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1.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is becoming widely popular as a less invasive treatment option for superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. However, data on long-term survival after esophageal ESD in patients with severe comorbidities are limited. This study aimed to evaluate long-term survival after ESD in such patients. METHODS: Altogether, 584 consecutive patients underwent esophageal ESD at our institution from May 2004 to September 2016. Based on the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (ASA-PS) classification system, patients were grouped according to severe (ASA-PS ≥ 3) or non-severe comorbidities (ASA-PS 1/2). The overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and risk factors for mortality were compared between the groups using a propensity score matching analysis. RESULTS: In a matched cohort of 69 pairs, the 5-year OS rate was poorer in ASA-PS 3 patients than in ASA-PS 1/2 patients (63.9% vs. 92.5%, P < 0.01), while the 5-year DSS rate was similar between the groups (100% vs. 100%). The mortality rate was significantly higher in ASA-PS 3 patients than in ASA-PS 1/2 patients (hazard ratio 3.47; 95% confidence interval 1.79-6.74; P < 0.01). Death due to exacerbation of comorbidities was significantly more frequent in ASA-PS 3 patients than in ASA-PS 1/2 patients (42.4% vs. 8.3%, P < 0.04). CONCLUSION: Because of the exacerbation of comorbidities, patients with severe comorbidities had poorer long-term outcomes after esophageal ESD than those with non-severe comorbidities. Further studies will be necessary to evaluate esophageal ESD in patients with severe comorbidities.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259846, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784358

RESUMO

Epigenome research has employed various methods to identify the genomic location of proteins of interest, such as transcription factors and histone modifications. A recently established method called CUT&Tag uses a Protein-A Tn5 transposase fusion protein, which cuts the genome and inserts adapter sequences nearby the target protein. Throughout most of the CUT&Tag procedure, cells are held on concanavalin A (con A)-conjugated magnetic beads. Proper holding of cells would be decisive for the accessibility of Tn5 to the chromatin, and efficacy of the procedure of washing cells. However, BioMag®Plus ConA magnetic beads, used in the original CUT&Tag protocol, often exhibit poor suspendability and severe aggregation. Here, we compared the BioMag beads and Dynabeads® magnetic particles of which conjugation of con A was done by our hands, and examined the performance of these magnetic beads in CUT&Tag. Among tested, one of the Dynabeads, MyOne-T1, kept excessive suspendability in a buffer even after overnight incubation. Furthermore, the MyOne-T1 beads notably improved the sensitivity in CUT&Tag assay for H3K4me3. In conclusion, the arrangement and the selection of MyOne-T1 refine the suspendability of beads, which improves the association of chromatin with Tn5, which enhances the sensitivity in CUT&Tag assay.

3.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 438, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The biological importance for the signaling of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) has been recognized. However, the details remain unclear and are debatable. The Npr2 is a gene of NPR-B, and we previously reported a unique phenotype of a spontaneous mutant mouse lacking Npr2 (Npr2slw/slw), such as severe ileus-like disorder with bloodless blood vessels. In this study, we analyzed the bloodless mesenteric vascular morphology of Npr2slw/slw by histological observation to clarify the effects of the CNP/NPR-B signal deficiency. RESULTS: Blood vessels in the mesentery were clearly dilated in the preweaning Npr2slw/slw mice. Additionally, in the Npr2slw/slw mice, the lacteals were partially dilation or randomly direction mucosal epithelial cells in villi, and mesenteric adipocytes were undeveloped. These findings provide important information for understanding the role of CNP/NPR-B signals on intestine with mesentery.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Natriurético Tipo C , Vasodilatação , Adipócitos , Animais , Intestinos , Mesentério , Camundongos , Peptídeo Natriurético Tipo C/genética
4.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 27(4): 581-587, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642278

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Belching is the act of expelling gas from the stomach or esophagus noisily through the oral cavity. Although it is a physiological phenomenon, belching may also be a symptom of upper gastrointestinal diseases such as reflux esophagitis and functional dyspepsia (FD). A detailed epidemiology of belching has not yet been reported. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of clinically significant belching (CSB) in adults. Methods: We analyzed 1998 subjects who visited the hospital for annual health checkups. Belching was evaluated by a simple question "Do you burp a lot?" and scored as 0 (never), 1 (occasionally), 2 (sometimes), 3 (often), or 4 (always). Subjects with CSB were defined as having scores ≥ 3. We also collected the clinical parameters, endoscopic findings, and data according to the Athens Insomnia Scale, Rome IV questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: Of the 1998 subjects, 121 (6.1%) had CSB. Subjects with CSB had FD more commonly than reflux esophagitis, but presence of heartburn was high (10.7% vs 3.1%). In addition, the HADS and Athens Insomnia Scale scores in subjects with CSB were significantly higher than those in subjects without CSB. Presence of heartburn (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.05-4.09), presence of FD (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.33-3.36), anxiety/depression (OR, 2.29; 95% CI 1.51-3.45), and sleep disturbances (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.14-2.61) were significantly associated with CSB. Conclusion: The detailed epidemiology of belching in the general adult population was clarified.

5.
Magn Reson Med ; 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687085

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To clarify the type of spin compartment in arterial spin labeling (ASL) that is eliminated by delays alternating with nutation for tailored excitation (DANTE) pulse using T2 -relaxometry, and to demonstrate the feasibility of arterial cerebral blood volume (CBVa ) imaging using DANTE-ASL in combination with a simplified two-compartment model. METHOD: The DANTE and T2 -preparation modules were combined into a single ASL sequence. T2 values under the application of DANTE were determined to evaluate changes in T2 , along with the post-labeling delay (PLD) and the relationship between transit time without DANTE (TTnoVS ) and T2 . The reference tissue T2 (T2_ref ) was also obtained. Subsequently, the DANTE module was embedded into the Hadamard-encoded ASL. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and CBVa were computed using two Hadamard-encoding datasets (with and without DANTE) in a rest and breath-holding (BH) task. RESULTS: While T2 without DANTE (T2_noVS ) decreased as the PLD increased, T2 with DANTE (T2_DANTE ) was equivalent to T2_ref and did not change with the PLD. Although there was a significant positive correlation between TTnoVS and T2_noVS with short PLD, T2_DANTE was not correlated with TTnoVS nor PLD. Baseline CBVa values obtained at rest were 0.64 ± 0.12, 0.64 ± 0.11, and 0.58 ± 0.15 mL/100 g for anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries, respectively. Significant CBF and CBVa elevations were observed in the BH task. CONCLUSION: Microvascular compartment signals were eliminated from the total ASL signals by DANTE. CBVa can be measured using Hadamard-encoded DANTE-ASL in combination with a simplified two-compartment model.

6.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1131, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The V-Akt murine thymoma viral oncogene (AKT) 1 (E17K) is a subfamily of serine/threonine protein kinases that affects the survival, proliferation, and invasion of cancer cells. The clinicopathological features and frequencies in Asian populations with AKT1 mutations in breast and endometrial cancers are unclear. Hence, we aimed to determine the frequencies and relationships between clinicopathological features and AKT1 mutations in Asian women with cancer. METHODS: We extracted DNA from 311 and 143 samples derived from patients with breast and endometrial cancers to detect the AKT1 point mutation (hotspot), E17K. We examined correlations between clinicopathological features and AKT1 mutation status. RESULTS: The frequency of AKT1 mutations in breast cancer was 7.4%, and they were found more frequently in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer subtypes, although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.08). The frequency of AKT1 mutations in endometrial cancer was 4.1%, and the mutations were histologically detected only in endometrioid types. However, AKT1 mutations did not correlate with relapse-free or overall survival of patients with breast or endometrial cancer. CONCLUSIONS: AKT1 mutations are associated with HER2-negative subtype in breast cancer and in endometrial cancer with endometrioid histology. The frequencies of AKT1 mutations in breast and endometrial cancers were similar between Asian and other regional women. The frequency of mutations is too low in both tumor types to talk about predictive significance.

9.
Dig Endosc ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510551

RESUMO

AIM: To elucidate the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the practice of high-resolution manometry (HRM) and peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) in Japan. METHODS: We utilized a large-scale database involving 14 high-volume centers in Japan to investigate changes in the numbers of HRM and POEM procedures performed and outcomes of POEM between 2019 and 2020. A questionnaire survey was also conducted to analyze pandemic-associated changes in the HRM and POEM protocols. RESULTS: Compared to that in 2019, the number of HRM and POEM procedures decreased by 17.2% (1587-1314) and 20.9% (630-498), respectively. These declines were prominent during the state of emergency from April to May 2020, particularly in pandemic areas. HRM and POEM in nonpandemic areas were relatively unaffected. From 2019 to 2020, there was a 0.4% (254-248) decrease in POEM cases within the prefecture, but the number outside the prefecture decreased by 33.6% (372-247). During the pandemic, the safety and efficacy of POEM were maintained. The implementation of personal protective equipment (PPE) measures varied among facilities, and PPE for POEM was relatively insufficient compared to that for HRM. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic influenced HRM and POEM practices in Japan. It is necessary to establish a sufficient system for HRM and POEM in each hospital as well as countrywide to overcome the effects of the pandemic.

10.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis involves immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) deposition. However, the relationship between IgG4 and eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is unclear. AIMS: To investigate gastrointestinal deposition of IgG4 in EGE. METHODS: Biopsies of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine were evaluated in patients with and without EGE. Immunohistochemical staining for IgG4 was performed, and the proportions of the stained areas were compared. Sera from patients with EGE were assayed for food-specific IgG4, including egg white, wheat, rice, soy, and cow milk. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were included in this study (EGE group, n = 10; control group, n = 7). Compared with the control group, the proportion of IgG4-stained area in the EGE group was approximately threefold higher (40.2% [32.3-49.5]) vs. 12.1% [4.0-21.9], p = 0.014) in the esophagus, fivefold higher in the stomach (17.3% [11.1-26.2] vs. 3.7% [1.5-5.2], p = 0.014), and sixfold higher in the small intestine (28.0% [15.0-33.2] vs. 4.5% [2.6-9.8], p = 0.019). There was no significant association between the proportion of IgG4-stained area and the number of infiltrating eosinophils. Serum egg white-specific IgG4 levels were correlated with the proportion of IgG4-stained areas in the small intestine (R = 0.7, p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: IgG4 accumulated within the gastrointestinal mucosa in EGE. The positive correlation between serum egg white-specific IgG4 levels and the proportion of IgG4-stained areas in the small intestine suggests a role for IgG4 in the disease pathophysiology.

11.
Microorganisms ; 9(9)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576764

RESUMO

Human herpesviruses (HHVs): herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), HHV-6, HHV-7, and HHV-8, are known to be part of a family of DNA viruses that cause several diseases in humans. In clinical practice of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the complication of CMV enterocolitis, which is caused by CMV reactivation under disruption of intestinal barrier function, inflammation, or strong immunosuppressive therapy, is well known to affect the prognosis of disease. However, the relationship between other HHVs and IBD remains unclear. In the transplantation field, reactivation of other viruses, such as HHV-6, could cause colitis under immunosuppressed condition. Recent research revealed that combined infection of some HHVs could be a risk factor for colectomy in patients with ulcerative colitis. This suggests that it would be important to clarify HHV behavior in the treatment for patients with IBD, especially in those under immunosuppressive therapies. Looking at the relationship with recently emerged novel coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2), there are reports describe that SARS-CoV-2 might induce reactivation of HSV-1, EBV, VZV (herpes zoster), and HHV-6/7. If SARS-CoV-2 infection becomes common, vigilance against HHV reactivation may become more crucial. In this review, we discuss the impact of HHVs in clinical practice of inflammatory bowel diseases, especially during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

12.
Dig Endosc ; 2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Post-operative bleeding is the most common adverse event in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric cancer (EGC). Patients taking antithrombotic agents has increased. We evaluated the influence of antithrombotic agents on delayed bleeding in ESD for EGC. METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of nationwide, multicenter, retrospective cohort study in Japan. Altogether, 11,452 patients who underwent ESD for EGC in 33 institutions between November 2013 and October 2016 were enrolled. The primary outcome was the incidence of delayed bleeding in patients with or without antithrombotic agents. The secondary outcome was the incidence of delayed bleeding in those who took each antithrombotic agent and the cessation status of its use compared with each matched pair of patients. We used propensity matching and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analyses. RESULTS: There were 1353 matched pairs of patients. The incidence of delayed bleeding was 2.8% and 10.7% in those without and with antithrombotic agents, respectively (odds ratio [OR] 4.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.88-5.99; P < 0.001). The IPTW analysis showed similar results (OR 4.21, 95% CI 3.48-5.08; P < 0.001). Antiplatelets, anticoagulants, and their combination increased such incidence. Heparin bridging therapy had high OR (8.80), and the continuation (OR 3.46) and cessation (OR 2.95) of antithrombotic agent use had similar risk. CONCLUSIONS: Antithrombotic agents increased the incidence of delayed bleeding in patients who underwent ESD for EGC. Continuing antithrombotics may be more appropriate than heparin bridging therapy.

13.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 14(6): 1607-1611, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536216

RESUMO

We experienced six cases with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). They complained of dysphagia, heartburn, or retrosternal discomfort. Endoscopy revealed typical findings of EoE and biopsy examination showed significant eosinophil infiltration in the esophageal epithelium. They received sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for allergic rhinitis. Discontinuation or spit method during SLIT resulted in improvement of symptoms, and endoscopic and histological remission. Previously six cases with SLIT-induced EoE has been reported. Our case series suggest that SLIT is clearly associated with the development of EoE by entering of aeroallergens from the luminal side of the esophagus and spit method during SLIT might be one of the therapeutic options for SLIT-induced EoE.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Esofagite Eosinofílica , Imunoterapia Sublingual , Endoscopia , Esofagite Eosinofílica/etiologia , Esofagite Eosinofílica/terapia , Humanos , Imunoterapia Sublingual/efeitos adversos
14.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257489, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543332

RESUMO

Aging of the population has led to an increase in the prevalence of cancer among older adults. In Japan, single agent chemotherapy was recommended for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for those, who were aged ≥75 years, while the Western guidelines did not recommend a specific regimen. In clinical practice, physicians are required to decide the treatment based on a lack of enough evidence. This study aimed to examine the prescribing patterns of first-line chemotherapy according to age in the real-world practice. Data from the survey database of Diagnostic Procedure Combination and hospital-based cancer registries of designated cancer centers nationwide were used. The first-line chemotherapy regimens among 9,737 patients who were diagnosed with advanced lung cancer between January and December 2013, were identified and compared based on age. We found that the proportion of patients receiving chemotherapy decreased with age; 80.0%, 70.4%, 50.6%, and 30.2% of patients aged 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, and ≥ 85 years, respectively, received chemotherapy. Among them, platinum doublets were prescribed for 62.7% of the patients who were aged ≥ 70 years, and 60.7% of the patients who were aged ≥ 75 years with no driver mutations in NSCLC; only 37.6% of them received single agents. Patients who were aged ≥ 80 years also preferred platinum doublets (35.6%). Carboplatin was commonly prescribed in all age groups; only 28.4% of those receiving platinum doublets selected cisplatin. In this study, platinum doublets were identified as the most commonly prescribed regimen in those who were aged ≥ 70 years. Despite recommendations of Japanese guidelines for NSCLC, 60.7% of those who were aged ≥75 years received platinum doublets. Additionally, patients who were aged ≥ 80 years also received systemic chemotherapy, including platinum doublets; age did not solely influence regimen selection.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Hospitais , Humanos , Japão , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Compostos de Platina/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Registros
15.
Intern Med ; 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393163

RESUMO

Staphylococcus schleiferi has rarely been reported to cause pyogenic spondylitis. A 42-year-old man had been treated for Crohn's disease with immunosuppressive agents and home parenteral nutrition via a central vein (CV) port. The patient was admitted to our hospital, presenting with neck pain and a fever. A neurological examination showed slight weakness in his left-hand muscles, and he was diagnosed with pyogenic spondylitis of C6 and C7 vertebral bodies due to catheter-related blood stream infection caused by S. schleiferi. An early diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging, CV port removal and antibiotic therapy targeting S. schleiferi improved his symptoms.

16.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 56(11): 1264-1270, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411502

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Constipation has been considered the key risk factor for diverticulosis occurrence, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We investigated the factors associated with diverticulosis, focusing on the association of constipation severity with the localization and number of diverticula. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed consecutive patients who underwent colonoscopy between March and December 2019. Chronic constipation was diagnosed as constipation meeting Rome IV criteria or as that requiring laxative therapy for more than 6 months. The degree of constipation was scored using the Constipation Scoring System (CSS). RESULTS: We assessed 1014 patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that age, alcohol consumption, and hypertension were positively associated with diverticulosis, whereas chronic constipation was negatively associated with diverticulosis (odds ratio [OR] = 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-0.99). When assessed according to the location of diverticula, right-sided diverticula were significantly associated with a lower incidence of constipation (OR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.98), whereas neither left-sided nor bilateral diverticula was associated with constipation. This negative association of diverticula with constipation was stronger in patients with a high CSS score. In stratified analysis, the number of diverticula decreased with increasing degree of constipation (p for trend <.01), and a high CSS score was associated with a decreased prevalence of ≥3 diverticula (OR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic constipation was negatively associated with colonic diverticulosis. The association increased with the degree of constipation and was strong only in cases with right-sided diverticula and those with ≥3 diverticula.


Assuntos
Diverticulose Cólica , Divertículo do Colo , Colonoscopia , Constipação Intestinal/complicações , Constipação Intestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 56(9): 1109-1116, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A 50-100 mg rectal dose of diclofenac or indomethacin is recommended for prophylaxis of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP); however, limited data are available regarding the appropriate dose to prevent PEP in elderly patients. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 25 mg diclofenac in preventing PEP in elderly patients. Material and methods: Overall, 276 patients with naive papilla, aged over 75 years, were included in the present study between April 2013 and March 2020. We retrospectively evaluated the risk of PEP in patients over 75 years, administered with or without 25 mg diclofenac 30 min before ERCP using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analysis. Results: Patients were categorized into the diclofenac group (83 patients) or non-diclofenac group (193 patients). The incidence rate of PEP in the diclofenac group was significantly lower than that in the non-diclofenac group (4% vs. 14%, p = .01). Multivariate analysis revealed that 25 mg diclofenac was an independent protective factor against PEP in elderly patients aged over 75 years (odds ratio [OR] = 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.04-0.67; p = 0.01). This protective effect of diclofenac against PEP remained robust after IPTW analysis (OR = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.03-0.40; p = .001). No adverse events related to diclofenac were observed. Conclusion: Diclofenac (25 mg) was considered effective and safe for preventing PEP in elderly patients. Our results may provide a new strategy for preventing PEP in elderly patients.


Assuntos
Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Diclofenaco , Pancreatite , Idoso , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/efeitos adversos , Diclofenaco/administração & dosagem , Diclofenaco/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Indometacina , Pancreatite/etiologia , Pancreatite/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Esophagus ; 18(4): 790-796, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lugol chromoendoscopy has been conventionally used for the detection and delineation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, the boundaries of some lesions are unclear even with Lugol chromoendoscopy, and there is a risk of residual lesions or over-excision. This study aimed to evaluate the utility of narrow-band imaging (NBI) for the delineation of esophageal SCC in endoscopic resection. METHODS: Among 367 esophageal SCCs endoscopically resected between January and December 2019 at our institute, this retrospective study included consecutive lesions, which were first marked with NBI, followed by Lugol chromoendoscopy. The proportion of residual cancer, which was defined as histologically proven cancer confirmed adjacent to the scar within 1 year after endoscopic resection, was evaluated. To evaluate whether the marks added by Lugol chromoendoscopy after NBI marking were more reliable, we evaluated the presence of cancer in the iodine-unstained area outside the NBI-determined marks, i.e., the cancerous area missed by NBI. The presence of cancer in the iodine-stained areas inside the NBI-determined marks, i.e., the cancerous area missed by Lugol, was also evaluated. These were compared to assess the risk of residual cancer in endoscopic resection with NBI and Lugol chromoendoscopy. RESULTS: Among 304 lesions, 2 (0.7%) residual cancers were detected. The cancerous area missed by NBI and the cancerous area missed by Lugol were identified in 18 (6%) and 43 (14%) lesions, respectively (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: NBI might be acceptable for delineating the extent of esophageal SCCs that are difficult to delineate with Lugol chromoendoscopy.

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