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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(11)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836590

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause cellular damage and promote cancer development. Besides such harmful consequences of overproduction of ROS, all cells utilize ROS for signaling purposes and stabilization of cell homeostasis. In particular, the latter is supported by the NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) that constitutively produces low amounts of H2O2 By that mechanism, Nox4 forces differentiation of cells and prevents inflammation. We hypothesize a constitutive low level of H2O2 maintains basal activity of cellular surveillance systems and is unlikely to be cancerogenic. Utilizing two different murine models of cancerogen-induced solid tumors, we found that deletion of Nox4 promotes tumor formation and lowers recognition of DNA damage. Nox4 supports phosphorylation of H2AX (γH2AX), a prerequisite of DNA damage recognition, by retaining a sufficiently low abundance of the phosphatase PP2A in the nucleus. The underlying mechanism is continuous oxidation of AKT by Nox4. Interaction of oxidized AKT and PP2A captures the phosphatase in the cytosol. Absence of Nox4 facilitates nuclear PP2A translocation and dephosphorylation of γH2AX. Simultaneously AKT is left phosphorylated. Thus, in the absence of Nox4, DNA damage is not recognized and the increased activity of AKT supports proliferation. The combination of both events results in genomic instability and promotes tumor formation. By identifying Nox4 as a protective source of ROS in cancerogen-induced cancer, we provide a piece of knowledge for understanding the role of moderate production of ROS in preventing the initiation of malignancies.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668084

RESUMO

The interaction of macrophages with apoptotic cells is required for efficient resolution of inflammation. While apoptotic cell removal prevents inflammation due to secondary necrosis, it also alters the macrophage phenotype to hinder further inflammatory reactions. The interaction between apoptotic cells and macrophages is often studied by chemical or biological induction of apoptosis, which may introduce artifacts by affecting the macrophages as well and/or triggering unrelated signaling pathways. Here, we set up a pure cell death system in which NIH 3T3 cells expressing dimerizable Caspase-8 were co-cultured with peritoneal macrophages in a transwell system. Phenotype changes in macrophages induced by apoptotic cells were evaluated by RNA sequencing, which revealed an unexpectedly dominant impact on macrophage proliferation. This was confirmed in functional assays with primary peritoneal macrophages and IC-21 macrophages. Moreover, inhibition of apoptosis during Zymosan-induced peritonitis in mice decreased mRNA levels of cell cycle mediators in peritoneal macrophages. Proliferation of macrophages in response to apoptotic cells may be important to increase macrophage numbers in order to allow efficient clearance and resolution of inflammation.

3.
Autophagy ; : 1-20, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461384

RESUMO

Increasing evidence suggests that induction of lethal macroautophagy/autophagy carries potential significance for the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM). In continuation of previous work, we demonstrate that pimozide and loperamide trigger an ATG5- and ATG7 (autophagy related 5 and 7)-dependent type of cell death that is significantly reduced with cathepsin inhibitors and the lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger α-tocopherol in MZ-54 GBM cells. Global proteomic analysis after treatment with both drugs also revealed an increase of proteins related to lipid and cholesterol metabolic processes. These changes were accompanied by a massive accumulation of cholesterol and other lipids in the lysosomal compartment, indicative of impaired lipid transport/degradation. In line with these observations, pimozide and loperamide treatment were associated with a pronounced increase of bioactive sphingolipids including ceramides, glucosylceramides and sphingoid bases measured by targeted lipidomic analysis. Furthermore, pimozide and loperamide inhibited the activity of SMPD1/ASM (sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1) and promoted induction of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), as well as release of CTSB (cathepsin B) into the cytosol in MZ-54 wild-type (WT) cells. Whereas LMP and cell death were significantly attenuated in ATG5 and ATG7 knockout (KO) cells, both events were enhanced by depletion of the lysophagy receptor VCP (valosin containing protein), supporting a pro-survival function of lysophagy under these conditions. Collectively, our data suggest that pimozide and loperamide-driven autophagy and lipotoxicity synergize to induce LMP and cell death. The results also support the notion that simultaneous overactivation of autophagy and induction of LMP represents a promising approach for the treatment of GBM. Abbreviations: ACD: autophagic cell death; AKT1: AKT serine/threonine kinase 1; ATG5: autophagy related 5; ATG7: autophagy related 7; ATG14: autophagy related 14; CERS1: ceramide synthase 1; CTSB: cathepsin B; CYBB/NOX2: cytochrome b-245 beta chain; ER: endoplasmatic reticulum; FBS: fetal bovine serum; GBM: glioblastoma; GO: gene ontology; HTR7/5-HT7: 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7; KD: knockdown; KO: knockout; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; LAP: LC3-associated phagocytosis; LMP: lysosomal membrane permeabilization; MAP1LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; RB1CC1: RB1 inducible coiled-coil 1; ROS: reactive oxygen species; RPS6: ribosomal protein S6; SMPD1/ASM: sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1; VCP/p97: valosin containing protein; WT: wild-type.

4.
EMBO Rep ; 22(2): e50163, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369872

RESUMO

Dynamic control of ubiquitination by deubiquitinating enzymes is essential for almost all biological processes. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 22 (USP22) is part of the SAGA complex and catalyzes the removal of mono-ubiquitination from histones H2A and H2B, thereby regulating gene transcription. However, novel roles for USP22 have emerged recently, such as tumor development and cell death. Apart from apoptosis, the relevance of USP22 in other programmed cell death pathways still remains unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for USP22 in controlling necroptotic cell death in human tumor cell lines. Loss of USP22 expression significantly delays TNFα/Smac mimetic/zVAD.fmk (TBZ)-induced necroptosis, without affecting TNFα-mediated NF-κB activation or extrinsic apoptosis. Ubiquitin remnant profiling identified receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) lysines 42, 351, and 518 as novel, USP22-regulated ubiquitination sites during necroptosis. Importantly, mutation of RIPK3 K518 reduced necroptosis-associated RIPK3 ubiquitination and amplified necrosome formation and necroptotic cell death. In conclusion, we identify a novel role of USP22 in necroptosis and further elucidate the relevance of RIPK3 ubiquitination as crucial regulator of necroptotic cell death.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244060, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338048

RESUMO

Ataxia-Telangiectasia (A-T), a pleiotropic chromosomal breakage syndrome, is caused by the loss of the kinase Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). ATM is not only involved in the response to DNA damage, but also in sensing and counteracting oxidative stress. Since a disturbed redox balance has been implicated in the pathophysiology of A-T lung disease, we aimed to further explore the interplay between ATM and oxidative stress in lung cells. Using a kinetic trapping approach, we could demonstrate an interaction between the trapping mutant TRX1-CS and ATM upon oxidative stress. We could further show that combined inhibition of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and ATM kinase activity, using Auranofin and KU55933 respectively, induced an increase in cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and protein oxidation in lung cells. Furthermore, ATM inhibition sensitized lung cells to Auranofin-induced cell death that could be rescued by ROS scavengers. As a consequence, targeted reduction of ATM by TRX1 could serve as a regulator of oxidative ATM activation and contribute to the maintenance of the cellular redox homeostasis. These results highlight the importance of the redox-active function of ATM in preventing ROS accumulation and cell death in lung cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/antagonistas & inibidores , Auranofina/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pironas/farmacologia , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/antagonistas & inibidores , Tiorredoxinas/genética , Tiorredoxinas/metabolismo
6.
Matrix Biol ; 2020 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321172

RESUMO

The conserved catabolic process of autophagy is an important control mechanism that degrades cellular organelles, debris and pathogens in autolysosomes. Although autophagy primarily protects against cellular insults, nutrient starvation or oxidative stress, hyper-activation of autophagy is also believed to cause autophagy-dependent cell death (ADCD). ADCD is a caspase-independent form of programmed cell death (PCD), characterized by an over-activation of autophagy, leading to prominent self-digestion of cellular material in autolysosomes beyond the point of cell survival. ADCD plays important roles in the development of lower organisms, but also in the response of cancer cells upon exposure of specific drugs or natural compounds. Importantly, the induction of ADCD as an alternative cell death pathway is of special interest in apoptosis-resistant cancer types and serves as an attractive and potential therapeutic option. Although the mechanisms of ADCD are diverse and not yet fully understood, both non-selective (bulk) autophagy and organelle-specific types of autophagy are believed to be involved in this type of cell death. Accordingly, several ADCD-inducing drugs are known to trigger severe mitochondrial damage and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, whereas the contribution of other cell organelles, like ribosomes or peroxisomes, to the control of ADCD is not well understood. In this review, we highlight the general mechanisms of ADCD and discuss the current evidence for mitochondria- and ER-specific killing mechanisms of ADCD-inducing drugs.

7.
Autophagy ; : 1-17, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111629

RESUMO

Selective degradation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER; reticulophagy) is a type of autophagy involved in the removal of ER fragments. So far, amino acid starvation as well as ER stress have been described as inducers of reticulophagy, which in turn restores cellular energy levels and ER homeostasis. Here, we explored the autophagy-inducing mechanisms that underlie the autophagic cell death (ACD)-triggering compound loperamide (LOP) in glioblastoma cells. Interestingly, LOP triggers upregulation of the transcription factor ATF4, which is accompanied by the induction of additional ER stress markers. Notably, knockout of ATF4 significantly attenuated LOP-induced autophagy and ACD. Functionally, LOP also specifically induces the engulfment of large ER fragments within autophagosomes and lysosomes as determined by electron and fluorescence microscopy. LOP-induced reticulophagy and cell death are predominantly mediated through the reticulophagy receptor RETREG1/FAM134B and, to a lesser extent, TEX264, confirming that reticulophagy receptors can promote ACD. Strikingly, apart from triggering LOP-induced autophagy and ACD, ATF4 is also required for LOP-induced reticulophagy. These observations highlight a key role for ATF4, RETREG1 and TEX264 in response to LOP-induced ER stress, reticulophagy and ACD, and establish a novel mechanistic link between ER stress and reticulophagy, with possible implications for additional models of drug-induced ER stress. Abbreviations: ACD: autophagic cell death; ATF6: activating transcription factor 6; ATL3: atlastin 3; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; CCPG1: cell cycle progression gene 1; co-IP: co-immunoprecipitation; DDIT3/CHOP: DNA damage inducible transcript 3; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; EIF2A/eIF2α: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2A; EIF2AK3/PERK: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3; ERN1/IRE1α: endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1; GABARAP: GABA type A receptor-associated protein; GBM: glioblastoma multiforme; HSPA5/BiP: heat shock protein family (Hsp70) member 5; LOP: loperamide; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; RETREG1/FAM134B: reticulophagy regulator 1; RTN3L: reticulon 3 long; SEC62: SEC62 homolog, protein translocation factor; TEX264: testis-expressed 264, reticulophagy receptor; UPR: unfolded protein response.

8.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(9): 806, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978371

RESUMO

Since online publication of this article, the authors noticed that Fig. 3b does not show the correct graph for Bortezomib. The corrected graph for Fig. 3b is provided below. This unintentional mistake does not alter the conclusions of the study. The authors apologise for any inconvenience caused.

9.
Cancer Lett ; 490: 76-88, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679165

RESUMO

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common soft-tissue sarcoma, is associated with a low 5-year survival and harsh treatment side effects, underscoring an urgent need for therapy. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, where three ER stress receptors, IRE1, PERK and ATF6, aim to restore cellular homeostasis. The UPR is pro-tumourigenic in many cancers. In this study, we investigate basal UPR activity in RMS. Basal activation of IRE1 and PERK was observed in RMS cell lines, which was diminished upon addition of the IRE1 RNase inhibitor, MKC8866, or PERK inhibitor, AMGEN44. UPR inhibition caused a reduction in cell viability, cell proliferation and inhibition of long-term colony formation in both subtypes of RMS. Alveolar RMS (ARMS) subtype was highly sensitive to IRE1 inhibition, whereas embryonal RMS (ERMS) subtypes responded more markedly to PERK inhibition. Further investigation revealed a robust activation of senescence upon UPR inhibition. For the first time, the UPR is implicated in RMS biology and phenotype, and inhibition of UPR signalling reduces cell growth, suggesting that the UPR may be a promising target in RMS.

10.
Cancer Lett ; 486: 46-57, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445837

RESUMO

Targeting the epigenome of cancer cells with the combination of Bromodomain and Extra Terminal (BET) protein inhibitors and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors has shown synergistic antitumor effects in several cancer types. In this study, we investigate the antitumor potential of the novel dual BET/HDAC inhibitor TW09 in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells. TW09 reduces cell viability, suppresses long-term clonogenic survival and induces cell death in RMS cells in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to BET/HDAC co-inhibition using JQ1 and MS-275, TW09 induces similar cell death at equimolar concentrations and regulates BET and HDAC target proteins (e.g. c-MYC, H3 acetylation). Mechanistic studies revealed that TW09 upregulates BIM, NOXA, PUMA and BMF, while downregulating BCL-XL, leading to proapoptotic rebalancing of BCL-2 proteins. This results in BAK and BAX activation and caspase-dependent apoptosis, since individual genetic silencing of BIM, NOXA, PUMA, BMF, BAK or BAX, overexpression of BCL-2 or the caspase inhibition with zVAD.fmk all rescue JQ1/BYL719-induced cell death. In conclusion, TW09 shows potent antitumor activity in RMS cells in vitro by inducing mitochondrial apoptosis and may represent a promising new therapeutic option for the treatment of RMS.

11.
J Leukoc Biol ; 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401398

RESUMO

TNFR1 is a crucial regulator of NF-ĸB-mediated proinflammatory cell survival responses and programmed cell death (PCD). Deregulation of TNFα- and TNFR1-controlled NF-ĸB signaling underlies major diseases, like cancer, inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, although being routinely used, antagonists of TNFα might also affect TNFR2-mediated processes, so that alternative approaches to directly antagonize TNFR1 are beneficial. Here, we apply quantitative single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) of TNFR1 in physiologic cellular settings to validate and characterize TNFR1 inhibitory substances, exemplified by the recently described TNFR1 antagonist zafirlukast. Treatment of TNFR1-mEos2 reconstituted TNFR1/2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with zafirlukast inhibited both ligand-independent preligand assembly domain (PLAD)-mediated TNFR1 dimerization as well as TNFα-induced TNFR1 oligomerization. In addition, zafirlukast-mediated inhibition of TNFR1 clustering was accompanied by deregulation of acute and prolonged NF-ĸB signaling in reconstituted TNFR1-mEos2 MEFs and human cervical carcinoma cells. These findings reveal the necessity of PLAD-mediated, ligand-independent TNFR1 dimerization for NF-ĸB activation, highlight the PLAD as central regulator of TNFα-induced TNFR1 oligomerization, and demonstrate that TNFR1-mEos2 MEFs can be used to investigate TNFR1-antagonizing compounds employing single-molecule quantification and functional NF-ĸB assays at physiologic conditions.

12.
Transl Oncol ; 13(8): 100785, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416440

RESUMO

Ferroptosis, a newly discovered form of cell death mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation, has recently been shown to have an impact on various cancer types; however, so far there are only few studies about its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The delicate equilibrium of ROS in cancer cells has found to be crucial for cell survival, thus increased levels may trigger ferroptosis in HCC. In our study, we investigated the effect of different ROS modulators and ferroptosis inducers on a human HCC cell line and a human hepatoblastoma cell line. We identified a novel synergistic cell death induction by the combination of Auranofin and buthionine sulfoxime (BSO) or by Erastin and BSO at subtoxic concentrations. We found a caspase-independent, redox-regulated cell death, which could be rescued by different inhibitors of ferroptosis. Both cotreatments stimulated lipid peroxidation. All these findings indicated ferroptotic cell death. Both cotreatments affected the canonical ferroptosis pathway through GPX4 downregulation. We also found an accumulation of Nrf2 and HO-1, indicating an additional effect on the non-canonical pathway. Our results implicate that targeting these two main ferroptotic pathways simultaneously can overcome chemotherapy resistance in HCC.

13.
Oncogene ; 39(19): 3837-3852, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161312

RESUMO

Remodeling transcription by targeting bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins has emerged as promising anticancer strategy. Here, we identify a novel synergistic interaction of the BET inhibitor JQ1 with the PI3Kα-specific inhibitor BYL719 to trigger mitochondrial apoptosis and to suppress tumor growth in models of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). RNA-Seq revealed that JQ1/BYL719 co-treatment shifts the overall balance of BCL-2 family gene expression towards apoptosis and upregulates expression of BMF, BCL2L11 (BIM), and PMAIP1 (NOXA) while downregulating BCL2L1 (BCL-xL). These changes were confirmed by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) of RNA-Seq data followed by validation qRT-PCR and western blot identified MYC and FOXO3a as potential transcription factors (TFs) upstream of the observed gene expression pattern. Immunoprecipitation (IP) studies showed that JQ1/BYL719-stimulated increase in BIM expression enhances the neutralization of antiapoptotic BCL-2, BCL-xL, and MCL-1. This promotes the activation of BAK and BAX and caspase-dependent apoptosis, as (1) individual silencing of BMF, BIM, NOXA, BAK, or BAX, (2) overexpression of BCL-2 or MCL-1 or (3) the caspase inhibitor N-Benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(O-Me) fluoromethylketone (zVAD.fmk) all rescue JQ1/BYL719-induced cell death. In conclusion, co-inhibition of BET proteins and PI3Kα cooperatively induces mitochondrial apoptosis by proapoptotic re-balancing of BCL-2 family proteins. This discovery opens exciting perspectives for therapeutic exploitation of BET inhibitors in RMS.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Rabdomiossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Azepinas/farmacologia , Proteína 11 Semelhante a Bcl-2/genética , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/genética , RNA-Seq , Rabdomiossarcoma/genética , Rabdomiossarcoma/patologia , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Triazóis/farmacologia , Proteína bcl-X/genética
14.
Cancer Lett ; 482: 19-32, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145345

RESUMO

With the development of potent and selective inhibitors of MCL-1 (S63845) and BCL-XL (A-1331852) novel cancer treatment options have emerged. BCL-2 family proteins are important regulators of apoptosis in pediatric solid tumors. In the current study, we discover that rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma and neuroblastoma cell lines are co-dependent on BCL-XL and MCL-1 for survival. A-1331852/S63845 co-treatment, but not combinations of either inhibitor with ABT-199, synergistically induces rapid intrinsic apoptosis in vitro and demonstrates efficiency in an in vivo embryonic chicken model of rhabdomyosarcoma. Interestingly, A-1331852/S63845-induced apoptosis is BAX/BAK-dependent and mediated by displacement of BAK from BCL-XL and MCL-1, respectively. Moreover, BAK interacts with BAX to build a pore-forming complex in the outer mitochondrial membrane, leading to loss of mitochondrial outer membrane potential and caspase activation. Furthermore, in RD cells A-1331852/S63845 co-treatment disrupts BIM and NOXA in their interactions with BCL-XL and MCL-1, respectively, thereby contributing to apoptosis. Altogether, this study is the first to demonstrate the potency of A-1331852/S63845 in pediatric solid tumor cells and to describe the molecular mechanisms of A-1331852/S63845 co-treatment underlining the potential of BCL-XL and MCL-1 inhibition as treatment regime.

15.
Br J Cancer ; 122(10): 1544-1551, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite advances in the treatment of neuroblastoma, patients with high-risk disease still have dismal survival prognosis. Neuroblastoma cells display elevated expression of the antiapoptotic BCL-2 proteins, suggesting that BH3-mimetics may be a promising treatment option. Here, we investigated the role of BCL-2, BCL-XL and MCL-1 in neuroblastoma. METHODS: A panel of neuroblastoma cell lines and primary patient-derived cells were exposed to BH3-mimetics targeting BCL-2 (ABT-199), BCL-XL (A1331852) or MCL-1 (S63845). In addition, protein expression and interaction patterns were analysed using Western blotting and immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: All tested BH3-mimetics were able to induce apoptosis in neuroblastoma cell lines, indicating that not only BCL-2 but also BCL-XL and MCL-1 may be promising therapeutic targets. Primary patient-derived cells displayed highest sensitivity to A1331852, highlighting the important role of BCL-XL in neuroblastoma. Further analysis into the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis revealed that A1331852 and S63845 displaced proapoptotic proteins like BIM and BAK from their antiapoptotic targets, subsequently leading to the activation of BAX and BAK and caspase-dependent apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: By using selective BH3-mimetics, this study demonstrates that BCL-2, BCL-XL, and MCL-1 are all relevant therapeutic targets in neuroblastoma. A1331852 and S63845 induce rapid apoptosis that is initiated following a displacement of BAK from BCL-XL or MCL-1, respectively.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 147(5): 1485-1498, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170726

RESUMO

Copy number gains and increased expression levels of cellular Inhibitor of Apoptosis protein (cIAP)1 and cIAP2 have been identified in primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) tissues. Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac) mimetics were designed to antagonize IAP proteins. However, since their effect as single agents is limited, combination treatment represents a strategy for their clinical development. Therefore, we investigated the Smac mimetic BV6 in combination with proteasome inhibitors and analyzed the molecular mechanisms of action. We discovered that BV6 treatment sensitizes DLBCL cells to proteasome inhibition. We show a synergistic decrease in cell viability and induction of apoptosis by BV6/Carfilzomib (CFZ) treatment, which was confirmed by calculation of combination index (CI) and Bliss score. BV6 and CFZ acted together to trigger activation of BAX and BAK, which facilitated cell death, as knockdown of BAX and BAK significantly reduced BV6/CFZ-mediated cell death. Activation of BAX and BAK was accompanied by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and activation of caspases. Pretreatment with the caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD.fmk) rescued BV6/CFZ-induced cell death, confirming caspase dependency. Treatment with CFZ alone or in combination with BV6 caused accumulation of NOXA, which was required for cell death, as gene silencing by siRNA or Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated NOXA inactivation inhibited BV6/CFZ-induced cell death. Together, these experiments indicate that BV6 and CFZ cooperatively induce apoptotic cell death via the mitochondrial pathway. These findings emphasize the role of Smac mimetics for sensitizing DLBCL cells to proteasome inhibition with important implications for further (pre)clinical studies.

17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously, we used inhibitors blocking BET bromodomain binding proteins (BRDs) in Ewing sarcoma (EwS) and observed that long term treatment resulted in the development of resistance. Here, we analyze the possible interaction of BRD4 with cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 9. METHODS: Co-immunoprecipitation experiments (CoIP) to characterize BRD4 interaction and functional consequences of inhibiting transcriptional elongation were assessed using drugs targeting of BRD4 or CDK9, either alone or in combination. RESULTS: CoIP revealed an interaction of BRD4 with EWS-FLI1 and CDK9 in EwS. Treatment of EwS cells with CDKI-73, a specific CDK9 inhibitor (CDK9i), induced a rapid downregulation of EWS-FLI1 expression and block of contact-dependent growth. CDKI-73 induced apoptosis in EwS, as depicted by cleavage of Caspase 7 (CASP7), PARP and increased CASP3 activity, similar to JQ1. Microarray analysis following CDKI-73 treatment uncovered a transcriptional program that was only partially comparable to BRD inhibition. Strikingly, combined treatment of EwS with BRD- and CDK9-inhibitors re-sensitized cells, and was overall more effective than individual drugs not only in vitro but also in a preclinical mouse model in vivo. CONCLUSION: Treatment with BRD inhibitors in combination with CDK9i offers a new treatment option that significantly blocks the pathognomonic EWS-ETS transcriptional program and malignant phenotype of EwS.

18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 687, 2020 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959760

RESUMO

Induction of autophagy can have beneficial effects in several human diseases, e.g. cancer and neurodegenerative diseases (ND). Here, we therefore evaluated the potential of two novel autophagy-inducing compounds, i.e. STF-62247 and pimozide, to stimulate autophagy as well as autophagic cell death (ACD) using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as a cellular model. Importantly, both STF-62247 and pimozide triggered several hallmarks of autophagy in MEFs, i.e. enhanced levels of LC3B-II protein, its accumulation at distinct cytosolic sites and increase of the autophagic flux. Intriguingly, autophagy induction by STF-62247 and pimozide resulted in cell death that was significantly reduced in ATG5- or ATG7-deficient MEFs. Consistent with ACD induction, pharmacological inhibitors of apoptosis, necroptosis or ferroptosis failed to protect MEFs from STF-62247- or pimozide-triggered cell death. Interestingly, at subtoxic concentrations, pimozide stimulated fragmentation of the mitochondrial network, degradation of mitochondrial proteins (i.e. mitofusin-2 and cytochrome c oxidase IV (COXIV)) as well as a decrease of the mitochondrial mass, indicative of autophagic degradation of mitochondria by pimozide. In conclusion, this study provides novel insights into the induction of selective autophagy as well as ACD by STF-62247 and pimozide in MEFs.


Assuntos
Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Fibroblastos/citologia , Pimozida/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Tiazóis/efeitos adversos , Animais , Morte Celular Autofágica , Autofagia , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Camundongos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Proteólise
19.
Sci Signal ; 13(614)2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937565

RESUMO

Ligand-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) activation controls nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling, cell proliferation, programmed cell death, and survival and is crucially involved in inflammation, autoimmune disorders, and cancer progression. Despite the relevance of TNFR1 clustering for signaling, oligomerization of ligand-free and ligand-activated TNFR1 remains controversial. At present, models range from ligand-independent receptor predimerization to ligand-induced oligomerization. Here, we used quantitative, single-molecule superresolution microscopy to study TNFR1 assembly directly in native cellular settings and at physiological cell surface abundance. In the absence of its ligand TNFα, TNFR1 assembled into monomeric and dimeric receptor units. Upon binding of TNFα, TNFR1 clustered predominantly not only into trimers but also into higher-order oligomers. A functional mutation in the preligand assembly domain of TNFR1 resulted in only monomeric TNFR1, which exhibited impaired ligand binding. In contrast, a form of TNFR1 with a mutation in the ligand-binding CRD2 subdomain retained the monomer-to-dimer ratio of the unliganded wild-type TNFR1 but exhibited no ligand binding. These results underscore the importance of ligand-independent TNFR1 dimerization in NF-κB signaling.

20.
Int J Cancer ; 146(12): 3435-3449, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755110

RESUMO

Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), a histone lysine demethylase with the main specificity for H3K4me2, has been shown to be overexpressed in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) tumor samples. However, its role in RMS biology is not yet well understood. Here, we identified a new role of LSD1 in regulating adhesion of RMS cells. Genetic knockdown of LSD1 profoundly suppressed clonogenic growth in a panel of RMS cell lines, whereas LSD1 proved to be largely dispensable for regulating cell death and short-term survival. Combined RNA and ChIP-sequencing performed to analyze RNA expression and histone methylation at promoter regions revealed a gene set enrichment for adhesion-associated terms upon LSD1 knockdown. Consistently, LSD1 knockdown significantly reduced adhesion to untreated surfaces. Importantly, precoating of the plates with the adhesives collagen I or fibronectin rescued this reduced adhesion of LSD1 knockdown cells back to levels of control cells. Using KEGG pathway analysis, we identified 17 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in LSD1 knockdown cells related to adhesion processes, which were validated by qRT-PCR. Combining RNA and ChIP-sequencing results revealed that, within this set of genes, SPP1, C3AR1, ITGA10 and SERPINE1 also exhibited increased H3K4me2 levels at their promoter regions in LSD1 knockdown compared to control cells. Indeed, LSD1 ChIP experiments confirmed enrichment of LSD1 at their promoter regions, suggesting a direct transcriptional regulation by LSD1. By identifying a new role of LSD1 in the modulation of cell adhesion and clonogenic growth of RMS cells, these findings highlight the importance of LSD1 in RMS.

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