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1.
Clin Med Insights Endocrinol Diabetes ; 14: 11795514211040539, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602832

RESUMO

Background: The safe method of instructing insulin dose reduction in combination with SGLT2 inhibitors, dapagliflozin for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus has not been clarified. In this study, we conducted a stratified, 2-arm, parallel comparative study with the primary endpoint of decreasing the frequency of hypoglycemia by instructing basal insulin dose reduction. Methods: The study has a multicenter, open-label, 2-arm design; 60 type 1 diabetes mellitus patients are being recruited from 7 hospitals. Study subjects have been stratified into 2 groups based on the ratio of basal insulin daily dose (Basal) to total daily insulin dose (TDD). The subjects whose Basal/TDD ratio is <0.4 are instructed not to reduce Basal but to reduce bolus insulin dose by 10% (group A), and subjects with a Basal/TDD ratio >0.4 will be instructed to reduce Basal by 10% (group B). The primary outcome is the daily frequency of hypoglycemia during the intervention period (SGLT2 inhibitor administration), as determined by self-monitoring of blood glucose. We aimed to confirm a greater reduction in frequency of hypoglycemia in group B (reduced Basal), than in group A (non-reduction of Basal and reduced insulin effect levels by 10%). Baseline hypoglycemia was set at 7 ± 6 times/month. The minimum sample size required to achieve a significance of .05 for a 1-sided t-test with a statistical power at 80% is determined. When the sample size is 26 patients in 1 group, the percentage increase in hypoglycemia exceeds 60%, and the sample size is considered sufficient. Discussion: In this pilot study, we assumed that, given a sufficient Basal, hypoglycemia would be more frequent in patients with type 1 diabetes when combined with SGLT2 inhibitors, provided the Basal was not reduced.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19992, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620897

RESUMO

The importance of maintaining the remission of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been overlooked. Here we aimed to clarify factors causing NAFLD recurrence. In this retrospective cohort study over 10.8 ± 5.4 years, we investigated 1260 male health check-up participants diagnosed with NAFLD who achieved remission. The data were compared between the maintained remission and recurrence group. Among all participants, 618 (49.0%) showed NAFLD recurrence at the last visit. Participants in the maintained remission group continued to lose weight (72.7 ± 9.1, 68.7 ± 8.5 and 68.2 ± 8.9 kg), whereas those in the recurrence group lost and regained weight (72.9 ± 9.9, 69.7 ± 9.3 and 73.0 ± 10.4 kg). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed a weight regain of + 1.5 kg as the cutoff value for recurrence. The proportion of regular exercisers at the last visit was 34.6% in the maintained remission group and 24.5% in the recurrence group (p < 0.0001). Multivariable analysis revealed the amount of weight regain (in 1 kg increments; adjusted odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-1.34) and regular exercise at the last visit (adjusted odds ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.89) were independently associated with recurrence. These findings demonstrate a weight regain of 1.5 kg or more and lack of exercise were associated with NAFLD recurrence.

3.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665938

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Metformin is associated with the risk of gastrointestinal complications and probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 (BBG9-1) can improve the symptoms of diarrhea. This study aimed to clarify the effects of probiotic BBG9-1 on the gastrointestinal symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients using metformin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this open-label single-arm exploratory study, 40 patients (mean age, 64.0±9.4 years) were administered probiotic BBG9-1 for 10 weeks. Changes in the gastrointestinal symptom rating scale total score, which was the primary endpoint, gastrointestinal symptom rating scale subscale scores, HbA1c levels, and gut microbiota after the administration of probiotic BBG9-1 were evaluated by the Student's t-test. RESULTS: The gastrointestinal symptom rating scale total score was significantly improved (from 2.02±0.51 to 1.59±0.43, change, -0.43±0.49, p<0.001). Moreover, all gastrointestinal symptom rating scale subscale scores, including diarrhea (from 2.32±1.14 to 1.89±0.99, change, -0.42±0.95, p=0.007) and constipation (from 3.00±1.16 to 2.20±1.07, change, -0.80±1.19, p<0.001), scores also significantly improved. However, the HbA1c levels did not change (from 7.0±0.7 to 7.0±0.6 %, change, 0.0±0.4, p=0.91). The relative abundance of the genus Sutterella was decreased by the use of probiotic BBG9-1 (from 0.011±0.009 to 0.008±0.006, change, -0.003±0.006, p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients treated with metformin showed significant improvement in all gastrointestinal symptom rating scores after using probiotic BBG9-1 without changing the glucose control. This study demonstrated the potential usefulness of probiotic BBG9-1 for improving gastrointestinal symptoms, including constipation and diarrhea, in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients treated with metformin.

4.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624178

RESUMO

AIM/INTRODUCTION: As the association between a fasting glucose concentration of 90-99 mg/dL and the onset of type 2 diabetes is still controversial, we aimed to assess it in 37,148 Japanese individuals with a normal plasma glucose concentration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This long-term retrospective cohort study included individuals having a medical checkup at Panasonic Corporation from 2008 to 2018. In total, 1,028 participants developed type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: Cox regression analyses revealed that the risk for the onset of diabetes increased by 9.0% per 1 mg/dL increase in fasting plasma glucose concentration in subjects with the concentration ranging from 90 to 99 mg/dL. Compared with individuals with a fasting glucose concentration of ≤89 mg/dL, the adjusted hazard ratios for developing diabetes were 1.53 (95% CI; 1.22-1.91), 1.76 (95% CI; 1.41-2.18), 1.89 (95% CI; 1.52-2.35), 3.17 (95% CI; 2.61-3.84), and 3.41 (95% CI; 2.79-4.15) at fasting plasma glucose concentrations of 90-91, 92-93, 94-95, 96-97, and 98-99 mg/dL, respectively. In populations with obesity, the adjusted hazards ratios for developing diabetes were 1.56 (95% CI; 1.15-2.09), 1.82 (95% CI; 1.37-2.40), 2.05 (95% CI; 1.55-2.69), 3.53 (95% CI; 2.79-4.46), and 3.28 (95% CI; 2.53-4.22) at fasting plasma glucose concentrations of 90-91, 92-93, 94-95, 96-97, and 98-99 mg/dL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the risk of type 2 diabetes among subjects having a fasting plasma glucose concentration of 90-99 mg/dL, is progressively higher with an increasing level of fasting plasma glucose concentration in a Japanese people.

5.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To clarify the relationship between metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: The participants were divided into four groups by the presence or absence of fatty liver disease (FLD) and metabolic dysfunction (MD). MAFLD was defined as having both FLD and MD, whereas CKD was defined as having an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or proteinuria. RESULTS: In this cross-sectional study of 27,371 participants, the proportions of those in the non-FLD without MD, non-FLD with MD, FLD without MD, and MAFLD groups were 48.7, 28.2, 2.3, and 20.8%, respectively. Compared with non-FLD without MD, MAFLD was associated with the risk of CKD (adjusted odds ratio 1.83 [1.66-2.01], P < 0.001), whereas FLD without MD was not (1.02 [0.79-1.33], P = 0.868). Moreover, compared with FLD without MD, MAFLD was associated with the risk of CKD (1.19 [1.09-1.31], P < 0.001). In this retrospective cohort study, 16,938 of 27,371 participants underwent a median 4.6 (2.0-8.1) years follow-up, and incident data of non-FLD without MD, non-FLD with MD, FLD without MD, and MAFLD were 21.0, 31.1, 26.1, and 31.1 cases per 1,000 person-years, respectively. Compared with the non-FLD without MD, MAFLD was associated with the risk of incident CKD (adjusted hazard ratio 1.24 [1.14-1.36], P < 0.001), whereas FLD without MD was not (1.11 [0.85-1.41], P = 0.433). CONCLUSIONS: MAFLD was associated with a risk of CKD, whereas FLD without MD was not a risk for CKD.

6.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; : e13502, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592011

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), a recently discovered family of innate immune cells, are responsible for the early immune response, and control both innate and adapted immune system via cytokine secretion. The role of ILCs in endometriosis has not been investigated; therefore, here, we aimed to investigate how the proportion of ILCs changes in endometriosis. METHOD OF STUDY: The percentage of each ILC group in CD45+ cells was examined in the peripheral blood, peritoneal fluid, endometrium, and ovarian endometrioma obtained from women with and without endometriosis (ERB-C-1216) using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Specimens were obtained from 19 women with endometriosis and 15 without endometriosis. In the endometrium, patients with endometriosis had lower proportion of ILC2 and 3 compared to control specimens (ILC2: .02±.01% vs .07±.03%; P < .05, ILC3: .31±.14% vs 1.10±.93%; P < .05). There was no significant change in the peripheral blood or the peritoneal fluid between the two groups. Additionally, ovarian endometrioma increased the proportion of ILCs (ILC1: .92±1.12%, ILC2: .08±.08%, ILC3: .70±.39%) compared to the endometrium samples of patients with endometriosis each with P < .05. Immunohistochemistry of IL-1ß and IL-23, which are ILC3-inducing factors, showed no significant change in the H-score of the epithelium of the two groups, but a significant increase was found in ovarian endometrioma. CONCLUSION: The proportion of ILC2 and 3 was reduced in the endometrium of patients with endometriosis, and ILCs were increased in ovarian endometrioma. Our findings may indicate a new immunological approach to understand the pathophysiology of endometriosis.

7.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578892

RESUMO

Salt intake is often estimated by the amount of sodium excreted in urine, and miso has been reported to increase it. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between obesity and high estimated salt intake with and without habitual miso consumption. Estimates of salt intake (g/day) were calculated using urinary sodium excretion, and a high estimated intake was defined as greater than the median amount of 9.5 g/day. Participants were divided into four groups based on estimated salt intake and miso consumption. Among 300 people, the proportions of obesity were 77.8% (n = 14/18), 40.2% (n = 53/132), 26.0% (n = 33/127), and 34.8% (n = 8/23) in the (+/-), (+/+), (-/+), and (-/-) groups of high estimated salt intake/habitual miso consumption, respectively. Compared with the (+/-) group, the adjusted odds ratios for obesity were 0.07 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02-0.26, p < 0.001), 0.16 (95% CI: 0.03-0.76, p = 0.022), and 0.14 (95% CI: 0.04-0.51, p = 0.003) in the (-/+), (-/-), and (+/+) groups, respectively. The presence of obesity was not much higher in people with high estimated salt intake with habitual miso consumption than that in people without. Clinicians should be aware that miso consumption promotes salt excretion, which may lead to an apparently higher estimated salt intake than actual.

8.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371843

RESUMO

The aim of this prospective cohort study was to examine the relationships between the intakes of various vitamins and the loss of muscle mass in older people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The change in skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, kg/m2) (kg/m2/year) was defined as follows: (SMI at baseline (kg/m2) - SMI at follow-up (kg/m2))/follow-up period (year). The rate of SMI reduction (%) was calculated as follows (the change in SMI (kg/m2/year)/SMI at baseline (kg/m2)) × 100. The rate of SMI reduction ≥ 1.2% was considered as the loss of muscle mass. Among 197 people with T2DM, 47.2% of them experienced the loss of muscle mass at the 13.7 ± 5.2 month follow-up. Vitamin B1 (0.8 ± 0.3 vs. 0.8 ± 0.3 mg/day, p = 0.031), vitamin B12 (11.2 ± 8.3 vs. 13.4 ± 7.5 µg/day, p = 0.049), and vitamin D (16.5 ± 12.2 vs. 21.6 ± 13.0 µg/day, p = 0.004) intakes in people with the loss of muscle mass were significantly lower than those without. Vitamin D intake was related to the loss of muscle mass after adjusting for sex, age, exercise, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, SMI, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist, sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, insulin, HbA1c, creatinine, energy intake, and protein intake (adjusted odds ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.88-0.97, p = 0.003). This study showed that vitamin D intake was related to the loss of muscle mass in older people with T2DM. Vitamin B12 intake tended to be related to the loss of muscle mass, although vitamin A, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin C, and vitamin E intake were not related.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Estado Nutricional , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Vitaminas/análise , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sarcopenia/etiologia
9.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 321, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic steatosis has a pivotal role in the development of chronic liver diseases, even in alcohol-related liver disease. Alcoholic fatty liver disease is an important phenotype among alcohol-related liver diseases. While metabolic syndrome is a dominant risk factor of incident nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the role of metabolic syndrome in alcoholic fatty liver disease has not been clarified yet. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed at a health check-up center in Japan. Subjects consisted of male participants without fatty liver who consumed ethanol of 420 g/week or higher. Adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals at the baseline examinations for incident alcoholic fatty liver disease were estimated using Cox model. RESULTS: A total of 640 participants were included in this study. During 3.91 years (IQR 1.63-7.09) of follow-up, 168 new cases of alcoholic fatty liver disease developed (49.1 cases per 1000 persons per year). After adjustment for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, the hazard ratio for a 1 kg/m2 increase in body mass index was 1.2 (1.12-1.28). The hazard ratio of subjects with high triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were 1.56 (1.12-2.18) and 1.52 (1.03-2.25), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity, high triglyceridemia, and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterolemia are independent risk factors of alcoholic fatty liver disease in Japanese men who consumed alcohol habitually. In people with these risks, triglyceride lowering and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol raising by improving insulin resistance and weight maintenance in addition to abstinence from alcohol would be effective in preventing the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico , Síndrome Metabólica , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 669629, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34305899

RESUMO

Background and aims: Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have been implicated in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis in mice. Methods: In this study, the role of ILC2s in white adipose tissue (WAT) was investigated using ST2, an IL-33 receptor that is expressed on ILC2 knockout mice. Results: The deficiency of ST2 decreased ILC2s in WAT, whereas ex-ILC2, which acquired group 1 innate lymphoid cell (ILC1)-like traits, was increased. This led to significant metabolic disorders such as visceral fat obesity, decreased browning in WAT, reduction of energy metabolism, and impaired glucose tolerance, compared to wild type (WT) mice. Those metabolic abnormalities of ST2-knockout (ST2KO) mice were not ameliorated by IL-33 administration, but impaired glucose tolerance and visceral fat obesity were significantly improved by transplantation of ILCs from the bone marrow of WT mice. The relative expression of Cd36 in WAT increased due to the deficiency of ST2, and the storage of saturated fatty acids in WAT of ST2KO mice was significantly higher than that of WT mice. Moreover, saturated fatty acids aggravated the chronic inflammation in adipocytes, promoted the differentiation of M1-like macrophages, and inhibited that of M2-like macrophages. Conclusions: Our results indicated that ILC2 regulates diet-induced obesity and chronic inflammation through the regulation of saturated fatty acid absorption in visceral adipose tissue.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203155

RESUMO

Objectives: We verified the clinical usefulness of an approach method in which a physician gives simple salt reduction instructions during outpatient visits to patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This study was an open-blind, randomized controlled trial. Subjects were outpatients with type 2 diabetes whose estimated salt intake using spot morning urine sample exceeded the target of salt intake. The control group (CG) was notified only of the current salt intake, whereas the intervention group (IG) was given the brief salt reduction instruction by a physician in addition to the information regarding their current salt intake. Results: The change in estimated salt intake was -0.6 g (from 10.1 to 9.5 g, p = 0.029) in the CG after 8 weeks, and -0.9 g (from 10.1 to 9.2 g, p = 0.001) in the IG, although there were no significant differences between them (p = 0.47). After 24 weeks, both groups no longer differed significantly from the baseline. In addition, multivariate linear regression analyses indicated that high salt intake and low estimated glomerular filtration rate at baseline were significantly associated with salt reduction after 8 weeks. Conclusions: Salt-reducing effects were observed after 8 weeks in both the IG and CG, but no significant difference was observed. Moreover, patients with high salt intake and renal disfunction may be more effective in accepting salt reduction instructions. Making patients aware of the importance of salt reduction through a physician is effective for continuous salt reduction, and it is important to continue regular and repetitive guidance.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipertensão , Médicos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Alimentar , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta
12.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205413

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to reveal the characteristics of gut microbiome altered by acarbose intervention in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its possible association with habitual dietary intake. Eighteen patients with T2D were administered acarbose for four weeks. The abundances of two major phyla, namely Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, were reciprocally changed accompanied by the acarbose intervention. There were also significant changes in the abundances of ten genera, including the greater abundance of Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, and Lactobacillus and the lower abundance of Bacteroides in the group after the intervention than that before the intervention. Hierarchical clustering of habitual dietary intake was performed based on the pattern of changes in the gut microbiota and were classified into distinct three clusters. Cluster I consisted of sucrose, cluster II mainly included fat intake, and cluster III mainly included carbohydrate intake. Moreover, the amount of change in Faecalibacterium was positively correlated with the intake of rice, but negatively correlated with the intake of bread. The intake of potato was negatively correlated with the amount of change in Akkermansia and Subdoligranulum. Acarbose altered the composition of gut microbiome in Japanese patients with T2D, which might be linked to the habitual dietary intake.


Assuntos
Acarbose/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Erythritol, a sugar alcohol, is widely used as a substitute for sugar in diets for patients with diabetes or obesity. METHODS: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of erythritol on metabolic disorders induced by a high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice, while focusing on changes in innate immunity. RESULTS: Mice that were fed a high-fat diet and administered water containing 5% erythritol (Ery group) had markedly lower body weight, improved glucose tolerance, and markedly higher energy expenditure than the control mice (Ctrl group) (n = 6). Furthermore, compared with the Ctrl group, the Ery group had lesser fat deposition in the liver, smaller adipocytes, and significantly better inflammatory findings in the small intestine. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetic acid, propanoic acid, and butanoic acid, in the serum, feces, and white adipose tissue of the Ery group were markedly higher than those in the Ctrl group. In flow cytometry experiments, group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3) counts in the lamina propria of the small intestine and ILC2 counts in the white adipose tissue of the Ery group were markedly higher than those in the Ctrl group. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that the Il-22 expression in the small intestine of the Ery group was markedly higher than that in the Ctrl group. CONCLUSIONS: Erythritol markedly decreased metabolic disorders such as diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and fat accumulation in the mouse liver by increasing SCFAs and modulating innate immunity.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Eritritol/farmacologia , Intolerância à Glucose/dietoterapia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritritol/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/genética , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Membrana Mucosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo
14.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various factors other than fibrosis could affect liver stiffness (LS), measured by two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE). We aimed to clarify the factors affecting LS in local citizens. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study among local citizens of a health checkup program. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥85 cm for men and ≥90 cm for women. We evaluated the correlation between LS by 2D-SWE (Aplio 500) and waist circumference with linear regression analyses. We selected the following items as variables in the multivariate analysis: waist circumference, sex, hypertension, diabetes, diagnostic components of metabolic syndrome, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, total bilirubin, NAFLD fibrosis score, and an indicator of a fatty liver, evaluated ultrasonographically. RESULTS: Overall, 345 individuals were included; 318 (181 men and 137 women; age, 63.4 years; waist circumference, 84.0 cm; LS, 5.79 kPa) were analyzed, 128 of whom had abdominal obesity and significantly higher LS than non-abdominally obese individuals. In the multivariate analysis, waist circumference was positively, independently, and significantly correlated with LS only in abdominally obese individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Liver stiffness by 2D-SWE could increase with increases in waist circumference in local citizens with abdominal obesity. Physicians should pay attention when assessing the LS of abdominally obese individuals.

15.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(9): 2155-2160, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085376

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to develop an application to calculate mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions (MAGE) automatically and to evaluate its accuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We named the application intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM) calculator KAMOGAWA (Kyoto Auto MAGE Of Glucose cAlcutator With isCGM Application). The isCGM data from 20 patients, 10 with and 10 without diabetes, were used to compare manually calculated MAGE values with those calculated using KAMOGAWA. The rate of agreement for the MAGE values was calculated. RESULTS: Comparing the MAGE values calculated manually with those calculated using KAMOGAWA, the total mean rate of agreement was 81.6%. Nonmatching values were checked and it was found that the inconsistencies were all attributable to errors in manual calculations. After correcting errors in the manual calculation, the MAGE values matched to one decimal place for all data in the manual and KAMOGAWA calculations. CONCLUSIONS: KAMOGAWA can help diabetologists use MAGE in clinical practice, which could contribute to improving glycaemic control in patients who use isCGM.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Humanos
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 669672, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995404

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Many nutritional and epidemiological studies have shown that high consumption of trans fatty acids can cause several adverse effects on human health, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effect of trans fatty acids on innate immunity in the gut by observing mice fed with a diet high in trans fatty acids, which have been reported to cause dysbiosis. Methods: We used C57BL6/J mice and fed them with normal diet (ND) or high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHSD) or high-trans fatty acid, high-sucrose diet (HTHSD) for 12 weeks. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on the mice stool samples, in addition to flow cytometry, real-time PCR, and lipidomics analysis of the mice serum and liver samples. RAW264.7 cells were used for the in vitro studies. Results: Mice fed with HTHSD displayed significantly higher blood glucose levels and advanced fatty liver and intestinal inflammation, as compared to mice fed with HFHSD. Furthermore, compared to mice fed with HFHSD, mice fed with HTHSD displayed a significant elevation in the expression of CD36 in the small intestine, along with a reduction in the expression of IL-22. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in the populations of ILC1s and T-bet-positive ILC3s in the lamina propria in mice fed with HTHSD. Finally, the relative abundance of the family Desulfovibrionaceae, which belongs to the phylum Proteobacteria, was significantly higher in mice fed with HFHSD or HTHSD, than in mice fed with ND; between the HFHSD and HTHSD groups, the abundance was slightly higher in the HTHSD group. Conclusions: This study revealed that compared to saturated fatty acid intake, trans fatty acid intake significantly exacerbated metabolic diseases such as diabetes and fatty liver.

17.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A previous 2-year cohort study has shown that isolated high home systolic blood pressure (IH-HSBP) may increase the risk of diabetic nephropathy, using normal HBP as a reference. However, this association has not been previously assessed in the medium to long term. METHODS: This prospective 5-year cohort study of 424 patients, with normal or mildly increased albuminuria, investigated the effect of IH-HSBP on the risk of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic nephropathy was defined as an advancement from normal or mildly increased albuminuira to moderate or severely increased albuminuria. RESULTS: Among 424 patients, 75 developed diabetic nephropathy during the study period. The adjusted odds ratio for developing diabetic nephropathy given IH-HSBP was 2.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.15-4.96, p = 0.02). The odds ratio for developing nephropathy in patients with IH-HSBP younger than 65 years was higher than that in patients with IH-HSBP older than 65 years. CONCLUSION: IH-HSBP was associated with an increased risk of diabetic nephropathy among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with normal or mildly increased albuminuria in the medium to long term. The results support and strengthen previous reports. These findings suggest that IH-HSBP might be a useful marker in disease prognostication.

18.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 223, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, to clarify the evolving background of people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we compared the current prevalence of NAFLD with that of 2 decades ago. METHODS: We included two cohorts. The past cohort was from 1994 to 1997 and included 4279 men and 2502 women. The current cohort was from 2014 to 2017 and included 8918 men and 7361 women. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography. RESULTS: The prevalence of NAFLD increased in both genders throughout these 2 decades (18.5% in the past cohort and 27.1% in the current cohort for men; and 8.0% in the past cohort and 9.4% in the current cohort for women). The prevalence of hyperglycemia increased, whereas the prevalence of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased. There was no significant difference in the mean body mass index. Multivariate analysis revealed that the prevalence of obesity and body mass index were significantly associated with the prevalence of NAFLD in both the past and current cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of NAFLD significantly increased throughout these 2 decades, and obesity is the most prevalent factor. Thus, body weight management is an essential treatment option for NAFLD.


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ultrassonografia
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 648754, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790913

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Emerging evidence has revealed that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play a key role in regulating metabolic disorders. Here, we investigated the role of group 3 ILCs (ILC3s) in the modulation of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: RORγ gfp/gfp (RORgt KI/KI) and Rag2-/- mice with the administration of A213, RORgt antagonist, fed with a high-fat-diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, were used. We performed flow cytometry, real time PCR, and lipidomics analysis of serum and liver, and used RAW264.7 cells and murine primary hepatocytes in vitro. Results: HFD increased ILC3s and M1 macrophages in the liver, and RORgt KI/KI mice deficient in ILC3 showed significant fatty liver, liver fibrosis and significantly increased palmitic acid levels in serum and liver. In addition, administration of A213 to Rag2-/- mice caused significant fatty liver, liver fibrosis, and a significant increase in serum and liver palmitate concentrations, as in RORgt KI/KI mice. Addition of palmitc acid stimulated IL-23 production in cell experiments using RAW264.7. IL-22 produced by ILC3s inhibited the palmitate-induced apoptosis of primary hepatocytes. Conclusions: HFD stimulates IL-23 production by M1 macrophages, thus promoting ILC3 proliferation, whereas IL-22 secreted by ILC3s contributes to the upregulation of hepatic lipid metabolism and has anti-apoptosis activity.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Animais , Apoptose/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/classificação , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Ácido Palmítico/sangue , Ácido Palmítico/imunologia , Ácido Palmítico/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920957

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic restrictions on the change in muscle mass in older patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), who were not infected with COVID-19. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, data were obtained from outpatients who underwent bioelectrical impedance analysis at least twice before April 2020 and at least once thereafter. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, kg/m2) was calculated as appendicular muscle mass (kg) divided by height squared (m2). Change in SMI (kg/m2/year) was calculated as (follow-up SMI-baseline SMI/follow-up period). The differences between the changes in SMI before and after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic were evaluated using paired t test. Results: This study recruited 56 patients, with a mean (SD) age of 75.2 (7.1) years. SMI changed from 6.7 (0.9) to 6.8 (0.9) kg/m2 before the COVID-19 pandemic, whereas SMI changed from 6.8 (0.9) to 6.6 (0.9) kg/m2 after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. SMI decreased after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic compared with before the pandemic (-0.117 (0.240) vs. 0.005 (0.289) kg/m2/year, p = 0.049). This decrease was observed in men (-0.159 (0.257) vs. 0.031 (0.325) kg/m2/year, p = 0.038), patients with poor glycemic control (-0.170 (0.264) vs. 0.031 (0.285) kg/m2/year, p = 0.042), and those with a long diabetes duration (-0.153 (0.229) vs. 0.082 (0.291) kg/m2, p = 0.049). Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic restrictions caused muscle mass loss in older patents with T2D. Actions, including recommendation of exercise and adequate diet intake, are needed to prevent loss of muscle mass.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Sarcopenia , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia
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