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1.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 90: 106731, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34976597

RESUMO

Background: Emerging data indicate that gastrointestinal disorders, in addition to pulmonary dysfunction, are also hallmarks of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Case presentation: A 42-year-old man with maintenance hemodialysis developed high fever and dyspnea. He was positive for SARS-CoV-2 and was diagnosed with pneumonia. After treatment for SARS-CoV-2, his respiratory condition improved. However, he developed right upper quadrant pain with elevated inflammatory markers (white blood cells, 21,160/µL; c-reactive protein, 163.9 mg/L) on the 13th day. Abdominal computed tomography revealed acute acalculous cholecystitis. Percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) was performed together with antibiotic therapy, which resulted in improvement of symptoms. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed 36 days after PTGBD. Conclusion: We report a rare case of acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) following pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also conducted a literature search to characterize SARS-CoV-2-related cholecystitis. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 is an important trigger for AAC, and appropriate therapeutic alternatives should be cautiously selected according to individual cases.

2.
Surg Today ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988678

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate if early exercise can help prevent skeletal muscle loss and improve the clinical outcomes of esophageal cancer patients receiving preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective observational cohort study of 110 patients with advanced esophageal cancer. We analyzed the effect of early exercise on the risk of skeletal muscle loss (defined as > 2.98%) during NAC and the subsequent clinical outcomes. Patients in the early exercise group (n = 71) started exercise therapy 8 days earlier than those the late exercise group (n = 39). RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 65.4 years, the mean BMI was 21.1 kg/m2, and 92 (84%) of the 110 patients were men. Skeletal muscle loss occurred in 34% and 67% of the early and late exercise groups, respectively (p < 0.001). There was a lower risk of surgical site infection in the early exercise group (1% vs 16%, p = 0.021). Multivariate analysis revealed that early exercise reduced the risk of skeletal muscle loss (OR = 0.25, 95% CI 0.09-0.65, p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that early exercise reduces the risk of both skeletal muscle loss during NAC and subsequent surgical site infection in patients with esophageal cancer.

3.
Acta Med Okayama ; 75(6): 735-739, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955542

RESUMO

Surgical intervention for hepatolithiasis following hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) has rarely been reported. Herein, we present a case of post-HJ multiple hepatolithiasis treated with left hemihepatectomy with double HJ reconstruction. A 72-year-old woman who had undergone HJ for iatrogenic bile duct injury developed repeated cholangitis due to complicated hepatolithiasis accompanied by an atrophied left hepatic lobe and HJ stricture. Since endoscopic intervention was unsuccessful, the patient underwent left hemihepatectomy with HJ re-anastomoses of the common hepatic duct and left hepatic duct (double HJ technique). The double HJ technique with hepatectomy can be a useful option for treating complicated hepatolithiasis following HJ.

4.
Acta Med Okayama ; 75(6): 755-758, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955546

RESUMO

Approximately 4% of patients with esophageal cancer develop a second primary malignancy in the upper gastrointestinal trunk. However, hepatectomy following esophagectomy for esophageal cancer has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 70-year-old man who underwent an esophagectomy for esophageal cancer with retrosternal gastric tube reconstruction. Nine years later, he developed hepatocellular carcinoma with tumor thrombus involving the left portal vein, and was successfully treated with left hemihepatectomy. Special attention should be paid to avoiding incidental injury of the gastric tube as well as the right gastroepiploic artery during the hepatectomy.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To aid in the oncological management of multiple bilobar colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs), we describe a new surgical procedure, VEssel-Skeletonized PArenchyma-sparing Hepatectomy (VESPAH). STUDY DESIGN: Of 152 patients with CRLMs treated with hepatectomy, 33 patients had multiple bilobar liver metastases (≥8 liver metastases); their surgical procedures and clinical outcomes were retrospectively summarized and compared between those who underwent VESPAH and those who underwent major hepatectomy (Major Hx). RESULTS: Of the 33 patients, 20 patients were resected by VESPAH (the VESPAH group) and 13 patients by major hepatectomy (Major Hx group). The median number of CRLMs was 13 (range, 8-53) in the VESPAH group and 10 (range, 8-41) in the Major Hx group (P=0.511). No operative mortality nor severe morbidity was observed in either group. The VESPAH group showed earlier recovery of remnant liver function after surgery than the Major Hx group; the incidence of grade B/C post hepatectomy liver failure was 5% in the VESPAH group and 38% in the Major Hx group, P=0.048). Intrahepatic tumor recurrence was confirmed in 14 (70%) and 7 (54%) patients in the VESPAH and Major Hx groups, respectively (P=0.416). There was no significant difference in median overall survival (OS) after hepatectomy between the two groups; the median OS was 47 months in the VESPAH group and 33 months in the Major Hx group (P=0.481). The VESPAH group showed the higher induction rate of adjuvant chemotherapy within 2 months after surgery (P=0.002) and total number of repeat hepatectomy for intrahepatic recurrence (P=0.060) than the Major Hx group. CONCLUSIONS: VESPAH enables us to clear surgical navigation by hepatic vessel skeletonization and may enhance patient tolerability of not only adjuvant chemotherapy but also repeat hepatectomies during the patients' lifetimes.

6.
Future Sci OA ; 7(10): FSO757, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840814

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate whether PCR-reverse sequence-specific oligonucleotide can examine the concordance between liquid biopsy and metastatic lesions with acquired resistance. Materials & methods: We examined acquired mutations in chemoresistant lesions and blood obtained from four patients with RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer who underwent treatment with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies. Results: In one patient, metastatic lesions harbored diverse acquired mutations in KRAS in all seven metastases; the two acquired mutations were detectable in blood collected after the patient acquired resistance. None of the other patients exhibited liquid biopsy mutations, except one, with a BRAF mutation confirmed in primary tumor and peritoneal dissemination. Conclusion: Liquid biopsy based on PCR-reverse sequence-specific oligonucleotide is a successful procedure for capturing acquired mutations with precise information on the RAS mutational spectrum.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recently, artificial intelligence (AI) has been used in endoscopic examination and is expected to help in endoscopic diagnosis. We evaluated the feasibility of AI using convolutional neural network (CNN) systems for evaluating the depth of invasion of early gastric cancer (EGC), based on endoscopic images. METHODS: This study used a deep CNN model, ResNet152. From patients who underwent treatment for EGC at our hospital between January 2012 and December 2016, we selected 100 consecutive patients with mucosal (M) cancers and 100 consecutive patients with cancers invading the submucosa (SM cancers). A total of 3508 non-magnifying endoscopic images of EGCs, including white-light imaging, linked color imaging, blue laser imaging-bright, and indigo-carmine dye contrast imaging, were included in this study. A total of 2288 images from 132 patients served as the development dataset, and 1220 images from 68 patients served as the testing dataset. Invasion depth was evaluated for each image and lesion. The majority vote was applied to lesion-based evaluation. RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for diagnosing M cancer were 84.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 82.3%-87.5%), 70.7% (95% CI 66.8%-74.6%), and 78.9% (95% CI 76.6%-81.2%), respectively, for image-based evaluation, and 85.3% (95% CI 73.4%-97.2%), 82.4% (95% CI 69.5%-95.2%), and 83.8% (95% CI 75.1%-92.6%), respectively, for lesion-based evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: The application of AI using CNN to evaluate the depth of invasion of EGCs based on endoscopic images is feasible, and it is worth investing more effort to put this new technology into practical use.

9.
Acta Med Okayama ; 75(4): 431-437, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511609

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate whether there are differences in the attitudes and practices of cancer pain manage-ment between medical oncologists and palliative care physicians. An online nationwide survey was used to collect responses from board-certified medical oncologists and palliative care physicians in Japan. The survey questionnaire comprised 30 questions. The differences in responses between medical oncologists and palliative care physicians were examined. Out of the 1,227 questionnaires sent, 522 (42.5%) were returned. After apply-ing the exclusion criteria, 445 questionnaires (medical oncologists: n = 283; palliative care physicians: n = 162) were retained for analysis. Among the questions about potential barriers to optimal cancer pain man-agement, both medical oncologists and palliative care physicians considered the reluctance of patients to take opioids due to fear of adverse effects as the greatest barrier. Significantly different ratings between medical oncologists and palliative care physicians were observed on 5 of the 8 questions in this area. Significantly differ-ent ratings were observed for all questions concerning pain specialists and their knowledge. For effective cancer pain management, it is important to account for differences in attitudes and practice between medical oncolo-gists and palliative care physicians.

10.
Acta Med Okayama ; 75(4): 543-548, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511625

RESUMO

The outcomes of pancreatectomy with resection and reconstruction of the involved arteries for locally advanced pancreatic cancer following chemotherapy have improved in recent years. In pancreatic head cancers in which there is contact with the common and proper hepatic arteries, margin-negative resection requires pancreati-coduodenectomy, with the resection of these arteries and the restoration of hepatic arterial flow. Here, we describe a middle colic artery transposition technique in hepatic arterial reconstruction during pancreatoduo-denectomy for an initially unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer. This technique was effective and may provide a new option for hepatic artery reconstruction in such cases.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymph node metastasis (LNM) has been established as a critical risk factor for prognosis in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The clinical implications of lymph node dissection (LND) have been debated. This study aimed to clarify the prognostic impact of LND by multicenter retrospective analysis. METHODS: A total of 310 ICC patients who had undergone curative resection between 2000 and 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. The prognostic impact of LND was estimated under an inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) approach using propensity scores. RESULTS: LND was performed for 224 patients (72%), with LNM pathologically confirmed in 90 patients (40%). Prognosis was poorer for patients with LNM (median survival, 16.9 months) than for those without (57.2 months; P < .0001). One-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates (OS) were comparable among LND+ (81.6%, 48.0%, and 37.5%, respectively) and LND- groups (81.6%, 55.4%, and 44.6%, respectively). However, advanced tumor, as characterized by larger tumor, multinodular lesions, and serosal invasion, was significantly more frequent in the LND+ group than in the LND- group. After IPTW adjusting for imbalances, 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS were better in the LND+ group (83.5%, 52.2%, and 42.8%, respectively) than in the LND- group (71.9%, 32.4%, and 23.4%, respectively; P = .046). LND thus showed significant prognostic impact (hazard ratio = 0.58, 95%CI = |0.39|-|0.84|, P = .005), especially in hilar ICC. However, peripheral ICC displayed no therapeutic benefit from LND. CONCLUSIONS: LND could have a significant role to play in improving oncologic outcomes. Therapeutic LND should be implemented on the basis of tumor location and tumor advancement.

12.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 25(11): 3015-3018, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy (RAMPS) is the standardized approach in open pancreatic resection for pancreatic body and tail cancer. However, few studies have described regarding robotic RAMPS for pancreatic cancer. We herein present our techniques of robotic RAMPS using the supracolic anterior superior mesenteric artery (SMA) approach with the ventral view. METHODS: The patient was a 75-year-old female with a diagnosis of pancreatic body cancer. Following neoadjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel, robotic RAMPS was performed. Our techniques of robotic RAMPS include four steps: (1) gastrocolic ligament division, (2) dissection of superior and inferior border of the pancreas, (3) division of the pancreas, and (4) retroperitoneal dissection. RESULTS: The operative time was 251 min with an estimated blood loss of 10 mL. The uneventful postoperative course was observed. The final pathology confirmed R0 surgical resection. CONCLUSIONS: Robotic RAMPS using the supracolic anterior SMA approach is safe and feasible for pancreatic body and tail cancer. Standardization and precise anatomical knowledge are key elements of performing robotic RAMPS.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Artéria Mesentérica Superior/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Mesentérica Superior/cirurgia , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Esplenectomia
13.
Asian J Endosc Surg ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435737

RESUMO

Bochdalek hernia is a congenital diaphragmatic hernia (DH). Herein, we report a case of adult Bochdalek hernia following living donor hepatectomy repaired by thoracoscopy-assisted surgery. A 36-year-old man underwent living donor left hepatectomy. Four months later, the patient presented with acute epigastric pain. Computed tomography found the left-sided DH in which the stomach was incarcerated into the pleural cavity without ischemic changes. As endoscopic intervention was unsuccessful, the herniated stomach was repositioned by thoracoscopy-assisted surgery. The 3-cm hernia orifice was found to have a smooth edge with no hernia sac, suggesting Bochdalek hernia, and the defect was primarily closed. The patient was followed up for 20 months without hernia recurrence. This is the first presentation of a case of Bochdalek hernia following donor hepatectomy. In cases of early detected DH, primary repair via a transthoracic approach with thoracoscopy-assisted surgery is safe and feasible.

14.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256797, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The rare incidence of submucosal invasive non-ampullary duodenal carcinoma has led to scant information in literature; therefore, we compared the clinicopathological features between submucosal invasive carcinoma (SM-Ca), mucosal carcinoma (M-Ca), and advanced carcinoma (Ad-Ca). MATERIALS: We retrospectively analyzed 165 patients with sporadic non-ampullary duodenal carcinomas (SNADCs) from four institutions between January 2003 and December 2018. The SNADCs were divided to three groups according to histological diagnosis: SM-Ca, M-Ca, and Ad-Ca. The clinicopathological characteristics and mucin phenotypes were compared between groups. RESULTS: Among the 165 SNADCs, 11 (7%) were classified as SM-Ca, 70 (42%) as M-Ca, and 84 (51%) as Ad-Ca. We found that all SM-Ca (P = 0.013) and most Ad-Ca (P = 0.020) lesions were located on the oral-Vater; however, an almost equal distribution of M-Ca lesions was found between the oral- and anal-Vater. No significant difference was observed between the tumor diameter of M-Ca and SM-Ca; however, 45% (5/11) of SM-Ca were ≤10 mm. A total of 73% (8/11) of SM-Ca were classified as gastric phenotype and no lesions were classified as intestinal phenotype; whereas most M-Ca were classified as intestinal phenotype (67%, 8/12). CONCLUSIONS: SM-Ca lesions were all located on the oral-Vater and were highly associated with the gastric mucin phenotype, which were different from the features of most M-Ca.

15.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(13): 8211-8220, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the performance of the pre- and postoperative early recurrence after surgery for liver tumor (ERASL) models at external validation. Prediction of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence after resection is important for individualized surgical management. Recently, the preoperative (ERASL-pre) and postoperative (ERASL-post) risk models were proposed based on patients from Hong Kong. These models showed good performance although they have not been validated to date by an independent research group. METHODS: This international cohort study included 279 patients from the Netherlands and 392 patients from Japan. The patients underwent first-time resection and showed a diagnosis of HCC on pathology. Performance was assessed according to discrimination (concordance [C] statistic) and calibration (correspondence between observed and predicted risk) with recalibration in a Weibull model. RESULTS: The discriminatory power of both models was lower in the Netherlands than in Japan (C statistic, 0.57 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.52-0.62] vs 0.69 [95% CI 0.65-0.73] for the ERASL-pre model and 0.62 [95% CI 0.57-0.67] vs 0.70 [95% CI 0.66-0.74] for the ERASL-post model), whereas their prognostic profiles were similar. The predictions of the ERASL models were systematically too optimistic for both cohorts. Recalibrated ERASL models improved local applicability for both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The discrimination of ERASL models was poorer for the Western patients than for the Japanese patients, who showed good performance. Recalibration of the models was performed, which improved the accuracy of predictions. However, in general, a model that explains the East-West difference or one tailored to Western patients still needs to be developed.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Prognóstico
16.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e932241, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Juvenile polyposis syndrome is an uncommon, autosomal-dominant hereditary disease that is distinguished by multiple polyps in the stomach or intestinal tract. It is associated with a high risk of malignancy. Pathogenic variants in SMAD4 or BMPR1A account for 40% of all cases. CASE REPORT A 49-year-old woman underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy because of exacerbation of anemia. She had numerous erythematous polyps in most parts of her stomach. Based on biopsy findings, juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) was suspected morphologically, but there was no evidence of malignancy. Colonoscopy showed stemmed hyperplastic polyps and an adenoma; video capsule endoscopy revealed no lesions in the small intestine. After preoperative surveillance, laparoscopic total gastrectomy with D1 lymph node dissection was performed to prevent malignant transformation. The pathological diagnosis was juvenile polyp-like polyposis with adenocarcinoma. In addition, a germline pathogenic variant in the SMAD4 gene was detected with genetic testing. CONCLUSIONS JPS can be diagnosed with endoscopy and genetic testing. Further, appropriate surgical management may prevent cancer-related death in patients with this condition.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Laparoscopia , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório , Feminino , Gastrectomia , Células Germinativas , Humanos , Polipose Intestinal/congênito , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias , Proteína Smad4/genética , Estômago
17.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 708, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the surgical treatment of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), postoperative complications may be predictive of long-term survival. This study aimed to identify an immune-nutritional index (INI) that can be used for preoperative prediction of complications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Multi-institutional data from 316 patients with ICC who had undergone surgical resection were retrospectively analysed, with a focus on various preoperative INIs. RESULTS: Severe complications (Clavien-Dindo grade III-V) were identified in 66 patients (20.8%), including Grade V complications in 7 patients (2.2%). Comparison of areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) among various INIs identified the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) as offering the highest predictive value for severe complications (AUC = 0.609, cut-off = 50, P = 0.008). Multivariate analysis revealed PNI <  50 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.22, P = 0.013), hilar lesion (OR = 2.46, P = 0.026), and long operation time (OR = 1.003, P = 0.029) as independent risk factors for severe complications. In comparing a high-PNI group (PNI ≥ 50, n = 142) and a low-PNI group (PNI <  50, n = 174), the low-PNI group showed higher rates of both major complications (27% vs. 13.4%; P = 0.003) and infectious complications (14.9% vs. 3.5%; P = 0.0021). Furthermore, median survival time and 1- and 5-year overall survival rates were 34.2 months and 77.4 and 33.8% in the low-PNI group, respectively, and 52.4 months and 89.3 and 47.5% in the high-PNI group, respectively (P = 0.0017). CONCLUSION: Preoperative PNI appears useful as an INI correlating with postoperative severe complications and as a prognostic indicator for ICC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Colangiocarcinoma/cirurgia , Hepatectomia/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Surg Case Rep ; 7(1): 156, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contrary to the increasing incidence of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), GEP-NETs of the accessory papilla of the duodenum are extremely rare. Furthermore, there have been no recommendations regarding the treatment strategy for GEP-NETs of the accessory papilla of the duodenum. We present a case of GEP-NET of the accessory papilla of the duodenum successfully treated with robotic pancreatoduodenectomy. CASE PRESENTATION: A case of a 70-year-old complaining of no symptoms was diagnosed with GEP-NET of the accessory papilla of the duodenum. A 8-mm tumor was located at the submucosal layer with a biopsy demonstrating a neuroendocrine tumor grade 1. The patient underwent robotic pancreatoduodenectomy as curative resection for the tumor. The total operative time was 406 min with an estimated blood loss of 150 mL. The histological examination revealed a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor with low Ki-67 index (< 1%). In the posterior areas of the pancreas, the lymph node metastases were detected. The patient was followed up for 6 months with no recurrence postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the potential risks of the lymph node metastases, the standard treatment strategy for GEP-NETs of the accessory papilla of the duodenum should be radical resection with pancreatoduodenectomy. Minimally invasive approach can be the alternative to the conventional open surgery.

20.
Cell Cycle ; 20(13): 1221-1230, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148497

RESUMO

Hyperthermia has been used for cancer therapy for a long period of time, but has shown limited clinical efficacy. Induction-heating hyperthermia using the combination of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and an alternating magnetic field (AMF), termed magnetic hyperthermia (MHT), has previously shown efficacy in an orthotopic mouse model of disseminated gastric cancer. In the present study, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), a type of MNP, were conjugated with an anti-HER2 antibody, trastuzumab and termed anti-HER2-antibody-linked SPION nanoparticles (anti-HER2 SPIONs). Anti-HER2 SPIONs selectively targeted HER2-expressing cancer cells co-cultured along with normal fibroblasts and HER2-negative cancer cells and caused apoptosis only in the HER2-expressing individual cancer cells. The results of the present study show proof-of-concept of a novel hyperthermia technology, immuno-MHT for selective cancer therapy, that targets individual cancer cells.Abbreviations: AMF: alternating magnetic field; DDW: double distilled water; DMEM: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's; Medium; f: frequency; FBS: fetal bovine serum; FITC: Fluorescein isothiocyanate; GFP: green fluorescent protein; H: amplitude; Hsp: heat shock protein; MHT: magnetic hyperthermia; MNPs: magnetic nanoparticles; PI: propidium iodide; RFP: red fluorescent protein; SPION: superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticle.

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