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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3660, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413257

RESUMO

Virtually all tumors are genetically heterogeneous, containing mutationally-defined subclonal cell populations that often have distinct phenotypes. Single-cell RNA-sequencing has revealed that a variety of tumors are also transcriptionally heterogeneous, but the relationship between expression heterogeneity and subclonal architecture is unclear. Here, we address this question in the context of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) by integrating whole genome sequencing with single-cell RNA-sequencing (using the 10x Genomics Chromium Single Cell 5' Gene Expression workflow). Applying this approach to five cryopreserved AML samples, we identify hundreds to thousands of cells containing tumor-specific mutations in each case, and use the results to distinguish AML cells (including normal-karyotype AML cells) from normal cells, identify expression signatures associated with subclonal mutations, and find cell surface markers that could be used to purify subclones for further study. This integrative approach for connecting genotype to phenotype is broadly applicable to any sample that is phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous.

2.
Nature ; 572(7769): 323-328, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367044

RESUMO

Exome-sequencing studies have generally been underpowered to identify deleterious alleles with a large effect on complex traits as such alleles are mostly rare. Because the population of northern and eastern Finland has expanded considerably and in isolation following a series of bottlenecks, individuals of these populations have numerous deleterious alleles at a relatively high frequency. Here, using exome sequencing of nearly 20,000 individuals from these regions, we investigate the role of rare coding variants in clinically relevant quantitative cardiometabolic traits. Exome-wide association studies for 64 quantitative traits identified 26 newly associated deleterious alleles. Of these 26 alleles, 19 are either unique to or more than 20 times more frequent in Finnish individuals than in other Europeans and show geographical clustering comparable to Mendelian disease mutations that are characteristic of the Finnish population. We estimate that sequencing studies of populations without this unique history would require hundreds of thousands to millions of participants to achieve comparable association power.

3.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(6): e27681, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Anthracyclines are used in induction therapy of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and are known to generate oxidative stress; whether this translates into enhanced antileukemic activity or hemolytic effects in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is unknown. DESIGN/METHODS: Among 726 pediatric patients with newly diagnosed ALL treated at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 22 had deficient G6PD activity. We compared the prevalence of positive minimal residual disease (MRD) ≥1% at Day 15/Day 19 of induction or ≥0.01% at Day 42/Day 46 (end of induction) and the number of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions after daunorubicin in induction between patients with or without G6PD deficiency, adjusting for ALL risk group, treatment protocol, age, and gender. RESULTS: There was no difference in Day 15/19 (P = 1) or end of induction MRD (P = 0.76) nor in the number of RBC transfusions (P = 0.73); the lack of association with MRD was confirmed in a dataset of 1192 newly diagnosed male patients enrolled in a Children's Oncology Group trial (P = 0.78). CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that G6PD deficiency affects daunorubicin activity during induction treatment for ALL.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As consolidation therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation provides a benefit in part by means of an immune-mediated graft-versus-leukemia effect. We hypothesized that the immune-mediated selective pressure imposed by allogeneic transplantation may cause distinct patterns of tumor evolution in relapsed disease. METHODS: We performed enhanced exome sequencing on paired samples obtained at initial presentation with AML and at relapse from 15 patients who had a relapse after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (with transplants from an HLA-matched sibling, HLA-matched unrelated donor, or HLA-mismatched unrelated donor) and from 20 patients who had a relapse after chemotherapy. We performed RNA sequencing and flow cytometry on a subgroup of these samples and on additional samples for validation. RESULTS: On exome sequencing, the spectrum of gained and lost mutations observed with relapse after transplantation was similar to the spectrum observed with relapse after chemotherapy. Specifically, relapse after transplantation was not associated with the acquisition of previously unknown AML-specific mutations or structural variations in immune-related genes. In contrast, RNA sequencing of samples obtained at relapse after transplantation revealed dysregulation of pathways involved in adaptive and innate immunity, including down-regulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes ( HLA-DPA1, HLA-DPB1, HLA-DQB1, and HLA-DRB1) to levels that were 3 to 12 times lower than the levels seen in paired samples obtained at presentation. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed decreased expression of MHC class II at relapse in 17 of 34 patients who had a relapse after transplantation. Evidence suggested that interferon-γ treatment could rapidly reverse this phenotype in AML blasts in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: AML relapse after transplantation was not associated with the acquisition of relapse-specific mutations in immune-related genes. However, it was associated with dysregulation of pathways that may influence immune function, including down-regulation of MHC class II genes, which are involved in antigen presentation. These epigenetic changes may be reversible with appropriate therapy. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).

5.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4850, 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429476

RESUMO

The original version of this Article contained errors in the depiction of confidence intervals in the NF1 BCSS data illustrated in Figure 3b. These have now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article. The incorrect version of Figure 3b is presented in the associated Author Correction.

7.
Cell ; 175(4): 1014-1030.e19, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343900

RESUMO

Although current immune-checkpoint therapy (ICT) mainly targets lymphoid cells, it is associated with a broader remodeling of the tumor micro-environment. Here, using complementary forms of high-dimensional profiling, we define differences across all hematopoietic cells from syngeneic mouse tumors during unrestrained tumor growth or effective ICT. Unbiased assessment of gene expression of tumor-infiltrating cells by single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) and longitudinal assessment of cellular protein expression by mass cytometry (CyTOF) revealed significant remodeling of both the lymphoid and myeloid intratumoral compartments. Surprisingly, we observed multiple subpopulations of monocytes/macrophages, distinguishable by the markers CD206, CX3CR1, CD1d, and iNOS, that change over time during ICT in a manner partially dependent on IFNγ. Our data support the hypothesis that this macrophage polarization/activation results from effects on circulatory monocytes and early macrophages entering tumors, rather than on pre-polarized mature intratumoral macrophages.

8.
N Engl J Med ; 379(11): 1028-1041, 2018 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is the only curative treatment for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The molecular predictors of disease progression after transplantation are unclear. METHODS: We sequenced bone marrow and skin samples from 90 adults with MDS who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation after a myeloablative or reduced-intensity conditioning regimen. We detected mutations before transplantation using enhanced exome sequencing, and we evaluated mutation clearance by using error-corrected sequencing to genotype mutations in bone marrow samples obtained 30 days after transplantation. In this exploratory study, we evaluated the association of a mutation detected after transplantation with disease progression and survival. RESULTS: Sequencing identified at least one validated somatic mutation before transplantation in 86 of 90 patients (96%); 32 of these patients (37%) had at least one mutation with a maximum variant allele frequency of at least 0.5% (equivalent to 1 heterozygous mutant cell in 100 cells) 30 days after transplantation. Patients with disease progression had mutations with a higher maximum variant allele frequency at 30 days than those who did not (median maximum variant allele frequency, 0.9% vs. 0%; P<0.001). The presence of at least one mutation with a variant allele frequency of at least 0.5% at day 30 was associated with a higher risk of progression (53.1% vs. 13.0%; conditioning regimen-adjusted hazard ratio, 3.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.96 to 7.62; P<0.001) and a lower 1-year rate of progression-free survival than the absence of such a mutation (31.3% vs. 59.3%; conditioning regimen-adjusted hazard ratio for progression or death, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.32 to 3.73; P=0.005). The rate of progression-free survival was lower among patients who had received a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen and had at least one persistent mutation with a variant allele frequency of at least 0.5% at day 30 than among patients with other combinations of conditioning regimen and mutation status (P≤0.001). Multivariate analysis confirmed that patients who had a mutation with a variant allele frequency of at least 0.5% detected at day 30 had a higher risk of progression (hazard ratio, 4.48; 95% CI, 2.21 to 9.08; P<0.001) and a lower 1-year rate of progression-free survival than those who did not (hazard ratio for progression or death, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.40 to 4.09; P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of disease progression was higher among patients with MDS in whom persistent disease-associated mutations were detected in the bone marrow 30 days after transplantation than among those in whom these mutations were not detected. (Funded by the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society and others.).


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Mutação , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Adulto , Exame de Medula Óssea , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/mortalidade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Pele/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Transplante Homólogo
9.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3476, 2018 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181556

RESUMO

Here we report targeted sequencing of 83 genes using DNA from primary breast cancer samples from 625 postmenopausal (UBC-TAM series) and 328 premenopausal (MA12 trial) hormone receptor-positive (HR+) patients to determine interactions between somatic mutation and prognosis. Independent validation of prognostic interactions was achieved using data from the METABRIC study. Previously established associations between MAP3K1 and PIK3CA mutations with luminal A status/favorable prognosis and TP53 mutations with Luminal B/non-luminal tumors/poor prognosis were observed, validating the methodological approach. In UBC-TAM, NF1 frame-shift nonsense (FS/NS) mutations were also a poor outcome driver that was validated in METABRIC. For MA12, poor outcome associated with PIK3R1 mutation was also reproducible. DDR1 mutations were strongly associated with poor prognosis in UBC-TAM despite stringent false discovery correction (q = 0.0003). In conclusion, uncommon recurrent somatic mutations should be further explored to create a more complete explanation of the highly variable outcomes that typifies ER+ breast cancer.

10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3787, 2018 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224629

RESUMO

Nearly all patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) eventually relapse with chemoresistant disease. The molecular mechanisms driving chemoresistance in SCLC remain un-characterized. Here, we describe whole-exome sequencing of paired SCLC tumor samples procured at diagnosis and relapse from 12 patients, and unpaired relapse samples from 18 additional patients. Multiple somatic copy number alterations, including gains in ABCC1 and deletions in MYCL, MSH2, and MSH6, are identifiable in relapsed samples. Relapse samples also exhibit recurrent mutations and loss of heterozygosity in regulators of WNT signaling, including CHD8 and APC. Analysis of RNA-sequencing data shows enrichment for an ASCL1-low expression subtype and WNT activation in relapse samples. Activation of WNT signaling in chemosensitive human SCLC cell lines through APC knockdown induces chemoresistance. Additionally, in vitro-derived chemoresistant cell lines demonstrate increased WNT activity. Overall, our results suggest WNT signaling activation as a mechanism of chemoresistance in relapsed SCLC.

11.
Science ; 360(6393)2018 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880660

RESUMO

Genetic studies of human evolution require high-quality contiguous ape genome assemblies that are not guided by the human reference. We coupled long-read sequence assembly and full-length complementary DNA sequencing with a multiplatform scaffolding approach to produce ab initio chimpanzee and orangutan genome assemblies. By comparing these with two long-read de novo human genome assemblies and a gorilla genome assembly, we characterized lineage-specific and shared great ape genetic variation ranging from single- to mega-base pair-sized variants. We identified ~17,000 fixed human-specific structural variants identifying genic and putative regulatory changes that have emerged in humans since divergence from nonhuman apes. Interestingly, these variants are enriched near genes that are down-regulated in human compared to chimpanzee cerebral organoids, particularly in cells analogous to radial glial neural progenitors.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genoma Humano , Hominidae/genética , Animais , Mapeamento de Sequências Contíguas , Variação Genética , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Blood Cancer J ; 8(3): 35, 2018 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29563506

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a disease of copy number variants (CNVs), chromosomal translocations, and single-nucleotide variants (SNVs). To enable integrative studies across these diverse mutation types, we developed a capture-based sequencing platform to detect their occurrence in 465 genes altered in MM and used it to sequence 95 primary tumor-normal pairs to a mean depth of 104×. We detected cases of hyperdiploidy (23%), deletions of 1p (8%), 6q (21%), 8p (17%), 14q (16%), 16q (22%), and 17p (4%), and amplification of 1q (19%). We also detected IGH and MYC translocations near expected frequencies and non-silent SNVs in NRAS (24%), KRAS (21%), FAM46C (17%), TP53 (9%), DIS3 (9%), and BRAF (3%). We discovered frequent mutations in IGLL5 (18%) that were mutually exclusive of RAS mutations and associated with increased risk of disease progression (p = 0.03), suggesting that IGLL5 may be a stratifying biomarker. We identified novel IGLL5/IGH translocations in two samples. We subjected 15 of the pairs to ultra-deep sequencing (1259×) and found that although depth correlated with number of mutations detected (p = 0.001), depth past ~300× added little. The platform provides cost-effective genomic analysis for research and may be useful in individualizing treatment decisions in clinical settings.

13.
JCI Insight ; 3(5)2018 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29515031

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) is a potentially curative treatment for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), but patients who relapse after transplant have poor outcomes. In order to understand the contribution of tumor clonal evolution to disease progression,we applied exome and error-corrected targeted sequencing coupled with copy number analysis to comprehensively define changes in the clonal architecture of MDS in response to therapy using 51 serially acquired tumor samples from 9 patients who progressed after an alloHCT. We show that small subclones before alloHCT can drive progression after alloHCT. Notably, at least one subclone expanded or emerged at progression in all patients. Newly acquired structural variants (SVs) were present in an emergent/expanding subclone in 8 of 9 patients at progression, implicating the acquisition of SVs as important late subclonal progression events. In addition, pretransplant therapy with azacitidine likely influenced the mutation spectrum and evolution of emergent subclones after alloHCT. Although subclone evolution is common, founding clone mutations are always present at progression and could be detected in the bone marrow as early as 30 and/or 100 days after alloHCT in 6 of 8 (75%) patients, often prior to clinical progression. In conclusion, MDS progression after alloHCT is characterized by subclonal expansion and evolution, which can be influenced by pretransplant therapy.

14.
Oncotarget ; 9(3): 4061-4073, 2018 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29423104

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of obesity and obesity-associated factors on the outcomes of patients with cervical cancer. Outcomes were evaluated in 591 patients with FIGO Ib to IV cervical cancer treated uniformly with definitive radiation. Patients were stratified into 3 groups based upon pretreatment Body Mass Index (BMI): A ≤ 18.5; B 18.6 - 34.9; and C ≥ 35. The 5-year freedom from failure rates were 58, 59, and 73% for BMI groups A, B, and C (p = 0.01). Overall survival rates were 50, 59, and 68%, respectively (p = 0.02). High expression of phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) was associated with poor outcomes only in non-obese patients. Obese patients with PI3K pathway mutant tumors had a trend toward favorable outcomes, while a similar effect was not observed in non-obese patients. Compared to similar tumors from non-obese hosts, PIK3CA and PTEN mutant tumors from obese patients failed to express high levels of phosphorylated AKT and its downstream targets. These results show that patients with obesity at the time of diagnosis of cervical cancer exhibit improved outcomes after radiation. PI3K/AKT pathway mutations are common in obese patients, but are not associated with activation of AKT signaling.

15.
Leukemia ; 32(9): 1970-1983, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483708

RESUMO

T cell malignancies represent a group of hematologic cancers with high rates of relapse and mortality in patients for whom no effective targeted therapies exist. The shared expression of target antigens between chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells and malignant T cells has limited the development of CAR-T because of unintended CAR-T fratricide and an inability to harvest sufficient autologous T cells. Here, we describe a fratricide-resistant "off-the-shelf" CAR-T (or UCART7) that targets CD7+ T cell malignancies and, through CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, lacks both CD7 and T cell receptor alpha chain (TRAC) expression. UCART7 demonstrates efficacy against human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cell lines and primary T-ALL in vitro and in vivo without the induction of xenogeneic GvHD. Fratricide-resistant, allo-tolerant "off-the-shelf" CAR-T represents a strategy for treatment of relapsed and refractory T-ALL and non-Hodgkin's T cell lymphoma without a requirement for autologous T cells.

16.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 455, 2018 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386642

RESUMO

Hematopoietic clones harboring specific mutations may expand over time. However, it remains unclear how different cellular stressors influence this expansion. Here we characterize clonal hematopoiesis after two different cellular stressors: cytotoxic therapy and hematopoietic transplantation. Cytotoxic therapy results in the expansion of clones carrying mutations in DNA damage response genes, including TP53 and PPM1D. Analyses of sorted populations show that these clones are typically multilineage and myeloid-biased. Following autologous transplantation, most clones persist with stable chimerism. However, DNMT3A mutant clones often expand, while PPM1D mutant clones often decrease in size. To assess the leukemic potential of these expanded clones, we genotyped 134 t-AML/t-MDS samples. Mutations in non-TP53 DNA damage response genes are infrequent in t-AML/t-MDS despite several being commonly identified after cytotoxic therapy. These data suggest that different hematopoietic stressors promote the expansion of distinct long-lived clones, carrying specific mutations, whose leukemic potential depends partially on the mutations they harbor.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos da radiação , Leucemia/etiologia , Seleção Genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Clonais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Clonais/efeitos da radiação , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Feminino , Genes p53 , Humanos , Linfoma/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29440180

RESUMO

As in other brain tumors, multiple recurrences after complete resection and irradiation of supratentorial ependymoma are common and frequently result in patient death. This standard-of-care treatment was established in the pregenomic era without the ability to evaluate the effect that mutagenic therapies may exert on tumor evolution and in promoting resistance, recurrence, and death. We seized a rare opportunity to characterize treatment effects and the evolution of a single patient's ependymoma across four recurrences after different therapies. A combination of high-depth whole-genome and exome-based DNA sequencing of germline and tumor specimens, RNA sequencing of tumor specimens, and advanced computational analyses were used. Treatment with radiation and chemotherapies resulted in a substantial increase in mutational burden and diversification of the tumor subclonal architecture without eradication of the founding clone. Notable somatic alterations included a MEN1 driver, several epigenetic modifiers, and therapy-induced mutations that impacted multiple other cancer-relevant pathways and altered the neoantigen landscape. These genomic data provided new mechanistic insights into the genesis of ependymoma and pathways of resistance. They also revealed that radiation and chemotherapy were significant forces in shaping the increased subclonal complexity of each tumor recurrence while also failing to eradicate the founding clone. This raises the question of whether standard-of-care treatments have similar consequences in other patients with ependymoma and other types of brain tumors. If so, the perspective obtained by real-time genomic characterization of a tumor may be essential for making effective patient-specific and adaptive clinical decisions.

18.
Blood ; 131(4): 408-416, 2018 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29092827

RESUMO

Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) are congenital neutropenia syndromes with a high rate of leukemic transformation. Hematopoietic stressors may contribute to leukemic transformation by increasing the mutation rate in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and/or by promoting clonal hematopoiesis. We sequenced the exome of individual hematopoietic colonies derived from 13 patients with congenital neutropenia to measure total mutation burden and performed error-corrected sequencing on a panel of 46 genes on 80 patients with congenital neutropenia to assess for clonal hematopoiesis. An average of 3.6 ± 1.2 somatic mutations per exome was identified in HSPCs from patients with SCN compared with 3.9 ± 0.4 for healthy controls (P = NS). Clonal hematopoiesis due to mutations in TP53 was present in 48% (13/27) of patients with SDS but was not seen in healthy controls (0/17, P < .001) or patients with SCN (0/40, P < .001). Our SDS cohort was young (median age 6.3 years), and many of the patients had multiple TP53 mutations. Conversely, clonal hematopoiesis due to mutations of CSF3R was present in patients with SCN but was not detected in healthy controls or patients with SDS. These data show that hematopoietic stress, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, do not increase the mutation burden in HSPCs in congenital neutropenia. Rather, distinct hematopoietic stressors result in the selective expansion of HSPCs carrying specific gene mutations. In particular, in SDS there is enormous selective pressure to expand TP53-mutated HSPCs, suggesting that acquisition of TP53 mutations is an early, likely initiating event, in the transformation to myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia in patients with SDS.

19.
Exp Hematol ; 55: 19-33, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28760689

RESUMO

To detect diverse and novel RNA species comprehensively, we compared deep small RNA and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) methods applied to a primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) sample. We were able to discover previously unannotated small RNAs using deep sequencing of a library method using broader insert size selection. We analyzed the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) landscape in AML by comparing deep sequencing from multiple RNA-seq library construction methods for the sample that we studied and then integrating RNA-seq data from 179 AML cases. This identified lncRNAs that are completely novel, differentially expressed, and associated with specific AML subtypes. Our study revealed the complexity of the noncoding RNA transcriptome through a combined strategy of strand-specific small RNA and total RNA-seq. This dataset will serve as an invaluable resource for future RNA-based analyses.


Assuntos
Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Leucemia Mieloide/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Doença Aguda , Sequência de Bases , Análise por Conglomerados , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos
20.
Genome Res ; 27(5): 849-864, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28396521

RESUMO

The human reference genome assembly plays a central role in nearly all aspects of today's basic and clinical research. GRCh38 is the first coordinate-changing assembly update since 2009; it reflects the resolution of roughly 1000 issues and encompasses modifications ranging from thousands of single base changes to megabase-scale path reorganizations, gap closures, and localization of previously orphaned sequences. We developed a new approach to sequence generation for targeted base updates and used data from new genome mapping technologies and single haplotype resources to identify and resolve larger assembly issues. For the first time, the reference assembly contains sequence-based representations for the centromeres. We also expanded the number of alternate loci to create a reference that provides a more robust representation of human population variation. We demonstrate that the updates render the reference an improved annotation substrate, alter read alignments in unchanged regions, and impact variant interpretation at clinically relevant loci. We additionally evaluated a collection of new de novo long-read haploid assemblies and conclude that although the new assemblies compare favorably to the reference with respect to continuity, error rate, and gene completeness, the reference still provides the best representation for complex genomic regions and coding sequences. We assert that the collected updates in GRCh38 make the newer assembly a more robust substrate for comprehensive analyses that will promote our understanding of human biology and advance our efforts to improve health.


Assuntos
Mapeamento de Sequências Contíguas/métodos , Genoma Humano , Genômica/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Software , Mapeamento de Sequências Contíguas/normas , Genômica/normas , Haploidia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Polimorfismo Genético , Padrões de Referência , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas
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