoperative planning. Accurate pre-operative imaging is mandatory in order to minimize CATS errors, thus performing accurate tumor resections.

17.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 479(7): 1577-1585, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compliant compression fixation was developed to promote permanent bone-prosthesis osteointegration while preserving bone stock in patients needing endoprosthetic reconstructions. This has demonstrated durability in the distal femur, with reliable cortical hypertrophy adjacent to the implant. However, the extent of bone formation and prosthetic survivorship of proximal femoral replacements with compliant compression fixation has not been established. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) How much bone formation occurs across the compression segment in patients treated with a proximal femoral replacement implant using compliant compression fixation? (2) What were the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) scores at minimum 24-month follow-up of patients who received this reconstruction? (3) What is the implant survivorship free from implant removal or revision for any reason at final follow-up? METHODS: From 2006 to 2018, we performed 213 proximal femoral replacements in patients with oncologic conditions of the proximal femur where the trochanters could not be preserved. Of these, 6% (12 of 213) were performed with an implant that used compliant compression fixation. We used this device in primary oncologic reconstructions in patients younger than 65 years of age without metastases who had nonirradiated bone with the requisite ≥ 2.5 mm of cortical thickness in the hope that it would provide more durable fixation and bone stock preservation than conventional reconstructions. All patients were followed for longer than 2 years except one who died in that interval. Median (range) follow-up was 6 years (2 to 10 years). Seven patients received diagnosis-specific chemotherapy in a consistent manner based on Children's Oncology Group chemotherapy protocols. Using the NIH-developed ImageJ open-access software, we measured the area of bone under compression on 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month radiographs and the length of the traction bar potential-compression distance, reconciling independent measures from two investigators using the identical method as published for the distal femur with compression fixation. The duration of prosthesis retention was evaluated using a competing risk analysis for the 11 surviving patients. RESULTS: Bone hypertrophy in the compression segment was scant. At the final analysis, cortical bone formation was a median (range) of 4 (-7 to 14) above baseline. The median (range) MSTS score was 27 (19 to 30). One implant failed after trauma, and the patient underwent revision of the implant. CONCLUSION: Despite scant bone formation across the compression segment and drastically less formation than reported for distal femoral replacements, compliant compression fixation of the proximal femur demonstrated good survivorship in patients 65 years or younger with localized sarcoma and nonirradiated, adequate bone stock in this small, retrospective series. Patients achieved good functional outcomes at final follow-up. The potential benefit of this reconstruction method should be weighed against the initial period of limited weightbearing and the life expectancy of the patient. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, cohort study.


Assuntos
Prótese Ancorada no Osso , Neoplasias Femorais/cirurgia , Osseointegração , Osteotomia/métodos , Implantação de Prótese/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Interface Osso-Implante , Criança , Feminino , Neoplasias Femorais/fisiopatologia , Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Fêmur/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(2): 398-404, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517739

RESUMO

AIMS: We have evaluated the survivorship, outcomes, and failures of an interlocking, reconstruction-mode stem-sideplate implant used to preserve the native hip joint and achieve proximal fixation when there is little residual femur during large endoprosthetic reconstruction of the distal femur. METHODS: A total of 14 patients underwent primary or revision reconstruction of a large femoral defect with a short remaining proximal femur using an interlocking, reconstruction-mode stem-sideplate for fixation after oncological distal femoral and diaphyseal resections. The implant was attached to a standard endoprosthetic reconstruction system. The implant was attached to a standard endoprosthetic reconstruction system. None of the femoral revisions were amenable to standard cemented or uncemented stem fixation. Patient and disease characteristics, surgical history, final ambulatory status, and Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score were recorded. The percentage of proximal femur remaining was calculated from follow-up radiographs. RESULTS: All 14 at-risk native hip joints were preserved at a mean final follow-up of 6.0 years (SD 3.7), despite a short residual femur, often after proximal osteotomies through the lesser trochanter. Overall, 13 of 14 stems had long-term successful fixation. Eight patients required no reoperation. Three patients required reoperation due to implant-related issues, and three patients required reoperation for wound healing problems or infection. There were no dislocations or fractures. At final follow-up the mean MSTS score was 24.9 (SD 4.1). Nine patients required no ambulation aids, and only one had a Trendelenburg gait. CONCLUSION: This interlocking, reconstruction-mode stem-sideplate reliably preserves native hip joint anatomy and function after large femoral resection with a short remaining proximal femur, both in the primary and revision setting. This is particularly important for preventing or delaying total femoral arthroplasty in young patients after oncological reconstruction. Hip abductor strength and function could be maintained by this method, and the risk of dislocation eliminated. The success of this technique in this modest series should be verified in a larger collaborative study and will be of interest to revision surgeons and oncologists. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(2):398-404.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/instrumentação , Neoplasias Femorais/cirurgia , Fêmur/cirurgia , Tumor de Células Gigantes do Osso/cirurgia , Prótese de Quadril , Desenho de Prótese , Sarcoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Falha de Prótese , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 51(4): 523-537, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611603

RESUMO

Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignancies of mesenchymal origin; their molecular and genomic mechanisms differ with regard to histology. These characteristics lead to the presentation of varied immunological profiles based on the tumor microenvironment. Various immunotherapies are considered for the treatment of sarcoma. These treatments are performed either in isolation or in combination with other methods such as cytotoxic chemotherapy or the use of molecular target agents. Among these, two recently emerging immunotherapies include T-cell receptor gene therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy, which are expected to be effective for many types of sarcoma. A sarcoma with a disease-specific translocation and a limited number of mutations, such as synovial sarcoma, expresses high levels of self-antigens, like the New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1, which has been targeted in T-cell receptor gene therapy. On the other hand, sarcomas with a greater number of mutations, such as undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas, myxofibrosarcoma and dedifferentiated liposarcomas, can be good candidates for immune checkpoint inhibitors. Among immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies, programmed cell death-1 blockade (nivolumab and pembrolizumab) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 blockade (ipilimumab) have been investigated most often in sarcoma. Although the sole use of immune checkpoint inhibitors provides limited efficacy, combined immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors or molecular target agents, especially antiangiogenic agents, has shown moderate results against some types of sarcoma, such as the alveolar soft part sarcoma. Several clinical trials utilizing immunotherapy, including T-cell receptor gene therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors, in sarcomas are under progress. By clarifying the tumor microenvironment and biomarker-predictive capacity of immunotherapy in sarcomas, better clinical trials can be designed; this could lead to improved outcomes for immunotherapy in sarcoma.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Sarcoma/imunologia , Sarcoma/terapia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Humanos , Sarcoma/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral
20.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 30(9): e602-e609, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand) is a scored questionnaire that is widely used to evaluate the health-related quality of life of patients with upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. However, numerical changes in the measure scores lack clinical significance without meaningful threshold change values of outcome measures that are diagnostically specific. The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) is useful for the interpretation of scores by defining the smallest change that a patient would perceive. However, the MCIDs of the scores in orthopedic oncology patients has not been reported. We aimed to determine the MCIDs of the measure in orthopedic oncology patients. METHODS: Data from our health-related quality of life database from 1999 to 2005 were retrospectively reviewed after institutional review board approval. Seventy-eight patients who underwent surgery and completed 2 surveys during postoperative follow-up were evaluated. Two different methods were used to estimate the MCIDs: distribution-based and anchor-based approaches (the latter used receiver operating characteristic analysis). RESULTS: Using distribution-based methods, the MCIDs of the DASH questionnaire were 7.4 and 8.3 by half standard deviation and the 90% interval of minimal detectable change, respectively. By anchor-based method (receiver operating characteristic analysis), the MCID was 8.3. CONCLUSION: The MCID values calculated by each method validates that the results for upper extremity oncology patients were similar to those reported in other orthopedic conditions. These results identify the threshold for meaningful improvements in DASH scores in orthopedic oncology patients and establish the reference to evaluate health-related quality of life and the outcomes of upper extremity oncology surgery. These data should be further refined for disease- and reconstruction-specific analyses.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Ombro , Braço , Avaliação da Deficiência , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ombro/cirurgia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Extremidade Superior/cirurgia
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