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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919711

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pulmonary manifestations are common in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) but the prevalence, specific diseases, and their patterns are not well characterized. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of pulmonary diseases reported in the database of the United States Immunodeficiency Network (USIDNET), a program of the Immune Deficiency Foundation. PIDs were categorized into 10 groups and their demographics, pulmonary diagnoses and procedures, infections, prophylaxis regimens, and laboratory findings were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 1937 patients with various PIDs (39.3% of total patients, 49.6% male, average age 37.9 years (SD = 22.4 years)) were noted to have a pulmonary disease comorbidity. Pulmonary diseases were categorized into broad categories: airway (86.8%), parenchymal (18.5%), pleural (4.6%), vascular (4.3%), and other (13.9%) disorders. Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) accounted for almost half of PIDs associated with airway, parenchymal, and other pulmonary disorders. Pulmonary procedures performed in 392 patients were mostly diagnostic (77.3%) or therapeutic (16.3%). These patients were receiving a wide variety of treatments, which included immunoglobulin replacement (82.1%), immunosuppressive (32.2%), anti-inflammatory (12.7%), biologic (9.3%), and cytokine (7.6%)-based therapies. Prophylactic therapy was being given with antibiotics (18.1%), antifungal (3.3%), and antiviral (2.2%) medications, and 7.1% of patients were on long-term oxygen therapy due to advanced lung disease. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary manifestations are common in individuals with PID, but long-term pulmonary outcomes are not well known in this group of patients. Further longitudinal follow-up will help to define long-term prognosis of respiratory comorbidities and optimal treatment modalities.

2.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 17(1): 61, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the increased use of rituximab in treating pediatric patients with autoimmune diseases in the last decade, there are limited data on rituximab safety in those subjects who have a developing immune system. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of hypogammaglobulinemia in children with autoimmune disease receiving rituximab within the first three years of treatment in the pediatric rheumatology clinic at a tertiary care center. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 63 pediatric subjects who received rituximab for the treatment of their autoimmune disease. Immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) levels, immunosuppressive medication and the need for immunoglobulin replacement therapy were evaluated. Hypogammaglobulinemia was defined as a serum IgG level less than two standard deviations below the mean for age-matched healthy controls. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients (44%) were found to have hypogammaglobulinemia. Hypogammaglobulinemia occurred within the first six months of rituximab treatment in the majority of patients (22 out of 28). The occurrence of hypogammaglobulinemia varied based on the rituximab indication: 46% pediatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), 71% autoimmune CNS disease, 60% ANCA vasculitis, and 12% in the miscellaneous group. Autoimmune CNS disease had more severe hypogammaglobulinemia, more persistent and was associated with more frequent or severe infections. Three patients with autoimmune CNS disease and one with SLE were given IgG replacement therapy to prevent recurrent or severe infections. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of hypogammaglobulinemia in rituximab treated children with autoimmune disease seems to be higher than published data for adults, especially for children with autoimmune CNS disease. The onset of hypogammaglobulinemia is usually within six months of initiation of rituximab therapy. We recommend: 1) obtaining an IgG level prior to starting rituximab; 2) close monitoring for hypogammaglobulinemia after the use of rituximab in pediatric patients and 3) early institution of immunoglobulin replacement therapy if patients develop recurrent infections.

3.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(6): 569-576, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250334

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chronic lung disease is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). While biomarkers exist to predict non-infectious complications, the unique features that define CVID patients with chronic lung disease are not well understood. METHODS: We analyzed data from CVID patients from the retrospective USIDNET (United States Immunodeficiency Network) patient database. Patients were categorized into 3 phenotypes for comparison: (1) CVID without chronic lung disease, (2) CVID with bronchiectasis only, and (3) CVID with interstitial lung disease (ILD) with or without bronchiectasis. Among these groups, differences were assessed in demographics, comorbidities, infections, treatments, and peripheral blood immune measures. We analyzed 1518 CVID patients which included 1233 (81.2%) without chronic lung disease, 147 (9.7%) with bronchiectasis only, and 138 (9.1%) with interstitial lung disease. RESULTS: Patients with ILD had lower CD3+ cell counts (P = .001), CD4+ cell counts (P < .05), and CD8+ cell counts (P < .001) compared with patients without lung disease. Additionally, there was significantly more CVID patients with ILD with pneumonia (P < .001), herpes viruses (P = .01) and fungal infections (P < .001) compared with patients with CVID without chronic lung disease. CONCLUSION: This analysis suggests that patients with chronic lung disease may be more likely to have lower peripheral T cell counts and complications of those defects compared with CVID patients without chronic lung disease.

4.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(4): 440-447, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089938

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pulmonary complications occur frequently in primary antibody deficiency (PAD). While the impact of antibody deficiency may appear implicit for certain respiratory infections, immunoglobulin replacement therapy does not completely ameliorate pulmonary complications in PAD. Thus, there may be antibody-independent factors influencing susceptibility to respiratory disease in PAD, but these remain incompletely defined. METHODS: We harnessed the multicenter US Immunodeficiency Network primary immunodeficiency registry to compare prevalence of asthma, bronchiectasis, interstitial lung disease (ILD), and respiratory infections between two forms of PAD: common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and x-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). We also defined the clinical and immunological characteristics associated with ILD and asthma in CVID. RESULTS: Asthma, bronchiectasis, ILD, pneumonia, and upper respiratory infections were more prevalent in CVID than XLA. ILD was associated with autoimmunity, bronchiectasis, and pneumonia as well as fewer B and T cells in CVID. Asthma was the most common chronic pulmonary complication and associated with lower IgA and IgM in CVID. Age of symptom onset or CVID diagnosis was unrelated with ILD or asthma. CONCLUSION: Despite having less severe immunoglobulin deficiency than XLA, respiratory infections, ILD, and asthma were more common in CVID. Among CVID patients, ILD was associated with autoimmunity and reduced lymphocytes and asthma with lower immunoglobulins. Though our results are tempered by registry limitations, they provide evidence that factors beyond lack of antibody promote pulmonary complications in PAD. Efforts to understand how genetic etiology, nature of concurrent T cell deficiency, and propensity for autoimmunity shape pulmonary disease may improve treatment of PAD.

5.
Blood ; 133(18): 1977-1988, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723080

RESUMO

Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (RAC2), through interactions with reduced NAD phosphate oxidase component p67 phox , activates neutrophil superoxide production, whereas interactions with p21-activated kinase are necessary for fMLF-induced actin remodeling. We identified 3 patients with de novo RAC2[E62K] mutations resulting in severe T- and B-cell lymphopenia, myeloid dysfunction, and recurrent respiratory infections. Neutrophils from RAC2[E62K] patients exhibited excessive superoxide production, impaired fMLF-directed chemotaxis, and abnormal macropinocytosis. Cell lines transfected with RAC2[E62K] displayed characteristics of active guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound RAC2 including enhanced superoxide production and increased membrane ruffling. Biochemical studies demonstrated that RAC2[E62K] retains intrinsic GTP hydrolysis; however, GTPase-activating protein failed to accelerate hydrolysis resulting in prolonged active GTP-bound RAC2. Rac2+/E62K mice phenocopy the T- and B-cell lymphopenia, increased neutrophil F-actin, and excessive superoxide production seen in patients. This gain-of-function mutation highlights a specific, nonredundant role for RAC2 in hematopoietic cells that discriminates RAC2 from the related, ubiquitous RAC1.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Proteínas rac de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Citoesqueleto/patologia , Feminino , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Linfopenia/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linhagem , Proteínas rac de Ligação ao GTP/imunologia
6.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(6): 717-726, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043271

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Granulomas are a potentially severe condition that can last for several years in persons with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDD). We assessed the prevalence of granulomas in patients with PIDD. METHODS: We used the Truven Health MarketScan® 2005-2015 Commercial Claims and Encounters and 2006-2015 Medicaid databases and the US Immunodeficiency Network (USIDNET) PIDD registry (a program of the Immune Deficiency Foundation). Our study population consisted of persons age < 65 years with PIDD, defined as persons with ≥ 2 claims with a diagnostic code for PIDD in MarketScan databases, or patients enrolled in USIDNET. Granulomas were identified using diagnostic codes in MarketScan or provider report in USIDNET. We calculated annual prevalence of PIDD and of granulomas among PIDD patients. RESULTS: We identified 247,474 and 40,395 persons with PIDD among commercially and Medicaid-insured persons, respectively. PIDD prevalence was 6.0/10,000 in 2005 and 11.7/10,000 in 2015 among commercially insured persons and 5.5/10,000 in 2006 and 9.6/10,000 in 2015 among Medicaid-insured persons. The prevalence of granulomas among PIDD patients was 1.2 and 1.5% among commercially and Medicaid-insured persons, respectively. In USIDNET, prevalence of granulomas was 4.4% (177/4021). The proportion with granulomas was similar across age groups in MarketScan, but varied from 2 to 9% in USIDNET. The reported prevalence of granulomas differed depending on PIDD condition: 1-2% in the MarketScan data and 0-13% in USIDNET. CONCLUSION: Granuloma prevalence in PIDD patients was 1-4%. Our study provides an estimate of the proportion of PIDD patients and suggests that granulomas are an uncommon occurrence among patients with PIDD.


Assuntos
Granuloma/complicações , Granuloma/epidemiologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 48(2): 318-326, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599028

RESUMO

Patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have a higher incidence of rheumatologic disorders. To delineate this clinical association, we investigated the phenotypic features of patients with CVID affected by these conditions. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 870 pediatric and adult patients with CVID included in the United States Immunodeficiency Network (USIDNET) registry. Outcomes included clinical characteristics (age, gender, ethnicity, rheumatologic diagnosis, and comorbidities), infectious history and basic immunophenotype (serum immunoglobulin levels, CD19+ B cells, and CD4/CD8 ratio) in patients with CVID and rheumatologic disorders compared to those with non-inflammatory CVID. Demographic and clinical data were compared using chi-square, Fisher's exact or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests. Non-parametric tests, single and multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between CVID-associated rheumatologic disorders and basic immunophenotypic parameters (IgA, IgM, CD19+ B-cell counts, and CD4/CD8 ratios). RESULTS: Physician-reported rheumatic diseases were present in 5.9% of patients with CVID (n = 51) included in the registry. Although CVID affects both sexes equally, and patients are of predominantly White-Caucasian ethnicity, there were more females (3.3:1 female to male ratio) and increased proportion of non-white patients in the rheumatologic disease group (p < 0.05). Specific disorders included: inflammatory arthritis (n = 18), Sjogren's syndrome (n = 11), SLE (n = 8), Raynaud's syndrome (n = 8), vasculitis (n = 9), MCTD (n = 3), and other (n = 5). In about one-third of patients, a rheumatologic condition was associated with an additional inflammatory complication or malignancy. In regards to the immunophenotype parameters compared (CD19+ B-cell counts, CD4/CD8 ratio, IgA, and IgM), no significant differences were demonstrated between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the coexistence of primary antibody immunodeficiencies and systemic rheumatologic disorders, describe the spectrum of rheumatologic manifestations, and contrast differences in relevant demographic, clinical and immunophenotype parameters in the largest registry of CVID patients in the U.S. In spite of its limitations, our study details the intersection of systemic autoimmunity and CVID and provides valuable insights into these two groups of disorders. Further delineating the link between systemic autoimmunity and humoral immunodeficiencies can provide novel insights into the immune abnormalities underlying these related conditions.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(3): 225-233, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29453744

RESUMO

Although small prior studies have suggested that IgE can be low in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the workup for patients with recurrent infections and suspected hypogammaglobulinemia does not include the routine measurement of serum IgE. We sought to test the hypothesis that low/undetectable serum IgE is characteristic of CVID by comparing the frequency of low/undetectable serum IgE in healthy controls and patients with CVID. We measured total serum IgE in a large multi-center cohort of patients with CVID (n = 354) and compared this to large population-based cohorts of children and adults. We further compared IgE levels in patients with CVID to those with other forms of humoral immunodeficiency, and in a subset, measured levels of allergen-specific serum IgE and IgG subclasses. Lastly, we evaluated for the presence of IgE in commercially available immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT) products. An undetectable serum IgE (< 2 IU/ml) occurs in only 3.3% (95% CI, 1.9-5.7%) of the general population. In contrast, an undetectable IgE occurs in 75.6% (95% CI, 65.6-85.7%) of patients with CVID. Conversely, a high IgE (> 180 IU/ml) is very uncommon in CVID (0.3% of patients). IgE is > 2 IU/ml in 91.2% of patients with secondary hypogammaglobulinemia, and thus, an IgE < LLOD is suggestive of a primary humoral immunodeficiency. Allergen-specific IgE is not detectable in 96.5% of patients with CVID. Sufficient quantities of IgE to change the total serum IgE are not contained in IgRT. The IgG1/IgG4 ratio is increased in subjects with low IgE, regardless of whether they are controls or have CVID. These findings support the routine measurement of serum IgE in the workup of patients with hypogammaglobulinemia.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Alérgenos/imunologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/sangue , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(1): 28-34, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29080979

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Autoimmune cytopenia is frequently a presenting manifestation of common variable immune deficiency (CVID). Studies characterizing the CVID phenotype associated with autoimmune cytopenias have mostly been limited to large referral centers. Here, we report prevalence of autoimmune cytopenias in CVID from the USIDNET Registry and compare the demographics and clinical features of patients with and without this complication. METHODS: Investigators obtained demographic, laboratory, and clinical data on CVID patients within the USIDNET Registry. Patients were considered to have autoimmune cytopenia if they had a diagnosis of hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), or autoimmune neutropenia. Baseline characteristics and associated complications of those with autoimmune cytopenia (+AC) and those without (-AC) were compared. RESULTS: Of 990 CVID patients included in the analysis, 10.2% (N = 101) had a diagnosis consistent with autoimmune cytopenia: ITP was diagnosed in 7.4% (N = 73), hemolytic anemia in 4.5% (N = 45), and autoimmune neutropenia in 1% (N = 10). Age at diagnosis, gender, and baseline Ig values did not differ between the +AC and -AC groups. The +AC group was significantly more likely to have one or more other CVID-associated non-infectious complications (OR = 2.9; 95%-CI: 1.9-4.6, P < 0.001), including lymphoproliferation, granulomatous disease, lymphomas, hepatic disease, interstitial lung diseases, enteropathy, and organ-specific autoimmunity. CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmune cytopenias are a common manifestation in CVID and are likely to be associated with other non-infectious CVID-related conditions. In light of prior studies showing increased morbidity and mortality in CVID patients with such complications, a diagnosis of autoimmune cytopenia may have prognostic significance in CVID.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica/epidemiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/epidemiologia , Neutropenia/epidemiologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Hemolítica/diagnóstico , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Criança , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neutropenia/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/diagnóstico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 6(3): 996-1001, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28939137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) is a rare condition. OBJECTIVE: Data from the USIDNET Registry provide a resource to examine the characteristics of patients with rare immune deficiency diseases. METHODS: A query was submitted to the USIDNET requesting deidentified data for patients with physician-diagnosed AD-HIES through July 2016. RESULTS: Data on 85 patients diagnosed with AD-HIES (50 males; 35 females) born between 1950 and 2013, collected by 14 physicians from 25 states and Quebec, were entered into the USIDNET Registry by July 2016. Cumulative follow-up was 2157 years. Of these patients, 45.9% had a family history of HIES. The complications reported included skin abscesses (74.4%), eczema (57.7%), retained primary teeth (41.4%), fractures (39%), scoliosis (34.1%), and cancer (7%). Reported allergic diseases included food (37.8%), environmental (18%), and drugs (42.7%). The mean serum IgE level was 8383.7 kU/mL and was inversely correlated to the patient's age. A total of 49.4% had eosinophilia; 56% were known to be on trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 26.6% on antifungal coverage, and 30.6% on immunoglobulin replacement therapy. Pneumonias were more commonly attributed to Staphylococcus aureus (55.3%) or Aspergillus fumigatus (22.4%); 19.5% had a history of lung abscess; these were most often associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P Fisher's exact test = .029) or A. fumigatus (P Fisher's exact test = .016). Lung abscesses were significantly associated with drug reactions (P χ2 = .01; odds ratio: 4.03 [1.2-12.97]), depression (P Fisher's exact test = .036), and lower Karnofsky index scores (P Mann-Whitney = .007). DISCUSSION: Data from the USIDNET Registry summarize the currently reported clinical characteristics of a large cohort of subjects with AD-HIES.


Assuntos
Aspergillus fumigatus/fisiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Job/imunologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Sistema de Registros , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Pele/patologia , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Dente/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eosinofilia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Síndrome de Job/epidemiologia , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(3): 1028-1035, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28606585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the overall and site-specific incidence of cancer in subjects with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD) enrolled in the United States Immune Deficiency Network (USIDNET) registry compared with age-adjusted cancer incidence in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) database. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that subjects with PIDD would have an increased incidence of cancer due to impaired immune function. METHODS: Overall and site-specific cancer incidence rates were evaluated in subjects with PIDD (n = 3658) enrolled in the USIDNET registry from 2003 to 2015 and compared with age-adjusted incidence rates in the SEER database. RESULTS: We observed a 1.42-fold excess relative risk of cancer in subjects with PIDD compared with the age-adjusted SEER population (P < .001). Men with PIDD had a 1.91-fold excess relative risk of cancer compared with the age-adjusted male population (P < .001), while women with PIDD had similar overall cancer rates compared with the age-adjusted female population. Of the 4 most common malignancies in men and women in SEER (lung, colon, breast, and prostate cancers), we found no significant increase in these diagnoses in subjects with PIDD. Significant increases in lymphoma in both men (10-fold increase, P < .001) and women (8.34-fold increase, P < .001) with PIDD were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Excess incidence of cancer occurred in subjects with PIDD. An excess of lymphoma in specific PIDD populations principally drove this increased incidence, while no increased risk of the most common solid tumor malignancies was observed. These data point to a restricted role of the immune system in protecting from specific cancers.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Programa de SEER , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Front Immunol ; 8: 1740, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29375540

RESUMO

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is increasingly recognized for its association with autoimmune and inflammatory complications. Despite recent advances in immunophenotypic and genetic discovery, clinical care of CVID remains limited by our inability to accurately model risk for non-infectious disease development. Herein, we demonstrate the utility of unbiased network clustering as a novel method to analyze inter-relationships between non-infectious disease outcomes in CVID using databases at the United States Immunodeficiency Network (USIDNET), the centralized immunodeficiency registry of the United States, and Partners, a tertiary care network in Boston, MA, USA, with a shared electronic medical record amenable to natural language processing. Immunophenotypes were comparable in terms of native antibody deficiencies, low titer response to pneumococcus, and B cell maturation arrest. However, recorded non-infectious disease outcomes were more substantial in the Partners cohort across the spectrum of lymphoproliferation, cytopenias, autoimmunity, atopy, and malignancy. Using unbiased network clustering to analyze 34 non-infectious disease outcomes in the Partners cohort, we further identified unique patterns of lymphoproliferative (two clusters), autoimmune (two clusters), and atopic (one cluster) disease that were defined as CVID non-infectious endotypes according to discrete and non-overlapping immunophenotypes. Markers were both previously described {high serum IgE in the atopic cluster [odds ratio (OR) 6.5] and low class-switched memory B cells in the total lymphoproliferative cluster (OR 9.2)} and novel [low serum C3 in the total lymphoproliferative cluster (OR 5.1)]. Mortality risk in the Partners cohort was significantly associated with individual non-infectious disease outcomes as well as lymphoproliferative cluster 2, specifically (OR 5.9). In contrast, unbiased network clustering failed to associate known comorbidities in the adult USIDNET cohort. Together, these data suggest that unbiased network clustering can be used in CVID to redefine non-infectious disease inter-relationships; however, applicability may be limited to datasets well annotated through mechanisms such as natural language processing. The lymphoproliferative, autoimmune, and atopic Partners CVID endotypes herein described can be used moving forward to streamline genetic and biomarker discovery and to facilitate early screening and intervention in CVID patients at highest risk for autoimmune and inflammatory progression.

14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(4): 1282-1292, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27697500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHIGM) is a primary immunodeficiency with high morbidity and mortality compared with those seen in healthy subjects. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been considered a curative therapy, but the procedure has inherent complications and might not be available for all patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to collect data on the clinical presentation, treatment, and follow-up of a large sample of patients with XHIGM to (1) compare long-term overall survival and general well-being of patients treated with or without HCT along with clinical factors associated with mortality and (2) summarize clinical practice and risk factors in the subgroup of patients treated with HCT. METHODS: Physicians caring for patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases were identified through the Jeffrey Modell Foundation, United States Immunodeficiency Network, Latin American Society for Immunodeficiency, and Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium. Data were collected with a Research Electronic Data Capture Web application. Survival from time of diagnosis or transplantation was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method compared with log-rank tests and modeled by using proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Twenty-eight clinical sites provided data on 189 patients given a diagnosis of XHIGM between 1964 and 2013; 176 had valid follow-up and vital status information. Sixty-seven (38%) patients received HCT. The average follow-up time was 8.5 ± 7.2 years (range, 0.1-36.2 years). No difference in overall survival was observed between patients treated with or without HCT (P = .671). However, risk associated with HCT decreased for diagnosis years 1987-1995; the hazard ratio was significantly less than 1 for diagnosis years 1995-1999. Liver disease was a significant predictor of overall survival (hazard ratio, 4.9; 95% confidence limits, 2.2-10.8; P < .001). Among survivors, those treated with HCT had higher median Karnofsky/Lansky scores than those treated without HCT (P < .001). Among patients receiving HCT, 27 (40%) had graft-versus-host disease, and most deaths occurred within 1 year of transplantation. CONCLUSION: No difference in survival was observed between patients treated with or without HCT across all diagnosis years (1964-2013). However, survivors treated with HCT experienced somewhat greater well-being, and hazards associated with HCT decreased, reaching levels of significantly less risk in the late 1990s. Among patients treated with HCT, treatment at an early age is associated with improved survival. Optimism remains guarded as additional evidence accumulates.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
N Engl J Med ; 375(25): 2501, 2016 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28002708
17.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 63(11): 2011-8, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27327360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza is a health risk to children receiving chemotherapy for cancer. An absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) >1,000 cells/mm(3) has been associated with the ability to produce an immune response to influenza vaccine during chemotherapy. However, clinical efficacy of influenza vaccination during chemotherapy remains unclear. PROCEDURE: We conducted a prospective cohort study in children receiving chemotherapy for cancer during two consecutive influenza seasons. Assessments of immune cells and serologic response were measured immediately before and after receiving influenza vaccine. Patients were monitored for influenza or influenza-like illness (ILI). RESULTS: Two hundred fifty-nine patients were studied over 2 years. The seroresponse rate was 62% (98/157). The median ALC at vaccination was higher in seroresponders than nonresponders, 854 cells/mm(3) versus 602 cells/mm(3) , respectively (P < 0.036). Univariate analysis showed that patients with an ALC <1,000 cells/mm(3) at the time of vaccination were twice as likely to be sero-nonresponders (P < 0.02, OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1-5.0). Twelve percent (31/259) of patients developed influenza, of whom all had fever at presentation, 26% (8/31) required hospitalization, and 81% (25/31) had chemotherapy delays. No deaths were associated with influenza infection. The proportion of patients with influenza was not different between seroresponders and nonresponders. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza infection following immunization remains a source of morbidity in children undergoing chemotherapy. Lymphopenia at vaccination predicted sero-nonresponse. Seroresponse was not associated with a decreased frequency of influenza infection or ILI when compared to sero-nonresponders, suggesting clinical effectiveness of vaccination is likely multifactorial. Further investigation into the efficacy of the influenza vaccine is needed to refine immunization recommendations.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Neoplasias/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
J Clin Immunol ; 36(5): 490-501, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27189378

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The United States Immunodeficiency Network (USIDNET) patient registry was used to characterize the presentation, genetics, phenotypes, and treatment of patients with Hyper IgM Syndrome (HIGM). METHODS: The USIDNET Registry was queried for HIGM patient data collected from October 1992 to July 2015. Data fields included demographics, criteria for diagnosis, pedigree analysis, mutations, clinical features, treatment and transplant records, laboratory findings, and mortality. RESULTS: Fifty-two physicians entered data from 145 patients of ages 2 months to 62 years (median 12 years); 131 were males. Using patients' age at last entry, data from 2072 patient years are included. Mutations were recorded for 85 subjects; 82 were in CD40LG. Eighteen subjects had non-X-linked HIGM. 40 % had a normal serum IgM and 15 %, normal IgA. Infections were reported for 91 %, with pulmonary, ear, and sinus infections being the most common. 42 % had Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia; 6 % had Cryptosporidium. 41 % had neutropenia. 78 % experienced non-infectious complications: chronic diarrhea (n = 22), aphthous ulcers (n = 28), and neoplasms (n = 8) including colon cancer, adrenal adenoma, liver adenocarcinoma, pancreatic carcinoid, acute myeloid leukemia, hepatoma, and, in a female with an autosomal dominant gain of function mutation in PIK3CD, an ovarian dysgerminoma. Thirteen patients had a hematopoietic marrow or stem cell transplant; three had solid organ transplants. Thirteen were known to have died (median age = 14 years). CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the USIDNET Registry provides data on the common clinical features of this rare syndrome, and in contrast with previously published data, demonstrates longer survival times and reduced gastrointestinal manifestations.


Assuntos
Ligante de CD40/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/genética , Mutação/genética , Sistema de Registros , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sci Immunol ; 1(6)2016 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28783691

RESUMO

Recombination-activating genes 1 and 2 (RAG1 and RAG2) play a critical role in T and B cell development by initiating the recombination process that controls the expression of T cell receptor (TCR) and immunoglobulin genes. Mutations in the RAG1 and RAG2 genes in humans cause a broad spectrum of phenotypes, including severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with lack of T and B cells, Omenn syndrome, leaky SCID, and combined immunodeficiency with granulomas or autoimmunity (CID-G/AI). Using next-generation sequencing, we analyzed the TCR and B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire in 12 patients with RAG mutations presenting with Omenn syndrome (n = 5), leaky SCID (n = 3), or CID-G/AI (n = 4). Restriction of repertoire diversity skewed usage of variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) segment genes, and abnormalities of CDR3 length distribution were progressively more prominent in patients with a more severe phenotype. Skewed usage of V, D, and J segment genes was present also within unique sequences, indicating a primary restriction of repertoire. Patients with Omenn syndrome had a high proportion of class-switched immunoglobulin heavy chain transcripts and increased somatic hypermutation rate, suggesting in vivo activation of these B cells. These data provide a framework to better understand the phenotypic heterogeneity of RAG deficiency.

20.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 21(9): 1612-21, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26025482

RESUMO

Busulfan (Bu) is widely used in conditioning regimens for infants undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation (HPCT), but the best approach to administer Bu in this population is still unknown. Here, we report a single-center experience of the use of a test dose to guide dose adjustment of intravenous (i.v.) Bu therapy in infants. Between 2004 and 2013, 33 infants younger than 1 year with nonmalignant conditions received allogeneic peripheral blood or cord blood HPCT after a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen consisting of fludarabine, antithymocyte globulin, and 2 single daily doses of i.v. Bu. Pharmacokinetic results of a test dose of i.v. Bu (.8 mg/kg) were used to determine the dose of 2 single daily i.v. Bu regimen doses, adjusted to target an area under the curve (AUC) of 4000 µMol*minute per day in a first cohort (n = 12) and 5000 µMol*minute in a second cohort (n = 21). The mean Bu clearance in our infant patients was found to be 3.67 ± 1.03 mL/minute/kg, and the test dose clearance was highly predictive of the regimen dose clearance. The mean AUC achieved after the first single daily regimen dose was 3951 ± 1239 in the AUC 4000 cohort and 4884 ± 766 for the AUC 5000 cohort. No patient in either cohort developed hepatic sinusoidal obstructive syndrome or seizures attributable to Bu. Primary graft failure occurred in 4 patients and secondary graft failure occurred in 3, predominantly in the AUC 4000 cohort (6 of 7). Among the engrafted patients (n = 28), 16 achieved full donor chimerism and 9 patients attained stable mixed chimerism. Overall survival of patients at 6 years after transplantation was 59.5% for the AUC 4000 cohort and 85.4% for the AUC 5000 cohort, with primary graft failure in the first cohort being a major contributor to morbidity. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of graft failure increased significantly if cord blood hematopoietic progenitor cells were used or if total Bu exposure was below 4000 µMol*minute per day for 2 days. The difference in clinical outcomes between the 2 cohorts supports the conclusion that targeting a higher Bu AUC of 5000 µMol*minute per day for 2 days improves donor engraftment in infants with nonmalignant conditions undergoing RIC HPCT without increasing toxicity. Measuring i.v. Bu pharmokinetics using a test dose allows timely adjustment of single daily regimen doses and optimization of total Bu exposure, resulting in an effective and safe regimen for these infants.


Assuntos
Bussulfano/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Aloenxertos , Bussulfano/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Taxa de Sobrevida
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