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1.
J Nat Med ; 65(1): 103-10, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20890669

RESUMO

Genus Lophophora (Cactaceae) has two species: Lophophora williamsii Coulter, which is called peyote, and L. diffusa Bravo. Although it was reported that L. williamsii contained mescaline and L. diffusa did not, we found L. williamsii specimens that did not contain mescaline. This finding indicated that the two species could not be differentiated in terms of mescaline content. Moreover, the relationship between mescaline content and morphology of the two species is also unknown. In this study, we attempted to clarify the difference in morphology, mescaline content, and DNA alignment of the chloroplast trnL/trnF region between L. williamsii and L. diffusa. As a result, L. williamsii specimens were classified into two groups. Group 1 had small protuberances on the epidermis, contained mescaline, and the analyzed region on the trnL/trnF sequence was 881 base pairs (bp) long in all except one (877 bp). Group 2 had large protuberances on the epidermis, did not contain mescaline, and the analyzed region was 893 bp long. On the other hand, L. diffusa had medium-sized protuberances on the epidermis, did not contain mescaline, and the analyzed region was 903 bp long. Also investigated was the potential application of the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method as a means of identification based on the trnL/trnF sequence. By applying the PCR-RFLP method, the two species could be distinguished and L. williamsii specimens could be differentiated into group 1 and group 2.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Cactaceae/genética , Mescalina/química , Cactaceae/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
2.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 6: 23, 2009 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19725983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, manufactured nano/microparticles such as fullerenes (C60), carbon black (CB) and ceramic fiber are being widely used because of their desirable properties in industrial, medical and cosmetic fields. However, there are few data on these particles in mammalian mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. To examine genotoxic effects by C60, CB and kaolin, an in vitro micronuclei (MN) test was conducted with human lung cancer cell line, A549 cells. In addition, DNA damage and mutations were analyzed by in vivo assay systems using male C57BL/6J or gpt delta transgenic mice which were intratracheally instilled with single or multiple doses of 0.2 mg per animal of particles. RESULTS: In in vitro genotoxic analysis, increased MN frequencies were observed in A549 cells treated with C60, CB and kaolin in a dose-dependent manner. These three nano/microparticles also induced DNA damage in the lungs of C57BL/6J mice measured by comet assay. Moreover, single or multiple instillations of C60 and kaolin, increased either or both of gpt and Spi- mutant frequencies in the lungs of gpt delta transgenic mice. Mutation spectra analysis showed transversions were predominant, and more than 60% of the base substitutions occurred at G:C base pairs in the gpt genes. The G:C to C:G transversion was commonly increased by these particle instillations. CONCLUSION: Manufactured nano/microparticles, CB, C60 and kaolin, were shown to be genotoxic in in vitro and in vivo assay systems.

3.
J Toxicol Sci ; 34(1): 65-76, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19182436

RESUMO

The present study assessed a carcinogenic hazard of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) in intact (not genetically modified) rodents. MWCNT (1 mg/kg body weight, 7 animals), crocidolite (2 mg/kg body weight, 10 animals) or vehicle (2% carboxymethyl cellulose, 5 animals) was administered to male Fischer 344 rats (12 weeks old) by a single intrascrotal injection. Rats were autopsied immediately after death, when becoming moribund or at the end of the maximal observation period scheduled to be 52 weeks. After 37-40 weeks, however, 6 MWCNT-treated animals died or became moribund due to intraperitoneally disseminated mesothelioma (6/7, 85.7%) with bloody ascites. Peritoneal mesothelium was generally hypertrophic, and numerous nodular or papillary lesions of mesothelioma and mesothelial hyperplasia were developed. While mesothelioid cells were predominant in relatively early stage tumors, advanced stage mesotheliomas were constituted by 2 portions occupied by mesothelioid cells on the surface and spindle-shaped sarcomatous cells in the depth. In the latter, the histological transition was apparently observed between these 2 portions. Mesotheliomas were invasive to adjacent organs and tissues, and frequently metastasized into the pleura. Only 1 rat survived for 52 weeks in the MWCNT-treated group, and similar findings except mesothelioma were observed. All 10 crocidolite-treated and 5 vehicle-treated rats survived for 52 weeks without any particular changes except deposition of asbestos in the former case. It is thus indicated that MWCNT possesses carcinogenicity causing mesothelioma at a high rate in intact male rats under the present experimental conditions. The present data identifies a carcinogenic hazard of MWCNT and will serve as one of the indispensable evidences to be used for the risk assessment crucial for not only protection and improvement of human health and welfare, but also safe and acceptable development and prevalence of this and similar upcoming materials.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Injeções , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Escroto , Anemia/patologia , Animais , Asbesto Crocidolita/química , Asbesto Crocidolita/toxicidade , Ascite/diagnóstico , Ascite/patologia , Autopsia/métodos , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Carcinógenos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Epitélio/patologia , Granuloma/induzido quimicamente , Granuloma/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/patologia , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Peritônio/patologia , Veículos Farmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Veículos Farmacêuticos/química , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Suspensões/química , Fatores de Tempo , Aderências Teciduais
4.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 49(4): 272-82, 2008 Aug.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18787312

RESUMO

A chronic feeding study to evaluate the safety of genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GM soybeans) was conducted using F344 DuCrj rats. The rats were fed diet containing GM soybeans or Non-GM soybeans at the concentration of 30% in basal diet. Non-GM soybeans were a closely related strain to the GM soybeans. These two diets were adjusted to an identical nutrient level. In this study, the influence of GM soybeans in rats was compared with that of the Non-GM soybeans, and furthermore, to assess the effect of soybeans themselves, the groups of rats fed GM and Non-GM soybeans were compared with a group fed commercial diet (CE-2). General conditions were observed daily and body weight and food consumption were recorded. At the termination (104 weeks), animals were subjected to hematology, serum biochemistry, and pathological examinations. There were several differences in animal growth, food intake, organ weights and histological findings between the rats fed the GM and/or Non-GM soybeans and the rats fed CE-2. However, body weight and food intake were similar for the rats fed the GM and Non-GM soybeans. Gross necropsy findings, hematological and serum biochemical parameters, and organ weights showed no meaningful difference between rats fed the GM and Non-GM soybeans. In pathological observation, there was neither an increase in incidence nor any specific type of nonneoplastic or neoplastic lesions in the GM soybeans group in each sex. These results indicate that long-term intake of GM soybeans at the level of 30% in diet has no apparent adverse effect in rats.


Assuntos
Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados/toxicidade , Soja , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344
5.
J Toxicol Sci ; 33(1): 105-16, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18303189

RESUMO

Nanomaterials of carbon origin tend to form various shapes of particles in micrometer dimensions. Among them, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) form fibrous or rod-shaped particles of length around 10 to 20 micrometers with an aspect ratio of more than three. Fibrous particles of this dimension including asbestos and some man-made fibers are reported to be carcinogenic, typically inducing mesothelioma. Here we report that MWCNT induces mesothelioma along with a positive control, crocidolite (blue asbestos), when administered intraperitoneally to p53 heterozygous mice that have been reported to be sensitive to asbestos. Our results point out the possibility that carbon-made fibrous or rod-shaped micrometer particles may share the carcinogenic mechanisms postulated for asbestos. To maintain sound activity of industrialization of nanomaterials, it would be prudent to implement strategies to keep good control of exposure to fibrous or rod-shaped carbon materials both in the workplace and in the future market until the biological/ carcinogenic properties, especially of their long-term biodurability, are fully assessed.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Neoplasias Peritoneais/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Carcinógenos/administração & dosagem , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Genes p53/genética , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Rim , Masculino , Mesotelioma/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Peritônio/efeitos dos fármacos , Peritônio/patologia
6.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 48(3): 41-50, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17657996

RESUMO

A chronic feeding study to evaluate the safety of the genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GM soybeans) was conducted using rats. F344 DuCrj rats were fed diet containing GM soybeans or Non-GM soybeans at the concentration of 30% in basal diet. Non-GM soybeans were closely related strain of GM soybeans. These two diets were adjusted to an identical nutrient level. In this study, the influence of GM soybeans on rats was compared with that of the Non-GM soybeans, and furthermore, to assess the effect of soybeans themselves, the groups of rats fed GM and Non-GM soybeans were compared with a group fed commercial diet (CE-2). General conditions were observed daily and body weight and food consumption were recorded. At the intermediate examination (26 weeks), and at the termination (52 weeks), animals were subjected to hematology, serum biochemistry, and pathological examination. There were several differences in animal growth, food intake, serum biochemical parameters and histological findings between the rats fed the GM and/or Non-GM soybeans and the rats fed CE-2. However, body weight and food intake were similar for the rats fed the GM and Non-GM soybeans. Gross necropsy findings, hematological and serum biochemical parameters, organ weights, and pathological findings showed no meaningful difference between rats fed the GM and Non-GM soybeans. These results indicate that long-term intake of GM soybeans at the level of 30% in diet has no apparent adverse effect in rats.


Assuntos
Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados/efeitos adversos , Soja/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344
7.
Arch Toxicol ; 80(9): 605-13, 2006 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16518644

RESUMO

Many cases of hepatopathy including deaths have frequently occurred after ingestion of Chinese dietary supplements for weight loss containing N-nitrosofenfluramine (N-fen), a nitroso derivative of fenfluramine (Fen), which was used for the treatment of obesity in the United States. Since Fen decreases appetite by decreasing the serotonin level and exhibits an antibiotic effect, N-fen may have been added, expecting a similar effect. Thus, we synthesized N-fen and orally administered it to mice, and investigated its effect on the liver as well as on the cerebral serotonin nervous system to investigate whether N-fen exhibits an anorectic effect. Three doses of N-fen were orally administered once daily to mice for 1 week. No significant changes in body weight, food intake, and general condition were noted. The liver and kidney weights were significantly increased. On blood chemistry, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities were increased, and total bilirubin and albumin were slightly decreased. On histopathological examination, acidophilic changes and mild cellular swelling were noted in the liver. The liver drug-metabolizing enzyme (P-450) level was significantly higher. The effect of N-fen on the serotonin (5HT) nervous system was examined by quantitative autoradiography of the mouse brain, and it was found that N-fen did not decrease the 5HT nerve activity. Effects of reuptake and release of monoamine neurotransmitters [dopamine (DA), 5HT, and norepinephrine (NE)] were investigated. N-fen inhibited a little 5HT reuptake, and did not inhibit reuptakes of DA and NE. Moreover, N-fen did not affect release of the three monoamines. The above findings suggested that N-fen did not exhibit a serotonin nerve fiber-mediated anorectic effect in mice, but induced hepatopathy.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/toxicidade , Suplementos Nutricionais/toxicidade , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Fenfluramina/análogos & derivados , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Administração Oral , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/enzimologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fenfluramina/toxicidade , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Inibidores da Captação de Neurotransmissores/toxicidade , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Serotonina/metabolismo
8.
Pathol Int ; 54(8): 616-22, 2004 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15260853

RESUMO

Proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma (PES) is a rare neoplasm. We report a case of PES that arose in the perineal subcutis of a 36-year-old Japanese man who died within 4 months of the first clinical sign, probably due to massive pulmonary metastases. In the present study, we analyzed the tumor obtained at surgery, immunohistochemically, immunoelectron-microscopically and genetically. Although the tumor cells in the patient expressed both cytokeratin and vimentin immunohistochemically, they showed epithelial characteristics immunoelectron-microscopically because they had tonofilaments constructed of cytokeratin, not vimentin. In addition, the cytokeratins expressed on the tumor were glandular-type keratins. These findings indicate that PES may be a form of carcinoma in soft tissue. To ascertain the possible origin of the tumor, we compared the tumor immunohistochemically with fetal tissues. Although notochord and fetal peritoneal mesothelium were similar to the tumor antigenically, we could not confirm the specific origin of the tumor. Furthermore, the p53-WAF1 pathway did not contribute to tumorigenesis in the patient because the tumor had no mutation in exons 5-8 of the p53 gene and was immunohistochemically positive for WAF1.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/ultraestrutura , Mesoderma/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Imunoeletrônica/métodos , Períneo/patologia , Sarcoma/secundário , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Adulto , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Masculino , Mesoderma/metabolismo , Períneo/cirurgia , Sarcoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/cirurgia
9.
J Food Prot ; 51(9): 737-739, 1988 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991549

RESUMO

Asbestos filters have been widely used to clear beverages in many countries including Japan, and despite warnings from the authorities, some Japanese sake companies have continued using such filters until recently. Forty-seven Japanese sake samples were analyzed using a transmission electron microscope to detect contamination with asbestos fibers. The concentrations of fibers found in sake samples ranged from <7.8 × 103 fibers/L (the detection limit) to 1.96 × 108 fibers/L. Ten sake manufacturers provided information as to whether they had used asbestos in the filtration process and the remaining 37 did not (unknown group). Five out of the 10 manufacturers from which information was available had used asbestos (with asbestos group), and the other 5 had not (without asbestos group). The concentrations of fibers in the samples of the "with asbestos" group were more than 7.7 × 106 fibers/L while those in the "without asbestos" group did not exceed 2.8 × 105 fibers/L. The concentrations of fibers in the samples of the "unknown group" ranged from below the detection limits to 1.46 × 108 fibers/L. Some brands of sake showed extremely high concentrations of asbestos fibers, and therefore it may be necessary to investigate the fate of ingested asbestos in the body and its possible carcinogenicity.

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