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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(18)2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single-agent amrubicin chemotherapy is a key regimen, especially for small cell lung cancer (SCLC); however, it can cause severe myelosuppression. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the real-world incidence of febrile neutropenia (FN) among patients treated with single-agent amrubicin chemotherapy for thoracic malignancies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The medical records of consecutive patients with thoracic malignancies, including SCLC and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who were treated with single-agent amrubicin chemotherapy in cycle 1 between January 2010 and March 2020, were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-six patients from four institutions were enrolled. Their characteristics were as follows: median age (range): 68 (32-86); male/female: 126/30; performance status (0/1/2): 9/108/39; SCLC/NSCLC/others: 111/30/15; and prior treatment (0/1/2/3-): 1/96/31/28. One hundred and thirty-four (86%) and 97 (62%) patients experienced grade 3/4 and grade 4 neutropenia, respectively. One hundred and twelve patients (72%) required therapeutic G-CSF treatment, and 47 (30%) developed FN. Prophylactic PEG-G-CSF was not used in cycle 1 in any case. The median overall survival of the patients with FN was significantly shorter than that of the patients without FN (7.2 vs. 10.0 months, p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: The real-world incidence rate of FN among patients with thoracic malignancies that were treated with single-agent amrubicin chemotherapy was 30%. It is suggested that prophylactic G-CSF should be administered during the practical use of single-agent amrubicin chemotherapy for patients who have already received chemotherapy.

2.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(12): 2121-2132, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419684

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Osimertinib has been reported to be effective against central nervous system (CNS) metastasis from activating EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC. Nevertheless, the true antitumor effects of osimertinib alone for CNS metastasis are unclear because the aforementioned studies included previously irradiated cases, in which tumor shrinkage can occur later owing to the effects of radiotherapy (RT). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of osimertinib against RT-naive CNS metastasis from sensitizing EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC. METHODS: The OCEAN study was a two-cohort trial, involving 66 patients (T790M cohort [n = 40] and first-line cohort [n = 26]) with RT-naive CNS metastasis from sensitizing EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC. The patients were treated once daily with 80 mg osimertinib. The primary end point was brain metastasis response rate (BMRR) according to the PAREXEL criteria. In this report, we present the results for the T790M cohort with analysis of drug concentrations and plasma circulating tumor DNA. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 69 years, and 30% of them were males. Eight patients (20%) were symptomatic, and most had multiple CNS metastases (78%). Among the eligible 39 patients, the BMRR (PAREXEL criteria), median brain metastasis-related progression-free survival (PFS), median overall survival, overall response rate, and median PFS were 66.7% (90% confidence interval: 54.3%-79.1%), 25.2 months, 19.8 months, 40.5%, and 7.1 months, respectively. The BMRR according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria was 70.0% (n = 20). The brain metastasis-related PFS of patients with EGFR exon 19 deletion was significantly longer than that of exon 21 L858R (median = 31.8 versus 8.3 mo; log-rank p = 0.032). The treatment-related pneumonitis was observed in four patients (10%). On or after day 22, the median trough blood and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of osimertinib were 568 nM and 4.10 nM, respectively, and those of its metabolite AZ5104 were 68.0 nM and 0.260 nM, respectively. The median blood to cerebrospinal fluid penetration rates of osimertinib and AZ5104 were 0.79% and 0.53%, respectively. The blood trough concentration at day 22 was not correlated with the efficacy of osimertinib against CNS metastasis. Plasma T790M and C797S mutations were detected in 83% and 3% of the patients before treatment, 11% and 3% of the patients on day 22, and 39% and 22% of the patients at the detection of progressive disease, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study evaluated the efficacy of osimertinib against RT-naive CNS metastasis from T790M-positive NSCLC. The primary end point was met, and the results revealed the efficacy of osimertinib in patients with CNS metastasis harboring EGFR T790M mutations especially for EGFR-sensitizing mutation of exon 19 deletion.


Assuntos
Receptores ErbB , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Acrilamidas , Idoso , Compostos de Anilina , Sistema Nervoso Central , Receptores ErbB/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases
3.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(17): 2300-2306, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: S-1 and pemetrexed (PEM) are key treatments for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the mechanism of anticancer activity of S-1 and PEM is similar. Cross-resistance between S-1 and PEM is of concern. This exploratory study was designed to evaluate the treatment effect of S-1 following PEM-containing treatment. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients with advanced (c-stage III or IV, UICC seventh edition) or recurrent NSCLC who received S-1 monotherapy following the failure of previous PEM-containing chemotherapy at six hospitals in Japan. The primary endpoint of the study was the overall response rate (ORR). The secondary endpoint was the disease control rate (DCR), time to treatment failure (TTF), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: A total of 53 NSCLC patients met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Forty-six patients had adenocarcinoma (88.7%) and no patients had squamous cell carcinoma. Thirty-one patients (58.5%) received the standard S-1 regimen and 18 patients (34.0%) received the modified S-1 regimen. ORR was 1.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.00%-10.1%). Median TTF, PFS, and OS were 65, 84, and 385 days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although there were several limitations in this study, the ORR of S-1 after PEM in patients with nonsquamous (non-SQ) NSCLC was low compared to the historical control. One of the options in the future might be to avoid S-1 treatment in PEM-treated patients who need tumor shrinkage.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Oxônico/uso terapêutico , Pemetrexede/uso terapêutico , Tegafur/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Cancer Med ; 10(12): 3873-3885, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: EGFR mutations are good predictive markers of efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI), but whether comprehensive genomic analysis beyond EGFR itself with circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) adds further predictive or prognostic value has not been clarified. METHODS: Patients with NSCLC who progressed after treatment with EGFR-TKI, and with EGFR T790 M detected by an approved companion diagnostic test (cobas® ), were treated with osimertinib. Plasma samples were collected before and after treatment. Retrospective comprehensive next-generation sequencing (NGS) of ctDNA was performed with Guardant360® . Correlation between relevant mutations in ctDNA prior to treatment and clinical outcomes, as well as mechanisms of acquired resistance, were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 147 patients tested, 57 patients received osimertinib, with an overall response rate (ORR) of 58%. NGS was successful in 54 of 55 available banked plasma samples; EGFR driver mutations were detected in 43 (80%) and T790 M in 32 (59%). The ORR differed significantly depending on the ratio (T790 M allele fraction [AF])/(sum of variant AF) in ctDNA (p = 0.044). The total number of alterations detected in plasma by NGS was higher in early resistance patients (p = 0.025). T790 M was lost in 32% of patients (6 out of 19) after acquired resistance to osimertinib. One patient with RB1 deletion and copy number gains of EGFR, PIK3CA, and MYC in addition to T790 M, showed rapid progression due to suspected small cell transformation. CONCLUSIONS: NGS of ctDNA could be a promising method for predicting osimertinib efficacy in patients with advanced NSCLC harboring EGFR T790 M.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Anilina/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Genes erbB-1 , Perfil Genético , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Clin Chim Acta ; 519: 51-59, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) antibodies (Abs) are key drugs in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment; however, clinical benefits with anti-PD-1 monotherapy are limited. We reported that serum Abs against cancer-testis antigens NY-ESO-1 and XAGE1 predicted clinical benefits. We aimed to develop a fully automated immunoassay system measuring NY-ESO-1/XAGE1 Abs. METHODS: Sera from 30 NSCLC patients before anti-PD-1 monotherapy were reacted with recombinant NY-ESO-1 protein- or synthetic XAGE1 peptide-coated magnetic beads. ALP-conjugated Ab and chemiluminescent substrate were added and luminescence measured. These procedures were automated using high sensitivity chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (HISCL™). NY-ESO-1/XAGE1 Ab stability was tested under various conditions. Response prediction accuracy was evaluated using area under receiver operating curve (AUROC). RESULTS: HISCL detected specific serum NY-ESO-1/XAGE1 Abs, which levels in ELISA and HISCL were highly correlated. The Ab levels in HISCL were stable at four temperatures, five freeze/thaw cycles, and long-term storage; the levels were not interfered by common blood components. The Ab levels in 15 NSCLC responders to anti-PD-1 monotherapy were significantly higher than those in non-responders and healthy donors. The AUROC was the highest (0.91; 95% CI, 0.78-1.0) in combinatory prediction with NY-ESO-1/XAGE1 Abs. CONCLUSION: Our immunoassay system is useful to predict clinical benefits with NSCLC immune-checkpoint therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana
6.
Intern Med ; 60(14): 2275-2283, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583885

RESUMO

The trachea is a sporadic origin of paraganglioma. The purpose of the present study was to identify the features of tracheal paraganglioma and reveal the effectiveness of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by reviewing both previous and current cases. In cases of tracheal tumors, we need to consider the bleeding risk associated with a biopsy, as the tumor may be paraganglioma, which is hypervascular. If a biopsy is not available, then CT and MRI can aid in making a pre-operative diagnosis. MRI in particular is useful for long-term observations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais , Paraganglioma , Neoplasias da Traqueia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Paraganglioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Paraganglioma/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Traqueia/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Traqueia/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Traqueia/cirurgia
7.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(7): 1126-1130, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605089

RESUMO

Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC) is an aggressive subtype of lung cancer that exhibits resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Although programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitors have been reported to show antitumor effects in patients with high programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expressing SC, the efficacy of combined therapy with PD-1 inhibitor plus cytotoxic chemotherapy has not previously been clarified. We herein report a case of SC with low expression of PD-L1 and few pre-existing tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes which showed a remarkable response to pembrolizumab plus cytotoxic chemotherapy as first-line treatment. Our findings suggest that combined treatment might enhance the immunogenic response, even in immunologically ignored SCs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Platina/uso terapêutico , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Platina/farmacologia
8.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(2): 272-276, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215864

RESUMO

Dabrafenib and trametinib therapy for BRAF V600E-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has demonstrated strong antitumor effects in clinical trials and has been approved for use in clinical practice. However, the efficacy and safety of this combination therapy in elderly patients remain unclear. An 86-year-old male patient, who had been diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma with the BRAF V600E mutation, received dabrafenib and trametinib combination chemotherapy. The tumor shrunk rapidly; however, therapy was discontinued after 40 days because adverse events (hypoalbuminemia, peripheral edema, and pneumonia) developed. Although this targeted combination therapy seemed to cause relatively severe adverse events compared with single-agent targeted therapy in this "oldest old" elderly patient, the marked tumor shrinkage prolonged the patient's life and helped him to maintain a good general condition. Active targeted therapy may therefore be considered with appropriate drug dose reduction instead of conservative treatment, even if a patient is extremely old.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Oximas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinonas/uso terapêutico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Mutação , Oximas/farmacologia , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia
9.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 47(10): 1461-1464, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130741

RESUMO

We conducted a survey of the outpatient pharmacotherapy we administered from April 2016 to March 2019 to understand trends in chemotherapy for respiratory thoracic malignancies, such as lung cancer. Over the 3-year period, 19,408 were treated in the outpatient chemotherapy department. Of these, 1,270(6.5%)had respiratory thoracic malignancies. The total number of patients and the number of patients with thoracic malignancies(%) were 5,815 and 320(5.5%); 6,344 and 434(6.8%); and 7,247 and 516(7.1%)in FY2016, FY2017 and FY2018, respectively. This shows that both increased during the study period. Each patient was treated in the chemotherapy department multiple times, and treatment for thoracic malignancies was initiated in 161 patients. The female:male ratio was 27%:73%, and the patients' median age(range)was 68 years(range: 36-84 years). Lung cancer was the most common disease(91%), followed by malignant pleural mesothelioma(5%), thymoma(2%), thymic carcinoma(1%), and synovial sarcoma(1%). The most common histological type of lung cancer was adenocarcinoma(67%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma(17%), small cell carcinoma( 7%), and others(9%). Outpatient chemotherapy was introduced as a first-line, second-line, and third-line or later treatment in 46%, 28%, and 22% of cases, respectively. While the number of patients increased, the number of new patients with thoracic malignancies decreased from 58 in FY2016 to 52 in FY2017 and 51 in FY2018. Conversely, the number of visits to the chemotherapy department by each new patient almost doubled from 5.5 in FY2016 to 8.5 in FY2017 and 10.1 in FY2018. The proportion of patients for which immunotherapy was included in the induction treatment regimen increased from 28% and 24% in FY2016 and FY2017, respectively, to 39% in FY2018. The increase in the use of outpatient chemotherapy for respiratory thoracic malignancies was due to the increase in the proportion of patients undergoing immunotherapy and the number of visits to the chemotherapy department per patient. It is important to implement measures to help prolong and increase the use of outpatient pharmacotherapy for respiratory thoracic malignancies by cooperating with surrounding medical institutions and increasing the number of beds available.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma , Timoma , Neoplasias do Timo , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
10.
Br J Cancer ; 123(11): 1633-1643, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Annexin A1 is expressed specifically on the tumour vasculature surface. Intravenously injected IF7 targets tumour vasculature via annexin A1. We tested the hypothesis that IF7 overcomes the blood-brain barrier and that the intravenously injected IF7C(RR)-SN38 eradicates brain tumours in the mouse. METHODS: (1) A dual-tumour model was generated by inoculating luciferase-expressing melanoma B16 cell line, B16-Luc, into the brain and under the skin of syngeneic C57BL/6 mice. IF7C(RR)-SN38 was injected intravenously daily at 7.0 µmoles/kg and growth of tumours was assessed by chemiluminescence using an IVIS imager. A similar dual-tumour model was generated with the C6-Luc line in immunocompromised SCID mice. (2) IF7C(RR)-SN38 formulated with 10% Solutol HS15 was injected intravenously daily at 2.5 µmoles/kg into two brain tumour mouse models: B16-Luc cells in C57BL/6 mice, and C6-Luc cells in nude mice. RESULTS: (1) Daily IF7C(RR)-SN38 injection suppressed tumour growth regardless of cell lines or mouse strains. (2) Daily injection of Solutol-formulated IF7C(RR)-SN38 led into complete disappearance of B16-Luc brain tumour in C57BL/6 mice, whereas this did not occur in C6-Luc in nude mice. CONCLUSIONS: IF7C(RR)-SN38 crosses the blood-brain barrier and suppresses growth of brain tumours in mouse models. Solutol HS15-formulated IF7C(RR)-SN38 may have promoted an antitumour immune response.


Assuntos
Anexina A1/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos SCID , Peptídeos , Ratos
11.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517152

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are used for treating EGFR-mutated lung cancer, and osimertinib is effective in cases that acquired T790M mutations after treatment with the first- and second-generation EGFR-TKIs. However, no study has evaluated its safety and efficacy in older patients. This phase II trial (jRCTs071180002) evaluated osimertinib in T790M mutation-positive Japanese patients who were ≥75 years old and had experienced relapse or progression after previous EGFR-TKI treatment. Our previous report that enrolled 36 patients showed the overall response rate (58.3%) and disease control rate (97.2%), while this report describes the results for the progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety analyses. The median PFS was 11.9 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9-17.5), and the median OS was 22.0 months (95% CI: 16.0 months-not reached). The most frequent adverse events were anemia/hypoalbuminemia (27 patients, 75.0%), thrombocytopenia (21 patients, 58.3%), and paronychia/anorexia/diarrhea/neutropenia (15 patients, 41.7%). Pneumonitis was observed in four patients (11.1%), including two patients (5.6%) with Grade 3-4 pneumonitis. These results suggest that osimertinib was relatively safe and effective for non-small cell lung cancer that acquired T790M mutations after previous EGFR-TKI treatment, even among patients who were ≥75 years old.

12.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 370, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are highly responsive to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, it has been reported that approximately 15-30% of patients treated with EGFR-TKIs experience central nervous system (CNS) progression, and patients with EGFR mutations exhibit a higher incidence of brain metastasis than those without such mutations. The efficacy of osimertinib for treating CNS metastasis has been reported, but its efficacy for CNS metastasis in radiotherapy-naïve patients is unclear. METHODS: In the present prospective two-cohort phase II trial, 65 patients (T790M cohort, 40 patients; first-line cohort, 25 patients) with radiotherapy-naïve CNS metastasis of EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) will be included. Patients will be treated once-daily with osimertinib 80 mg. The primary endpoint is the response rate of brain metastasis as assessed using the PAREXEL criteria. Key secondary endpoints are progression-free survival and the response rate of brain metastasis as assessed using the RECIST criteria. We will exploratorily analyze the relationships of the blood concentration of osimertinib with its efficacy against brain metastasis of NSCLC and the accumulation of osimertinib in cerebrospinal fluid and evaluate tumor-derived DNA from plasma specimens for mutations in EGFR and other genes. Recruitment, which in October 2016, is ongoing. DISCUSSION: Although previous reports revealed the efficacy of osimertinib for CNS metastasis, these reports only involved subgroup analysis, and the efficacy of osimertinib for patients with previously untreated CNS metastasis remains unclear. The OCEAN study is the only trial of osimertinib for patients with untreated brain metastasis of NSCLC. This study should provide novel data about osimertinib. If the results of the OCEAN study are positive, then avoidance of radiotherapy will be recommended to patients harboring EGFR mutations and brain metastasis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN identifier: UMIN000024218 (date of initial registration: 29 September 2016). jRCT identifier: jRCTs071180017 (date of initial registration: 13 February 2019).


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Anilina/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
13.
Thorac Cancer ; 11(7): 1972-1978, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of amrubicin for previously treated malignant pleural mesothelioma. METHODS: The eligibility criteria were: previously treated unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma; performance status 0-1; age ≤ 75; adequate hematological, hepatic, and renal function. The patients were injected with 35 mg/m2 amrubicin on days one, two, and three every 3-4 weeks. The planned number of patients was 32. RESULTS: The study was terminated due to delay in enrollment and 10 patients were subsequently enrolled (nine males and one female; median age 67 [range 49-73]), of which four had epithelioid tumors, three had sarcomatoid tumors and three had biphasic tumors, respectively. According to the International Mesothelioma Interest Group (IMIG), one, four, and four patients had stage II, III, and IV, respectively, and one had postoperative recurrence. There was one (10%) partial response, four (40%) had stable disease, and five (50%) patients exhibited disease progression. The overall response and disease control rates were 10% (95% CI: 0.3-44.5%) and 60% (95% CI: 26.2-87.8%), respectively. The median progression-free survival time was 1.6 months. The median overall survival time was 6.6 months, and the one-, two-, and three-year survival rates were 23%, 23%, and 0%, respectively. The observed grade 3 or 4 toxicities included neutropenia in six (60%) patients; leukopenia in five (50%) patients; and febrile neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, and pneumonia in one (10%) patient each. CONCLUSIONS: There was not enough data to evaluate the efficacy because the study was terminated early. However, amrubicin showed limited activity and acceptable toxicities when used in previously treated malignant pleural mesothelioma patients.


Assuntos
Antraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Mesotelioma Maligno/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Salvação , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Mesotelioma Maligno/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
J Clin Med ; 9(4)2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pre-existing interstitial lung disease (ILD) in lung cancer patients is considered a risk factor for anti-cancer drug-induced pneumonia; however, a method for evaluating ILD, including mild cases, has not yet been established. We aimed to elucidate whether the quantitative high-resolution computed tomography fibrosis score (HFS) is correlated with the risk of anti-cancer drug-induced pneumonia in lung cancer patients, even in those with mild pre-existing ILD. METHODS: The retrospective single-institute study cohort comprised 214 lung cancer patients who underwent chemotherapy between April 2013 and March 2016. The HFS quantitatively evaluated the grade of pre-existing ILD. We extracted data regarding age, sex, smoking history, and coexisting factors that could affect the incidence of anti-cancer drug-induced pneumonia. Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze the effects of the HFS and other factors on the risk of anti-cancer drug-induced pneumonia. RESULTS: Pre-existing ILD was detected in 61 (29%) of 214 patients, while honeycombing and traction bronchiectasis were observed in only 15 (7.0%) and 10 (4.7%) patients, respectively. Anti-cancer drug-induced pneumonia developed in 19 (8.9%) patients. The risk of anti-cancer drug-induced pneumonia increased in proportion to the HFS (hazard ratio, 1.16 per point; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.22; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The quantitative HFS was correlated with the risk of developing anti-cancer drug-induced pneumonia in lung cancer patients, even in the absence of honeycombing or traction bronchiectasis. The quantitative HFS may lead to better management of lung cancer patients with pre-existing ILD.

15.
Thorac Cancer ; 11(3): 693-696, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020735

RESUMO

Thymic carcinoma is a rare epithelial tumor of the thymus with a poor prognosis, and multimodal approaches are important for its treatment. Recently, a number of studies have indicated that S-1 treatment is effective against thymic carcinoma. S-1 plus cisplatin with concurrent radiotherapy is a commonly used treatment for other malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In addition, its safety has been confirmed, and it has been reported to have a marked effect against thymic carcinoma. Therefore, we conducted a phase II study of S-1 plus cisplatin with concurrent thoracic radiotherapy for locally advanced thymic carcinoma, in which the overall response rate was employed as the primary endpoint. The secondary endpoints were overall survival, progression-free survival, and safety.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Timoma/terapia , Neoplasias do Timo/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ácido Oxônico/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Tegafur/administração & dosagem , Timoma/patologia , Neoplasias do Timo/patologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Thorac Cancer ; 11(2): 389-393, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851428

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy has been shown to be effective in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE); however, there are no data to suggest that ramucirumab has the same effects. METHODS: We therefore decided to conduct a phase II study of ramucirumab plus docetaxel for NSCLC patients with MPE. The MPE control rate at eight weeks after the start of treatment will be the primary endpoint, and the objective response rate, progression-free survival, one-year survival rate, overall survival, and toxicity profile will be secondary endpoints. DISCUSSION: A previous study indicated that administering chemotherapy in combination with bevacizumab was effective at controlling pleural effusion in patients with NSCLC with carcinomatous pleurisy. It is expected that ramucirumab will have a similar effect to the same group.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Derrame Pleural Maligno/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Derrame Pleural Maligno/patologia , Prognóstico , Terapia de Salvação , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 84(5): 1059-1064, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amrubicin and cisplatin is one of the active regimens used to treat patients with extensive-disease (ED)-small cell lung cancer (SCLC), whereas combined therapy involving chemotherapy and concurrent thoracic radiotherapy is the standard treatment for limited-disease (LD)-SCLC. PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) of amrubicin and cisplatin with concurrent thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) for LD-SCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients that fulfilled the following eligibility criteria were enrolled: being aged ≤ 75 years and chemotherapy-naïve and having a performance status (PS) of 0-1, LD-SCLC, and adequate organ function. The patients received escalating doses of amrubicin on days 1, 2, and 3, and a fixed 60-mg/m2 dose of cisplatin on day 1. Four cycles of chemotherapy were administered, with each cycle lasting 4 weeks. TRT involving 2 Gy/day, once daily, commenced on day 2 of the first cycle of chemotherapy. The initial dose of amrubicin was 20 mg/m2 (level 1), and the dose was escalated to 25 mg/m2 (level 2) and then 30 mg/m2 (level 3). RESULTS: Eight patients from three institutions were enrolled at three dose levels. The patients' characteristics were as follows: male/female: 3/5; median age (range): 68.5 (60-73); PS 0/1: 4/4; stage IIIA/IIIB disease: 3/5. Both level 3 patients experienced DLT (grade 4 neutropenia and/or leukopenia lasting > 4 days). Level 3 was defined as the MTD, and level 2 was recommended as the dose for this regimen. Seven patients exhibited partial responses, and 1 displayed progressive disease (response rate: 88%). The median progression-free survival and overall survival periods were 11.1 and 39.5 months, respectively. No treatment-related deaths occurred. CONCLUSIONS: When this regimen was combined with TRT for LD-SCLC, the MTD was 30 mg/m2 for amrubicin and 60 mg/m2 for cisplatin. In addition, neutropenia and leukopenia were DLT, and doses of 25 mg/m2 for amrubicin and 60 mg/m2 for cisplatin are recommended for this regimen.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antraciclinas/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/radioterapia , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(12): 2071-2083, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449889

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) inhibitors effectively treat NSCLC and prolong survival. Robust biomarkers for predicting clinical benefits of good response and long survival with anti-PD-1 therapy have yet to be identified; therefore, predictive biomarkers are needed to select patients with benefits. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study to explore whether serum antibody against NY-ESO-1 and/or XAGE1 cancer-testis antigens predicted primarily good clinical response and secondarily long survival with anti-PD-1 therapy for NSCLC. The serum antibody was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and tumor immune microenvironment and mutation burden were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: In the discovery cohort (n = 13), six antibody-positive NSCLC cases responded to anti-PD-1 therapy (two complete and four partial responses), whereas seven antibody-negative NSCLC cases did not. Antibody positivity was associated with good response and survival, regardless of tumor programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, mutation burden, and CD8+ T-cell infiltration. In the validation cohort (n = 75), 17 antibody-positive NSCLC cases responded well to anti-PD-1 therapy as compared with 58 negative NSCLC cases (objective response rate 65% versus 19%, p = 0.0006) and showed significantly prolonged progression-free survival and overall survival. Antibody titers highly correlated with tumor reduction rates. In the multivariate analysis, response biomarkers were tumor programmed death ligand 1 expression and antibody positivity, and only antibody positivity was a significantly better predictive biomarker of progression-free survival (hazard ratio = 0.4, p = 0.01) and overall survival (hazard ratio = 0.2, p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that NY-ESO-1 and/or XAGE1 serum antibodies are useful biomarkers for predicting clinical benefits in anti-PD-1 therapy for NSCLC and probably for other cancers.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/microbiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
19.
Thorac Cancer ; 10(9): 1764-1769, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first-line treatment for squamous cell lung cancer (SCC) has not necessarily been established; however, our previous exploratory study suggested that the combination of nedaplatin and amrubicin would be a promising treatment approach for patients with SCC. Therefore, a phase II study of this chemotherapeutic combination was designed to evaluate its efficacy and safety for treatment-naïve patients with advanced SCC. METHODS: A total of 21 treatment-naïve patients with stage IIIB/IV or postoperative recurrent SCC were enrolled from six institutions. Nedaplatin (100 mg/m2 ) on day 1 and amrubicin (25 mg/m2 ) on days 1-3 were administered intravenously every 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR), while the secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and drug toxicities. RESULTS: Partial response was observed in seven of 21 cases (ORR, 33.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 14.5-52.2). Disease control rate, which includes stable disease, was 71.4%. Median OS and PFS was 14.6 and 4.1 months, respectively. This regimen did not cause any treatment-related deaths. Grade 3/4 neutropenia developed in 8 of 21 cases (38.1%); however, febrile neutropenia developed in only 9.5% of the cases. Grade 3/4 gastrointestinal or neuromuscular toxicities were not observed. CONCLUSION: The efficacy of the combination of nedaplatin and amrubicin was comparable to that of other conventional chemotherapeutic regimens for treatment-naïve patients with advanced SCC, and no severe gastrointestinal or neuromuscular toxicities were observed. This combination therapy may be an alternative treatment approach, particularly in patients who cannot tolerate gastrointestinal or neuromuscular toxicities.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antraciclinas/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 46(4): 679-683, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164506

RESUMO

Our hospital has an established outpatient chemotherapy room, and medical doctors have accessed veins for infusion so far. We trialed venous access by nurses for the purpose of managing safe and proper cancer chemotherapy, reducing the work of doctors, and reducing patient waiting time. A questionnaire was conducted in June 2013, and nurses secured routes at 19 facilities(58%)of the 33 national university hospitals. In November of the same year, the working group was established, and from September 2016 to March 2017, lectures, practical skills, a paper test, and a practical test were conducted; successful applicants were approved as in-hospital certified nurses. From April 2017, we started intravenous injection of anti-cancer drugs by nurses in outpatient chemotherapy rooms and always waiting for doctor in chemotherapy room. There have been many favorable reports of reduced pain and less route failure from patients, and issues, such as extravasation and dyspnea, have not occurred yet. The doctors who were interrupting their work by 29 minutes(20 minutes to and from the patient for a 9-minute procedure)could concentrate on their own tasks. However, patient waiting time increased from 14 minutes to 21 minutes because the amount of work for nurses increased. In the future, reducing the burden on nurses, for example, by increasing the number of nurses, is warranted.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Médicos , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
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