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1.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-9, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Global neurosurgery is a rapidly emerging field that aims to address the worldwide shortages in neurosurgical care. Many published outreach efforts and initiatives exist to address the global disparity in neurosurgical care; however, there is no centralized report detailing these efforts. This scoping review aims to characterize the field of global neurosurgery by identifying partnerships between high-income countries (HICs) and low- and/or middle-income countries (LMICs) that seek to increase neurosurgical capacity. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted using the Arksey and O'Malley framework. A search was conducted in five electronic databases and the gray literature, defined as literature not published through traditional commercial or academic means, to identify studies describing global neurosurgery partnerships. Study selection and data extraction were performed by four independent reviewers, and any disagreements were settled by the team and ultimately the team lead. RESULTS: The original database search produced 2221 articles, which was reduced to 183 final articles after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. These final articles, along with 9 additional gray literature references, captured 169 unique global neurosurgery collaborations between HICs and LMICs. Of this total, 103 (61%) collaborations involved surgical intervention, while local training of medical personnel, research, and education were done in 48%, 38%, and 30% of efforts, respectively. Many of the collaborations (100 [59%]) are ongoing, and 93 (55%) of them resulted in an increase in capacity within the LMIC involved. The largest proportion of efforts began between 2005-2009 (28%) and 2010-2014 (17%). The most frequently involved HICs were the United States, Canada, and France, whereas the most frequently involved LMICs were Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya. CONCLUSIONS: This review provides a detailed overview of current global neurosurgery efforts, elucidates gaps in the existing literature, and identifies the LMICs that may benefit from further efforts to improve accessibility to essential neurosurgical care worldwide.

2.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) prognostic models are potential solutions to severe human and technical shortages. Although numerous TBI prognostic models have been developed, none are widely used in clinical practice, largely due to a lack of feasibility research to inform implementation. We previously developed a prognostic model and web-based application for in-hospital TBI care in low-resource settings. In this study, we tested the feasibility, acceptability, and usability of the application with potential end-users. METHODS: We performed our feasibility assessment with providers involved in TBI care at both a regional and national referral hospital in Uganda. We collected qualitative and quantitative data on decision support needs, application ease of use, and implementation design. RESULTS: We completed 25 questionnaires on potential uses of the app and 11 semi-structured feasibility interviews. Top-cited uses were informing the decision to operate, informing the decision to send the patient to intensive care, and counseling patients and relatives. Participants affirmed the application's potential to support difficult triage situations, particularly in the setting of limited access to diagnostics and interventions, but were hesitant to use this technology with end-of-life decisions. While all participants were satisfied with the application and agreed it is easy to use, several expressed a need for this technology to be accessible by smartphone and offline. CONCLUSIONS: We elucidated several potential uses for our app and important contextual factors that will support future implementation. This investigation helps address an unmet need to determine the feasibility of TBI clinical decision support systems in low-resource settings.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235768

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are an important contributor to the morbidity and mortality of developing countries. In Uganda, motorcycle taxis, known as boda bodas, are responsible for a growing proportion of RTIs. This study seeks to evaluate and comment on traffic safety trends from the past decade. METHODS: Traffic reports from the Ugandan police force (2009 to 2017) were analyzed for RTI characteristics. Furthermore, one month of casualty ward data in 2015 and 2018 was collected from the Mulago National Referral Hospital and reviewed for casualty demographics and trauma type. RESULTS: RTI motorcycle contribution rose steadily from 2009 to 2017 (24.5% to 33.9%). While the total number of crashes dropped from 22,461 to 13,244 between 2010 and 2017, the proportion of fatal RTIs increased from 14.7% to 22.2%. In the casualty ward, RTIs accounted for a greater proportion of patients and traumas in 2018 compared to 2015 (10%/41% and 36%/64%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although RTIs have seen a gross reduction in Uganda, they have become more deadly, with greater motorcycle involvement. Hospital data demonstrate a rising need for trauma and neurosurgical care to manage greater RTI patient burden. Combining RTI prevention and care pathway improvements may mitigate current RTI trends.

4.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-9, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a burgeoning global health concern, is one condition that could benefit from prognostic modeling. Risk stratification of TBI patients on presentation to a health facility can support the prudent use of limited resources. The CRASH (Corticosteroid Randomisation After Significant Head Injury) model is a well-established prognostic model developed to augment complex decision-making. The authors' current study objective was to better understand in-hospital decision-making for TBI patients and determine whether data from the CRASH risk calculator influenced provider assessment of prognosis. METHODS: The authors performed a choice experiment using a simulated TBI case. All participant doctors received the same case, which included a patient history, vitals, and physical examination findings. Half the participants also received the CRASH risk score. Participants were asked to estimate the patient prognosis and decide the best next treatment step. The authors recruited a convenience sample of 28 doctors involved in TBI care at both a regional and a national referral hospital in Uganda. RESULTS: For the simulated case, the CRASH risk scores for 14-day mortality and an unfavorable outcome at 6 months were 51.4% (95% CI 42.8%, 59.8%) and 89.8% (95% CI 86.0%, 92.6%), respectively. Overall, participants were overoptimistic when estimating the patient prognosis. Risk estimates by doctors provided with the CRASH risk score were closer to that score than estimates made by doctors in the control group; this effect was more pronounced for inexperienced doctors. Surgery was selected as the best next step by 86% of respondents. CONCLUSIONS: This study was a novel assessment of a TBI prognostic model's influence on provider estimation of risk in a low-resource setting. Exposure to CRASH risk score data reduced overoptimistic prognostication by doctors, particularly among inexperienced providers.

5.
Neurosurg Focus ; 47(5): E6, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in low- and middle-income countries who receive surgery have better outcomes than patients with TBI who do not receive surgery, and whether this differs with severity of injury. METHODS: The authors generated a series of Kaplan-Meier plots and performed multiple Cox proportional hazard models to assess the relationship between TBI surgery and TBI severity. The TBI severity was categorized using admission Glasgow Coma Scale scores: mild (14, 15), moderate (9-13), or severe (3-8). The authors investigated outcomes from admission to hospital day 14. The outcome considered was the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, categorized as poor outcome (1-4) and good outcome (5-8). The authors used TBI registry data collected from 2013 to 2017 at a regional referral hospital in Tanzania. RESULTS: Of the final 2502 patients, 609 (24%) received surgery and 1893 (76%) did not receive surgery. There were significantly fewer road traffic injuries and more violent causes of injury in those receiving surgery. Those receiving surgery were also more likely to receive care in the ICU, to have a poor outcome, to have a moderate or severe TBI, and to stay in the hospital longer. The hazard ratio for patients with TBI who underwent operation versus those who did not was 0.17 (95% CI 0.06-0.49; p < 0.001) in patients with moderate TBI; 0.2 (95% CI 0.06-0.64; p = 0.01) for those with mild TBI, and 0.47 (95% CI 0.24-0.89; p = 0.02) for those with severe TBI. CONCLUSIONS: Those who received surgery for their TBI had a lower hazard for poor outcome than those who did not. Surgical intervention was associated with the greatest improvement in outcomes for moderate head injuries, followed by mild and severe injuries. The findings suggest a reprioritization of patients with moderate TBI-a drastic change to the traditional practice within low- and middle-income countries in which the most severely injured patients are prioritized for care.

6.
J Neurosurg ; 131(4): 993-999, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574484

RESUMO

Around the world today, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not benefited from advancements in neurosurgery; most have minimal or even no neurosurgical capacity in their entire country. In this paper, the authors examine in broad strokes the different ways in which individuals, organizations, and universities engage in global neurosurgery to address the global challenges faced in many LMICs. Key strategies include surgical camps, educational programs, training programs, health system strengthening projects, health policy changes/development, and advocacy. Global neurosurgery has begun coalescing with large strides taken to develop a coherent voice for this work. This large-scale collaboration via multilateral, multinational engagement is the only true solution to the issues we face in global neurosurgery. Key players have begun to come together toward this ultimate solution, and the future of global neurosurgery is bright.

7.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(1): 1778-1788, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149008

RESUMO

Background: Uganda's ageing population (age 50 years and older) will nearly double from 2015 to 2050. HIV/AIDS, diabetes, stroke among other disease processes have been studied in the elderly population. However, the burden of disease from surgically-treatable conditions is unknown. Objectives: To determine the proportion of adults above 50 years with unmet surgical need and deaths attributable to probable surgically-treatable conditions. Methods: A cluster randomized sample representing the national population of Uganda was enumerated. The previously validated Surgeons Overseas assessment of surgical need instrument, a head-to-toe verbal interview, was used to determine any surgically-treatable conditions in two randomly-selected living household members. Deaths were detailed by heads of households. Weighted metrics are calculated taking sampling design into consideration and Taylor series linearization was used for sampling error estimation. Results: The study enumerated 425 individuals above age 50 years. The prevalence proportion of unmet surgical need was 27.8% (95%CI, 22.1-34.3). This extrapolates to 694,722 (95%CI, 552,279-857,157) individuals living with one or more surgically treatable conditions. The North sub-region was observed to have the highest prevalence proportion. Nearly two out of five household deaths (37.9%) were attributed to probable surgically treatable causes. Conclusion: There is disproportionately high need for surgical care among the ageing population of Uganda with approximately 700,000 consultations needed.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , População Urbana
8.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-9, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVETraumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, with a disproportionate burden of this injury on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Limited access to diagnostic technologies and highly skilled providers combined with high patient volumes contributes to poor outcomes in LMICs. Prognostic modeling as a clinical decision support tool, in theory, could optimize the use of existing resources and support timely treatment decisions in LMICs. The objective of this study was to develop a machine learning-based prognostic model using data from Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre in Moshi, Tanzania.METHODSThis study is a secondary analysis of a TBI data registry including 3138 patients. The authors tested nine different machine learning techniques to identify the prognostic model with the greatest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Input data included demographics, vital signs, injury type, and treatment received. The outcome variable was the discharge score on the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended.RESULTSThe AUC for the prognostic models varied from 66.2% (k-nearest neighbors) to 86.5% (Bayesian generalized linear model). An increasing Glasgow Coma Scale score, increasing pulse oximetry values, and undergoing TBI surgery were predictive of a good recovery, while injuries suffered from a motor vehicle crash and increasing age were predictive of a poor recovery.CONCLUSIONSThe authors developed a TBI prognostic model with a substantial level of accuracy in a low-resource setting. Further research is needed to externally validate the model and test the algorithm as a clinical decision support tool.

9.
Ann Glob Health ; 85(1)2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal operations account for a majority of surgical volume in low-income countries, yet population-level prevalence data on surgically treatable abdominal conditions are scarce. OBJECTIVE: In this study, our objective was to quantify the burden of surgically treatable abdominal conditions in Uganda. METHODS: In 2014, we administered a two-stage cluster-randomized Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need survey to 4,248 individuals in 105 randomly selected clusters (representing the national population of Uganda). FINDINGS: Of the 4,248 respondents, 185 reported at least one surgically treatable abdominal condition in their lifetime, giving an estimated lifetime prevalence of 3.7% (95% CI: 3.0 to 4.6%). Of those 185 respondents, 76 reported an untreated condition, giving an untreated prevalence of 1.7% (95% CI: 1.3 to 2.3%). Obstructed labor (52.9%) accounted for most of the 238 abdominal conditions reported and was untreated in only 5.6% of reported conditions. In contrast, 73.3% of reported abdominal masses were untreated. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals in Uganda with nonobstetric abdominal surgical conditions are disproportionately undertreated. Major health system investments in obstetric surgical capacity have been beneficial, but our data suggest that further investments should aim at matching overall surgical care capacity with surgical need, rather than focusing on a single operation for obstructed labor.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0205132, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In low and middle-income countries, approximately 85% of children have a surgically treatable condition before the age of 15. Within these countries, the burden of pediatric surgical conditions falls heaviest on those in rural areas. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between rurality, surgical condition and treatment status among a cohort of Ugandan children. METHODS: We identified 2176 children from 2315 households throughout Uganda using the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) survey. Children were randomly selected and were included in the study if they were 18 years of age or younger and had a surgical condition. Location of residence, surgical condition, and treatment status was compared among children. RESULTS: Of the 305 children identified with surgical conditions, 81.9% lived in rural areas. The most prevalent causes of surgical conditions reported among rural and urban children were masses (24.0% and 25.5%, respectively), followed by wounds due to injury (19.6% and 16.4%, respectively). Among children with untreated surgical conditions, 79.1% reside in rural areas while 20.9% reside in urban areas. Among children with untreated surgical conditions, the leading reason for not seeking surgical care among children living in both rural and urban areas was a lack of money (40.6% and 31.4%, respectively), and the leading reason for not receiving care in both rural and urban settings was a lack of money (48.0% and 42.8%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that over half of the children with a surgical condition surveyed are not receiving surgical care and a large majority of children with surgical needs were living in rural areas. Future interventions aimed at increasing surgical access in rural areas in low-income countries are needed.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Pediatria/economia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza/economia , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , População Urbana
11.
World Neurosurg ; 113: 436-452, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29702967

RESUMO

In the last 10 years, considerable work has been done to promote and improve neurosurgical care in East Africa with the development of national training programs, expansion of hospitals and creation of new institutions, and the foundation of epidemiologic and cost-effectiveness research. Many of the results have been accomplished through collaboration with partners from abroad. This article is the third in a series of articles that seek to provide readers with an understanding of the development of neurosurgery in East Africa (Foundations), the challenges that arise in providing neurosurgical care in developing countries (Challenges), and an overview of traditional and novel approaches to overcoming these challenges to improve healthcare in the region (Innovations). In this article, we describe the ongoing programs active in East Africa and their current priorities, and we outline lessons learned and what is required to create self-sustained neurosurgical service.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Neurocirurgiões/tendências , Neurocirurgia/tendências , Inovação Organizacional , África Oriental , Humanos , Neurocirurgiões/educação , Neurocirurgiões/organização & administração , Neurocirurgia/educação , Neurocirurgia/organização & administração , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/educação , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/tendências
12.
World Neurosurg ; 110: e747-e754, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29180091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need tool (SOSAS) was created to evaluate the burden of surgically treatable conditions in low- and middle-income countries. The goal of our study is to describe the face, head, and neck (FHN) conditions that need surgical care in Uganda, along with barriers to that care and disability from these conditions. METHODS: A 2-stage cluster randomized SOSAS survey was administered in a cross-sectional manner between August and September 2014. Participants included randomly selected persons in 105 enumeration areas in 74 districts throughout Uganda with 24 households in each cluster. The SOSAS survey collected demographic and clinical data on all respondents. Univariate and multivariate logistic models evaluated associations of demographic characteristics and clinical characteristics of the FHN conditions and outcomes of whether health care was sought or surgical care was received. RESULTS: Of the 4428 respondents, 331 (7.8%) reported having FHN conditions. The most common types of conditions were injury-related wounds. Of those who reported an FHN condition, 36% reported receiving no surgical care whereas 82.5% reported seeking health care. In the multivariate model, literacy and type of condition were significant predictors of seeking health care whereas village type, literacy, and type of condition remained significant predictors of receiving surgical care. CONCLUSIONS: Many individuals in Uganda are not receiving surgical care and barriers include costs, rural residency, and literacy. Our study highlights the need for targeted interventions in various parts of Uganda to increase human resources for surgery and expand surgical capacity.


Assuntos
Cabeça/cirurgia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Pescoço/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Face/cirurgia , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência , Distribuição Aleatória , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
World Neurosurg ; 108: 844-849.e4, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28826868

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is a significant burden of unmet surgical need in many low- and middle-income countries (>80% in parts of Africa). This need is even larger for specialties such as neurosurgery. Surgical capacity tools have been developed and used to assess needs and plan for resource allocation. This study piloted a new tool to assess neurosurgical capacity and describes its use. METHODS: A surgical capacity tool was adapted to assess neurosurgical capacity. An expert panel of neurosurgeons and researchers reviewed the Surgeons OverSeas PIPES (personnel, infrastructure, procedures, equipment, and supplies) assessment and added additional items essential to perform common neurosurgery procedures. This tool was then piloted at 3 public hospitals in Uganda and each hospital was given a score of neurosurgical capacity. At 1 hospital, 3 respondents were asked to answer the survey to assess reliability. RESULTS: The hospital with the largest neurosurgery caseload and 5 neurosurgeons scored the highest on our survey, followed by a regional hospital with 1 practicing neurosurgeon. The third hospital, without a neurosurgeon, scored the lowest on the scale. At the hospital that completed the reliability assessment, scores were varied between respondents. CONCLUSIONS: NeuroPIPES survey scores were in keeping with the number of neurosurgeons and respective caseloads of each hospital. However, the variation in scores between respondents at the same hospital suggests that adaptations could be made to the tool that may improve reliability and validity. The methodology used to create NeuroPIPES may be successfully applied to a variety of other surgical subspecialties for similar assessments.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Hospitais Públicos , Neurocirurgia , Salas Cirúrgicas/provisão & distribução , Equipamentos Cirúrgicos/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Salas Cirúrgicas/normas , Projetos Piloto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Equipamentos Cirúrgicos/normas , Uganda
14.
J Pediatr Surg ; 52(10): 1691-1698, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28427854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), an estimated 85% of children do not have access to surgical care. The objective of the current study was to determine the geographic distribution of surgical conditions among children throughout Uganda. METHODS: Using the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) survey, we enumerated 2176 children in 2315 households throughout Uganda. At the district level, we determined the spatial autocorrelation of surgical need with geographic access to surgical centers variable. FINDINGS: The highest average distance to a surgical center was found in the northern region at 14.97km (95% CI: 11.29km-16.89km). Younger children less than five years old had a higher prevalence of unmet surgical need in all four regions than their older counterparts. The spatial regression model showed that distance to surgical center and care availability were the main spatial predictors of unmet surgical need. INTERPRETATION: We found differences in unmet surgical need by region and age group of the children, which could serve as priority areas for focused interventions to alleviate the burden. Future studies could be conducted in the northern regions to develop targeted interventions aimed at increasing pediatric surgical care in the areas of most need. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III.


Assuntos
Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pediatria/organização & administração , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Uganda/epidemiologia
15.
Neurosurgery ; 80(4): 656-661, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28362930

RESUMO

Neurosurgery in Uganda was virtually non-existent up until late 1960s. This changed when Dr. Jovan Kiryabwire spearheaded development of a neurosurgical unit at Mulago Hospital in Kampala. His work ethic and vision set the stage for rapid expansion of neurosurgical care in Uganda.At the beginning of the 2000s, Uganda was a country of nearly 30 million people, but had only 4 neurosurgeons. Neurosurgery's progress was plagued by challenges faced by many developing countries, such as difficulty retaining specialists, lack of modern hospital resources, and scarce training facilities. To combat these challenges 2 distinct programs were launched: 1 by Dr. Benjamin Warf in collaboration with CURE International, and the other by Dr. Michael Haglund from Duke University. Dr. Warf's program focused on establishing a facility for pediatric neurosurgery. Dr. Haglund's program to increase neurosurgical capacity was founded on a "4 T's Paradigm": Technology, Twinning, Training, and Top-Down. Embedded within this paradigm was the notion that Uganda needed to train its own people to become neurosurgeons, and thus Duke helped establish the country's first neurosurgery residency training program.Efforts from overseas, including the tireless work of Dr. Benjamin Warf, have saved thousands of children's lives. The influx of the Duke Program caused a dynamic shift at Mulago Hospital with dramatic effects, as evidenced by the substantial increase in neurosurgical capacity. The future looks bright for neurosurgery in Uganda and it all traces back to a rural village where 1 man had a vision to help the people of his country.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Neurocirurgia/tendências , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/educação , Países em Desenvolvimento , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Neurocirurgiões , Neurocirurgia/educação , Uganda
16.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0170968, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28257418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: According to recent estimates, at least 11% of the total global burden of disease is attributable to surgically-treatable diseases. In children, the burden is even more striking with up to 85% of children in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) having a surgically-treatable condition by age 15. Using population data from four countries, we estimated pediatric surgical needs amongst children residing in LMICs. METHODS: A cluster randomized cross-sectional countrywide household survey (Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need) was done in four countries (Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Nepal and Uganda) and included demographics, a verbal head to toe examination, and questions on access to care. Global estimates regarding surgical need among children were derived from combined data, accounting for country-level clustering. RESULTS: A total of 13,806 participants were surveyed and 6,361 (46.1%) were children (0-18 years of age) with median age of 8 (Interquartile range [IQR]: 4-13) years. Overall, 19% (1,181/6,361) of children had a surgical need and 62% (738/1,181) of these children had at least one unmet need. Based on these estimates, the number of children living with a surgical need in these four LMICs is estimated at 3.7 million (95% CI: 3.4, 4.0 million). The highest percentage of unmet surgical conditions included head, face, and neck conditions, followed by conditions in the extremities. Over a third of the untreated conditions were masses while the overwhelming majority of treated conditions in all countries were wounds or burns. CONCLUSION: Surgery has been elevated as an "indivisible, indispensable part of health care" in LMICs and the newly formed 2015 Sustainable Development Goals are noted as unachievable without the provision of surgical care. Given the large burden of pediatric surgical conditions in LMICs, scale-up of services for children is an essential component to improve pediatric health in LMICs.


Assuntos
Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/normas , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/normas , Pediatria/normas , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pediatria/economia , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
17.
World J Surg ; 41(2): 353-363, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27539489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, a staggering five billion people lack access to adequate surgical care. Sub-Saharan Africa represents one of the regions of greatest need. We sought to understand how geographic factors related to unmet surgical need (USN) in Uganda. METHODS: We performed a geographic information system analysis of a nationwide survey on surgical conditions performed in 105 enumeration areas (EAs) representing the national population. At the district level, we determined the spatial autocorrelation of the following study variables: prevalence of USN, hub distance (distance from EA to the nearest surgical center), area of coverage (geographic catchment area of each center), tertiary facility transport time (average respondent-reported travel time), and care availability (rate of hospital beds by population and by district). We then used local indicators of spatial association (LISA) and spatial regression to identify any significant clustering of these study variables among the districts. RESULTS: The survey enumerated 4248 individuals. The prevalence of USN varied from 2.0-45 %. The USN prevalence was highest in the Northern and Western Regions. Moran's I bivariate analysis indicated a positive correlation between USN and hub distance (p = 0.03), area of coverage (p = 0.02), and facility transport time (p = 0.03). These associations were consistent nationally. The LISA analysis showed a high degree of clustering among sets of districts in the Northern Sub-Region. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a statistically significant association between USN and the geographic variables examined. We have identified the Northern Sub-Region as the highest priority areas for financial investment to reduce this unmet surgical disease burden.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Instalações de Saúde/provisão & distribução , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Humanos , Regressão Espacial , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Uganda
18.
Ann Surg ; 266(2): 389-399, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27611619

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the burden of surgical conditions in Uganda. BACKGROUND: Data on the burden of disease have long served as a cornerstone to health policymaking, planning, and resource allocation. Population-based data are the gold standard, but no data on surgical burden at a national scale exist; therefore, we adapted the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need survey and conducted a nation-wide, cross-sectional survey of Uganda to quantify the burden of surgically treatable conditions. METHODS: The 2-stage cluster sample included 105 enumeration areas, representing 74 districts and Kampala Capital City Authority. Enumeration occurred from August 20 to September 12, 2014. In each enumeration area, 24 households were randomly selected; the head of the household provided details regarding any household deaths within the previous 12 months. Two household members were randomly selected for a head-to-toe verbal interview to determine existing untreated and treated surgical conditions. RESULTS: In 2315 households, we surveyed 4248 individuals: 461 (10.6%) reported 1 or more conditions requiring at least surgical consultation [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.9%-12.4%]. The most frequent barrier to surgical care was the lack of financial resources for the direct cost of care. Of the 153 household deaths recalled, 53 deaths (34.2%; 95% CI 22.1%-46.3%) were associated with surgically treatable signs/symptoms. Shortage of time was the most frequently cited reason (25.8%) among the 11.6% household deaths that should have, but did not, receive surgical care (95% CI 6.4%-16.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Unmet surgical need is prevalent in Uganda. There is an urgent need to expand the surgical care delivery system starting with the district-level hospitals. Routine surgical data collection at both the health facility and household level should be implemented.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Países em Desenvolvimento , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 32(11): 1075-1085, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27614904

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Little is known about the prevalence of pediatric surgical conditions in low- and middle-income countries. Many children never seek medical care, thus the true prevalence of surgical conditions in children in Uganda is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of surgical conditions in children in Uganda. METHODS: Using the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) survey, we enumerated 4248 individuals in 2315 households in 105 randomly selected clusters throughout Uganda. Children aged 0-18 were included if randomly selected from the household; for those who could not answer for themselves, parents served as surrogates. RESULTS: Of 2176 children surveyed, 160 (7.4 %) reported a currently untreated surgical condition. Lifetime prevalence of surgical conditions was 14.0 % (305/2176). The predominant cause of surgical conditions was trauma (48.4 %), followed by wounds (19.7 %), acquired deformities (16.2 %), and burns (12.5 %). Of 90 pediatric household deaths, 31.1 % were associated with a surgically treatable proximate cause of death (28/90 deaths). CONCLUSION: Although some trauma-related surgical burden among children can be adequately addressed at district hospitals, the need for diagnostics, human resources, and curative services for more severe trauma cases, congenital deformities, and masses outweighs the current capacity of hospitals and trained pediatric surgeons in Uganda.


Assuntos
Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Uganda
20.
World Neurosurg ; 95: 309-314, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27497624

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pediatric neurosurgical cases have been identified as an important target for impacting health disparities in Uganda, with over 50% of the population being less than 15 years of age. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the Duke-Mulago collaboration on pediatric neurosurgical outcomes in Mulago National Referral Hospital. METHODS: We performed retrospective analysis of all pediatric neurosurgical cases who presented at Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda, to examine overall, preprogram (2005-2007), and postprogram (2008-2013) outcomes. We analyzed mortality, presurgical infections, postsurgical infections, length of stay, types of procedures, and significant predictors of mortality. Data on neurosurgical cases was collected from surgical logbooks, patient charts, and Mulago National Referral Hospital's yearly death registry. RESULTS: Of 820 pediatric neurosurgical cases, outcome data were complete for 374 children. Among children who died within 30 days of a surgical procedure, the largest group was less than a year old (45%). Postinitiation of the Duke-Mulago collaboration, we identified an overall increase in procedures, with the greatest increase in cases with complex diagnoses. Although children ages 6-18 years of age were 6.66 times more likely to die than their younger counterparts preprogram, age was no longer a predictive variable postprogram. When comparing pre- and postprogram outcomes, mortality among pediatric patients within 30 days after a neurosurgical procedure increased from 4.3% to 10.0%, mortality after 30 days increased slightly from 4.9% to 5.0%, presurgical infections decreased by 4.6%, and postsurgery infections decreased slightly by 0.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show the provision of more complex neurological procedures does not necessitate improved outcomes. Rather, combining these higher-level procedures with essential pre- and postoperative care and continued efforts in health system strengthening for pediatric neurosurgical care throughout Uganda will help to address and decrease the burden throughout the country.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/mortalidade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/tendências , Pediatria/tendências , Centros de Atenção Terciária/tendências , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/economia , Pediatria/economia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/economia , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda/epidemiologia
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