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1.
Eye (Lond) ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420421

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To systematically review studies on refractive error after phacovitrectomy and phacoemulsification and to investigate factors associated with larger error. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was performed using PUBMED and EMBASE until May 2020. The articles were included in the study if they reported data about refractive error as the difference in spherical equivalent between actual vs. target refraction in patients who underwent phacovitrectomy and phacoemulsification according to the type of biometry (ultrasound or optical). An inverse variance meta-analysis technique was used to pool errors; standard deviations (SDs), which are an expression of random error, were reported descriptively as median and range of the 95% coefficient of reproducibility (95% CR: 1.96 SD). RESULTS: Twenty-one studies (197,353 eyes) were included. The mean error obtained using optical biometry was negligible for phacoemulsification (0.04 D, 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.12; 8 studies, 587 eyes) and was consistent with larger datasets using mixed biometric methods (0.02, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.04; 5 studies, 194,522 eyes). A trend towards hyperopia was found with ultrasound biometry after phacoemulsification (+0.21 D, 0.00-0.42 D; 7 studies, 394 eyes). Mean error after phacovitrectomy was clinically insignificant with optical biometry (-0.10 D, -0.22 to 0.02;, 8 studies, 453 eyes), and) and a mild myopic shift was possible with ultrasound biometry (-0.39 D, 95% CI: -0.68 to -0.09 D; 6 studies, 529 eyes). The 95% CR was greater and more variable with ultrasound biometry in patients who underwent phacovitrectomy (median 1.75 D, range 0.47-2.5) while it was consistent and lower with optical biometry in patients who underwent phacoemulsification (median 0.96 D, range 0.60-1.2]). CONCLUSIONS: Phacovitrectomy causes a mild myopic shift compared to phacoemulsification, which is clinically relevant only with ultrasound biometry. Furthermore, our review provides estimates of fixed and random error for postoperative vs. target spherical equivalent as a continuous variable, that is easy to use as benchmark for quality assurance.

2.
Am J Cardiol ; 143: 104-110, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359196

RESUMO

As transcatheter aortic valve Implantation (TAVI) moves to younger and lower risk patients with longer life expectancy, the long-term durability of TAVI is becoming an increasingly relevant issue. We sought to evaluate the long-term clinical outcome and prosthesis performance of the CoreValve self-expandable valve. Clinical registry of 182 patients consecutively treated with TAVI in a tertiary center from January 2009 to July 2017. Of these, 111 died during an average follow-up (FU) of 1,026 ± 812 days (median IQR: 745, 477 to 1,400 days; longest survival 11 years; 61% mortality at Kaplan-Meier analysis). At 1 month, functional profile improved in all survivors, with 93.9% of them achieving NYHA class I or II. At Cox analysis, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons score (HR: 1.55; p = 0.001), left ventricular ejection fraction <40% (HR: 1.65; p = 0.017) and incident acute kidney injury (HR: 1.96; p = 0.001) were independently associated with all-cause mortality. During FU, echocardiographically assessed mean transprosthetic aortic gradient remained substantially unchanged (from 9.0 ± 2.7 after TAVI to 9.0 ± 5.0 mm Hg at FU; p >0.05). Most patients had none and/or trivial (34%), or mild (58%), fewer had moderate (8%) and none had severe perivalvular leak, without significant change during FU. At 11 years, cumulative incidence of bioprosthetic valve failure and moderate structural valve deterioration (SVD) were 2.9% (95% CI 0.8% to 10%) and 9.3% (95% CI 3.3% to 26.7%), respectively. In conclusion, our registry confirmed that TAVI with the self-expandable CoreValve system was associated with favorable long-term clinical outcomes, with a reassuring low rate of significant bioprosthetic valve failure and moderate SVD.

3.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a rare systemic vasculitis. Cardiac specific involvement (CSI) is caused by coronary artery vasculitis, but also by myocardial eosinophilic infiltration. To date, the prevalence of CSI associated with EGPA is unresolved. Aim of this study was to systematically assess the prevalence and clinical impact of CSI in a consecutive outpatient EGPA population. METHODS: Between October 2018 and July 2019, we prospectively enrolled 52 consecutive EGPA patients. All underwent comprehensive evaluation including a standardized questionnaire, physical examination, 12-lead-ECG, echocardiography. Cardiac magnetic resonance and 24 h-Holter were performed as deemed clinically appropriate. Cardiac abnormalities were defined as CSI based on the likelihood of their relation to EGPA vasculitis, after exclusion of alternative diagnoses. RESULTS: 52 enrolled patients, mean age 59±1 years. Thirteen of the 52 patients (25%) were classified as CSI+. CSI was characterized by myocarditis in four patients, non-scar-related regional wall motions abnormalities (RWMA) in three, apical thrombosis in two (one also had RWMA), pericarditis in three and non-atherosclerotic coronary disease (Prinzmetal angina and coronaritis) in 2. Five (38%) of the 13 CSI+ patients, presented an apical aneurysm. Peak eosinophil count at diagnosis was higher in CSI+: 8000 /µl vs CSI-: 3000 /µl, p = 0.017. Overall, 2 patients had severe LV dysfunction, 5 required urgent hospitalization and 8 required long-term cardioactive therapy. CONCLUSIONS: CSI was present in one-quarter of patients, often associated with high peak eosinophils. Myocarditis, RWMA and apical aneurysms were the most common manifestations. Although rarely severe and life-threatening, CSI often required long-term cardioactive treatment.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186235

RESUMO

AIMS: Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) represents a powerful independent predictor of adverse outcome in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). No treatment for CMD exists. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor perindopril improves myocardial blood flow (MBF) in animal models of cardiac hypertrophy and in hypertensive patients. Whether HCM patients with CMD may benefit is unknown. METHODS: Fourteen HCM patients aged 18-60 years with CMD [MBF post 0.56 mg/kg dipyridamole (Dip) infusion <2.1 ml/min*g] were included. Presence of left ventricular outflow obstruction, hypertension and coronary artery disease were exclusion criteria. Perindopril was administered after the initial Dip 13N-NH3 PET study at 10 mg for 6 months. After wash-out, a second PET was performed. MBF before and after treatment was compared. RESULTS: No relevant associations were found between baseline MBF values and sex, genetics, history of angina, type of HCM (apical/classic), maximum left ventricular thickness and left ventricular mass. No significant improvement in Dip-MBF was observed with treatment (1.79 ±â€Š0.30 vs.1.76 ±â€Š0.26 ml/min*g at baseline; P = 0.59). A limited but significant improvement in Dip-MBF was seen only in the subset without evidence of fibrosis at cardiac MRI (n = 4; 28%; 2.03 ±â€Š0.13 vs.1.77 ±â€Š0.26 ml/min*g at baseline; P = 0.014). The drug was generally well tolerated: only one patient temporarily stopped the drug, because of cough. CONCLUSION: A 6-month perindopril treatment course in HCM patients with CMD was not associated with significant improvement in Dip-MBF. A limited but significant improvement was observed only in the subset of patients without myocardial fibrosis, suggesting potential utility in early disease stages.

5.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095428

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) associates with disability and frailty. Aim of this study was to evaluate in older AF patients, using artificial intelligence (AI), the relations between geriatric tools and daily standing and resting periods. We enrolled thirty-one > 65 years patients undergoing electrical cardioversion of AF (age: 79 ± 6 years; women: 41.9%; CHA2DS2-VASc: 3.7 ± 1.2; MMSE: 27.7 ± 2.7; GDS: 3.0 ± 2.8). The data of the first day following the procedure were analyzed using machine-learning techniques in a specifically designed cloud platform. Standing, activity, time (582 ± 139 min) was directly associated with MMSE and inversely with GDS. Sleep length was 472 ± 230 min. Light sleep, the longer resting phase, was inversely related to GDS. The Chest Effort Index, a measure of obstructive sleep apnea, grew with GDS. In conclusion, AI devices can be routinely used in improving older subjects' evaluation. A correlation exists between standing time, MMSE, and depressive symptoms. GDS associates to length and quality of sleep.

6.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 316, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI), age, left atrium (LA) dimension and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) have been linked to post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) after cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to better define the role of these risk factors. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study evaluated 249 patients (without prior atrial dysrhythmia) undergoing cardiac or aortic surgery. Prior to surgery, the following data were collected: age, BMI, LA diameter, LA area, LVEF, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), creatinine and the presence of arterial hypertension (AH) and diabetes. Intraoperative data such as operation time, total clamp time, cardiopulmonary bypass time, and presence of pericardial/pleural effusion were also collected. Only patients without pre- and post-surgery prophylactic anti-arrhythmic therapy were included. RESULTS: Patients with (N = 127, 51%) and without POAF (N = 122, 49%) were compared. No difference was observed for sex, LA diameter, LA area, LVEF, TSH, diabetes and use of ACE inhibitors or statins prior to intervention. Moreover, no difference was observed in terms of operation time, total clamp time, cardiopulmonary bypass time, and presence of pericardial/pleural effusion. However, patients with POAF were older (70.6 ± 10.7 vs. 60.4 ± 16.4 years, p = 0.001), had higher BMI (26.8 ± 4.5 vs. 24.9 ± 3.6 kg/m2, p = 0.001), higher baseline creatinine (1.06 ± 0.91 vs. 0.88 ± 0.32 mg/dL, p = 0.038) and a higher frequency of arterial hypertension (73.2% vs. 50%, p = 0.001) and Bentall procedure (24.4% vs. 9.8%, p = 0.023). Multivariate analysis showed that the only independent predictors of POAF were age (OR = 1.05, 95%CI 1.02-1.07, p = 0.001) and BMI (OR = 1.11 95%CI 1.03-1.2,p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that advanced age and a higher BMI are strong risk factors for POAF in patients without previous AF even in the presence of comparable LA dimensions and LVEF.

7.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(9): e007230, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the last 50 years, the epidemiology of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has changed because of increased awareness and availability of advanced diagnostic tools. We aim to describe the temporal trends in age, sex, and clinical characteristics at HCM diagnosis over >4 decades. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed records from the ongoing multinational Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy Registry. Overall, 7286 patients with HCM diagnosed at an age ≥18 years between 1961 and 2019 were included in the analysis and divided into 3 eras of diagnosis (<2000, 2000-2010, >2010). RESULTS: Age at diagnosis increased markedly over time (40±14 versus 47±15 versus 51±16 years, P<0.001), both in US and non-US sites, with a stable male-to-female ratio of about 3:2. Frequency of familial HCM declined over time (38.8% versus 34.3% versus 32.7%, P<0.001), as well as heart failure symptoms at presentation (New York Heart Association III/IV: 18.1% versus 15.8% versus 12.6%, P<0.001). Left ventricular hypertrophy became less marked over time (maximum wall thickness: 20±6 versus 18±5 versus 17±5 mm, P<0.001), while prevalence of obstructive HCM was greater in recent cohorts (peak gradient >30 mm Hg: 31.9% versus 39.3% versus 39.0%, P=0.001). Consistent with decreasing phenotypic severity, yield of pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants at genetic testing decreased over time (57.7% versus 45.6% versus 38.4%, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Evolving HCM populations include progressively greater representation of older patients with sporadic disease, mild phenotypes, and genotype-negative status. Such trend suggests a prominent role of imaging over genetic testing in promoting HCM diagnoses and urges efforts to understand genotype-negative disease eluding the classic monogenic paradigm.

8.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e040729, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Several physiological abnormalities that develop during COVID-19 are associated with increased mortality. In the present study, we aimed to develop a clinical risk score to predict the in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients, based on a set of variables available soon after the hospitalisation triage. SETTING: Retrospective cohort study of 516 patients consecutively admitted for COVID-19 to two Italian tertiary hospitals located in Northern and Central Italy were collected from 22 February 2020 (date of first admission) to 10 April 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive patients≥18 years admitted for COVID-19. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Simple clinical and laboratory findings readily available after triage were compared by patients' survival status ('dead' vs 'alive'), with the objective of identifying baseline variables associated with mortality. These were used to build a COVID-19 in-hospital mortality risk score (COVID-19MRS). RESULTS: Mean age was 67±13 years (mean±SD), and 66.9% were male. Using Cox regression analysis, tertiles of increasing age (≥75, upper vs <62 years, lower: HR 7.92; p<0.001) and number of chronic diseases (≥4 vs 0-1: HR 2.09; p=0.007), respiratory rate (HR 1.04 per unit increase; p=0.001), PaO2/FiO2 (HR 0.995 per unit increase; p<0.001), serum creatinine (HR 1.34 per unit increase; p<0.001) and platelet count (HR 0.995 per unit increase; p=0.001) were predictors of mortality. All six predictors were used to build the COVID-19MRS (Area Under the Curve 0.90, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.93), which proved to be highly accurate in stratifying patients at low, intermediate and high risk of in-hospital death (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19MRS is a rapid, operator-independent and inexpensive clinical tool that objectively predicts mortality in patients with COVID-19. The score could be helpful from triage to guide earlier assignment of COVID-19 patients to the most appropriate level of care.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Cuidados Críticos , Procedimentos Clínicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Medição de Risco/métodos , Triagem , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Clínicos/organização & administração , Procedimentos Clínicos/normas , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Triagem/métodos , Triagem/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Int J Cardiol ; 318: 94-100, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite numerous studies assessing the natural history of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), there is lack of data regarding the burden of hospitalization. Aim of this study was to describe prevalence, causes and predictors of cardiovascular hospitalization in patients with HCM. METHODS: We retrospectively included 253 patients with HCM undergoing first evaluation at our center. Enrolment criteria included cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) at baseline and > 1-year follow-up. All hospital admissions were recorded during follow-up and adjudicated as acute vs elective and cardiovascular (CV) vs non-cardiovascular (non-CV). RESULTS: During 6.4 ± 4.0 years there were 187 hospitalizations in 92 patients (36%, at a rate of 5.7%/year). Most were CV-related (158/187,84.5%; 4.8%/year) while non-CV admissions were 29/187 (15.5%, 0.88%/year). There was a slight predominance of elective (n = 96, 58%, 2.8%/year) vs acute (n = 62, 41.8%, 2.0%/year) CV hospitalizations. Independent predictors of CV hospitalization were baseline symptoms (NYHA class II vs I: HR 2.06; 95% CI 1.24-3.43, NYHA III-IV vs I: HR 3.05; 95% CI 1.40-6.65, p = .004), indexed left atrial (LA) volume (HR 1.03; 95% CI 1.01-1.04, p < .001), and lower indexed right ventricular end-diastolic volume iRVEDV) at cardiac magnetic resonance (HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.97-0.99, p = .03). CONCLUSIONS: In little over 6 years, CV hospitalization was required in over one-in-three of our HCM patients, often unplanned and due to acute disease-related complications. Symptomatic status, larger LA volume and reduced iRVEDV at baseline were independently associated with CV admissions. Strategies aimed at preventing hospitalizations are an important target to reduce the burden of disease in HCM patients.

11.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 22(2): 10, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993794

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has changed considerably over the years, although molecular therapies targeting core mechanisms of the disease are still lacking. This review provides an overview of the contemporary medical approach to patients with HCM, and of promising novel developments hopefully soon to enter the clinical arena. RECENT FINDINGS: Our perception of therapeutic targets for medical therapy in HCM is rapidly evolving. Novel approaches include myocardial metabolic modulation, late sodium current inhibition, and allosteric myosin inhibition, actively pursued to reduce and hopefully prevent the development of severe HCM phenotypes, improve symptom control, and preserve patients from disease-related complications. Clinical management of patients with HCM should be guided by in-depth knowledge of the complex mechanisms at the energetic, metabolic, and electrophysiologic level. Until new experimental therapies become available, tailored management of modifiable disease manifestations should be pursued, including lifestyle counseling and prevention of comorbidities.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/terapia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio , Humanos , Miocárdio
12.
Int J Cardiol ; 300: 191-195, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differential diagnosis of genetic causes of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is crucial for disease-specific therapy. We aim to describe the prevalence of Cardiac Amyloidosis (CA) among patients ≥40 years with an initial diagnosis of HCM referred for second opinion to national cardiomyopathy centres. METHODS: Consecutive patients aged ≥40 years referred with a tentative HCM diagnosis in the period 2014-2017 underwent clinical evaluation and genetic testing for HCM (including trans-thyretin-TTR). Patients with at least one red flag for CA underwent blood/urine tests, abdominal fat biopsy and/or bone-scintigraphy tracing and eventually ApoAI sequencing. RESULTS: Out of 343 patients (age 60 ±â€¯13 years), 251 (73%) carried a likely/pathogenic gene variant, including 12 (3.5%) in the CA-associated genes TTR (n = 11) and ApoAI (n = 1). Furthermore, 6 (2%) patients had a mutation in GLA. Among the remaining, mutation-negative patients, 26 with ≥1 CA red-flag were investigated further: 3 AL-CA and 17 wild-type-TTR-CA were identified. Ultimately, 32(9%) patients were diagnosed with CA. Prevalence of CA increased with age: 1/75 (1%) at age 40-49, 2/86 (2%) at age 50-59, 8/84 (9%) at age 60-69, 13/61 (21%) at age 70-79, 8/31 (26%) at age ≥80 (p for trend <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients referred with and initial diagnosis of HCM, CA was the most common unrecognized mimic (9% prevalence) and increased with age (from 1% at ages 40-49 years to 26% >80 years). Age at diagnosis should be considered one of the most relevant red flags for CA in patients with HCM phenotypes; however, there is no clear age cut-off mandating scintigraphy and other second level investigations in the absence of other features suggestive of CA.


Assuntos
Amiloidose/diagnóstico por imagem , Amiloidose/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/tendências , Centros de Atenção Terciária/tendências , Adulto , Idoso , Amiloidose/terapia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
13.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 27(17): 1821-1831, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698967

RESUMO

AIMS: Exercise performance is known to predict outcome in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), but whether sex-related differences exist is unresolved. We explored whether functional impairment, assessed by exercise echocardiography, has comparable predictive accuracy in females and males with HCM. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 292 HCM patients (46 ± 16 years, 72% males), consecutively referred for exercise echocardiography; 242 were followed for 5.9 ± 4.2 years. RESULTS: Peak exercise capacity was 6.5 ± 1.6 metabolic equivalents (METs). Sixty patients (21%) showed impaired exercise capacity (≤5 METs). Exercise performance was reduced in females, compared with males (5.6 ± 1.6 vs 6.9 ± 1.5 METs, p < 0.001; peak METs ≤ 5 in 40% vs 13%, p < 0.001), largely driven by a worse performance in women >50 years of age. At multivariable analysis, female sex was independently associated with impaired exercise capacity (odds ratio: 4.67; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.83-11.90; p = 0.001). During follow-up, 24 patients (10%) met the primary endpoint (a combination of cardiac death, heart failure requiring hospitalization, sustained ventricular tachycardia, appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator discharge, resuscitated sudden cardiac death and cardioembolic stroke). Event-free survival was reduced in females (p = 0.035 vs males). Peak METs were inversely related to outcome in males (hazard ratio (HR) per unit increase: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.39-0.84; p = 0.004) but not in females (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 0.66-2.24; p = 0.53). CONCLUSIONS: Female patients with HCM showed significant age-related impairment in functional capacity compared with males, particularly evident in post-menopausal age groups. While women were at greater risk of HCM-related complications and death, impaired exercise capacity predicted adverse outcome only in men. These findings suggest the need for sex-specific management strategies in HCM.

14.
Pharmacol Res ; 151: 104587, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809852

RESUMO

The pharmacological class of ß-blockers includes a plea of molecules with largely different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics with a protective effect that may span far beyond the cardiovascular system. Although all these compounds share the pharmacological blockade of the adrenergic receptors, each of them is characterized by specific pharmacological properties, including selectivity of action depending on the adrenergic receptors subtypes, intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA), lipid solubility, pharmacokinetic profile, and also other ancillary properties that impact their clinical effect. Their use in the treatment of hypertension has been extensively debated and at the moment a class indication is not present. However, in specific niche of patients, such as in those young individuals in which hypertension is mainly driven by a sympathetic hyperactivation, strong evidence pose ß-Blockers as a highly reasonable first-line treatment. Lipophilic ß-blockers, specifically propranolol and metoprolol, can cross the Blood Brain Barrier and have a Class A indication for the prophylactic treatment of migraine attacks. Moreover, since ß-adrenergic receptors affect the proliferative process of both cancer and immune cells, their blockade has been associated with metastasis reduction in several epithelial and solid organ tumors posing ß-Blockers as a new attractive, inexpensive and relatively safe therapeutic strategy in patients with several types of cancer. However, further dedicated prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled studies are needed to determine the real efficacy of these compounds.

15.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(1): 65-72, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693057

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are prone to body weight increase and obesity. Whether this predisposes these individuals to long-term adverse outcomes is still unresolved. Objective: To describe the association of body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) with long-term outcomes in patients with HCM in terms of overall disease progression, heart failure symptoms, and arrhythmias. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, retrospective data were analyzed from the ongoing prospective Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy Registry, an international database created by 8 high-volume HCM centers that includes more than 6000 patients who have been observed longitudinally for decades. Records from database inception up to the first quarter of 2018 were analyzed. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to BMI class (normal weight group, <25; preobesity group, 25-30; and obesity group, >30). Patients with 1 or more follow-up visits were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed from April to October 2018. Exposures: Association of baseline BMI with outcome was assessed. Main Outcome and Measures: Outcome was measured against overall and cardiovascular mortality, a heart failure outcome (ejection fraction less than 35%, New York Heart Association class III/IV symptoms, cardiac transplant, or assist device implantation), a ventricular arrhythmic outcome (sudden cardiac death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy), and an overall composite outcome (first occurrence of any component of the ventricular arrhythmic or heart failure composite end point, all-cause mortality, atrial fibrillation, or stroke). Results: Of the 3282 included patients, 2019 (61.5%) were male, and the mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 47 (15) years. These patients were observed for a median (interquartile range) of 6.8 (3.3-13.3) years. There were 962 patients in the normal weight group (29.3%), 1280 patients in the preobesity group (39.0%), and 1040 patients in the obesity group (31.7%). Patients with obesity were more symptomatic (New York Heart Association class of III/IV: normal weight, 87 [9.0%]; preobesity, 138 [10.8%]; obesity, 215 [20.7%]; P < .001) and more often had obstructive physiology (normal weight, 201 [20.9%]; preobesity, 327 [25.5%]; obesity, 337 [32.4%]; P < .001). At follow-up, obesity was independently associated with the HCM-related overall composite outcome (preobesity vs normal weight: hazard ratio [HR], 1.102; 95% CI, 0.920-1.322; P = .29; obesity vs normal weight: HR, 1.634; 95% CI, 1.332-1.919; P < .001) and the heart failure composite outcome (preobesity vs normal weight: HR, 1.192; 95% CI, 0.930-1.1530; P = .20; obesity vs normal weight: HR, 1.885; 95% CI, 1.485-2.393; P < .001) irrespective of age, sex, left atrium diameter, obstruction, and genetic status. Obesity increased the likelihood of atrial fibrillation but not of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Conclusions and Relevance: Obesity is highly prevalent among patients with HCM and is associated with increased likelihood of obstructive physiology and adverse outcomes. Strategies aimed at preventing obesity and weight increase may play an important role in management and prevention of disease-related complications.

16.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 89(2)2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148603

RESUMO

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has a significant impact on healthcare resources and while its occurrence in the elderly is increasing, its prognosis has not improved. Despite the prevalence of HFpEF, the understanding of its pathophysiology is still incomplete, and optimal treatment remains largely undefined. The net clinical benefit of medical treatment with ACE inhibitors, ARBs, MRAs and beta-blockers has led to the incorporation of these drugs into HF clinical practice guidelines. However, little or no progress has been done for patients with HFpEF and there are no convincing and validated therapies able to reduce mortality or morbidity. HFpEF is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome embracing varieties of phenotypes and could benefit from a phenotype-specific approach. In the era of precision medicine, targeted approaches have proved effective in various disciplinary medical settings and for this reason this modern approach should be encouraged also in cardiology. In elderly patients, multi-level strategies and interventions aimed at improving adherence to guidelines and tailoring therapy, could be the key to improving outcome, and to reducing costs related to HF-related re-admissions. In the present review we briefly discuss current information available regarding pathophysiology, outcome, treatment and safety of the most common drugs used in this "geriatric syndrome".


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico , Idoso , Humanos , Fenótipo , Prognóstico
17.
Int J Cardiol ; 273: 155-161, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30213605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether early vs. delayed referral to septal reduction therapies (SRT, alcohol septal ablation or surgical myectomy) bears prognostic relevance in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is unresolved. We analyzed the impact of SRT timing on the outcome of HOCM patients. METHODS: We followed 126 patients for 5 ±â€¯4 years after SRT (mean age 53 ±â€¯15 years; 55 post-ASA and 71 post-SM). Based on time-to-treatment (TTT; from HOCM diagnosis to SRT), patients were divided into three groups: "<3" years, N = 50; "3-5" years, N = 25; ">5" years, N = 51. RESULTS: Patients with TTT > 5 years were younger at diagnosis and more often had atrial fibrillation (AF). Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradients were comparable in the 3 TTT groups. Two patients died peri-operatively, all with TTT > 5. Long-term, 8 patients died (3 suddenly and 5 due to heart failure). Mortality increased progressively with TTT (2% vs. 4% vs. 12% for TTT "<3", "3-5", and ">5" years, p for trend = 0.039). Independent predictors of disease progression (new-onset AF, worsening to NYHA III/IV symptoms, re-intervention or death) were TTT ("3-5" vs. "<3" years: HR: 4.988, 95%CI: 1.394-17.843; ">5" vs. "<3" years: HR: 3.420, 95%CI: 1.258-9.293, overall p-value = 0.025), AF at baseline (HR: 1.896, 95%CI: 1.002-3.589, p = 0.036) and LVOT gradient (HR per mm Hg increase: 1.022, 95%CI: 1.007-1.024, p = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: Delay in SRT referral has significant impact on long-term outcome of patients with HOCM, particularly when >5 years from first detection of gradient, even when successful relief of symptoms and gradient is achieved. Earlier interventions are associated with lower complication rates and better prognosis, suggesting the importance of timely SRT to maximize treatment benefit and prevent late HOCM-related complications.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/mortalidade , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Septos Cardíacos/cirurgia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ablação por Cateter/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Septos Cardíacos/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo para o Tratamento/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Gastroenterology ; 155(3): 771-783.e3, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29906417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: MicroRNA (miRNA) is highly stable in biospecimens and provides tissue-specific profiles, making it a useful biomarker of carcinogenesis. We aimed to discover a set of miRNAs that could accurately discriminate Barrett's esophagus (BE) from normal esophageal tissue and to test its diagnostic accuracy when applied to samples collected by a noninvasive esophageal cell sampling device. METHODS: We analyzed miRNA expression profiles of 2 independent sets of esophageal biopsy tissues collected during endoscopy from 38 patients with BE and 26 patients with normal esophagus (controls) using Agilent microarray and Nanostring nCounter assays. Consistently up-regulated miRNAs were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction in esophageal tissues collected by Cytosponge from patients with BE vs without BE. miRNAs were expressed from plasmids and antisense oligonucleotides were expressed in normal esophageal squamous cells; effects on proliferation and gene expression patterns were analyzed. RESULTS: We identified 15 miRNAs that were significantly up-regulated in BE vs control tissues. Of these, 11 (MIR215, MIR194, MIR 192, MIR196a, MIR199b, MIR10a, MIR145, MIR181a, MIR30a, MIR7, and MIR199a) were validated in Cytosponge samples. The miRNAs with the greatest increases in BE tissues (7.9-fold increase in expression or more, P < .0001: MIR196a, MIR192, MIR194, and MIR215) each identified BE vs control tissues with area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.82 or more. We developed an optimized multivariable logistic regression model, based on expression levels of 6 miRNAs (MIR7, MIR30a, MIR181a, MIR192, MIR196a, and MIR199a), that identified patients with BE with an AUC value of 0.89, 86.2% sensitivity, and 91.6% specificity. Expression level of MIR192, MIR196a, MIR199a, combined that of trefoil factor 3, identified patients with BE with an AUC of 0.93, 93.1% sensitivity, and 93.7% specificity. Hypomethylation was observed in the promoter region of the highly up-regulated cluster MIR192-MIR194. Overexpression of these miRNAs in normal esophageal squamous cells increased their proliferation, via GRHL3 and PTEN signaling. CONCLUSIONS: In analyses of miRNA expression patterns of BE vs non-BE tissues, we identified a profile that can identify Cytosponge samples from patients with BE with an AUC of 0.93. Expression of MIR194 is increased in BE samples via epigenetic mechanisms that might be involved in BE pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Esôfago de Barrett/diagnóstico , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Esôfago de Barrett/genética , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Epigênese Genética/genética , Esôfago/metabolismo , Esôfago/patologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Retina ; 38(5): 883-890, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28426628

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pars plana vitrectomy has been reported to increase the risk of ocular hypertension and open-angle glaucoma. The authors conducted a systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized studies to compare the incidence of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension in vitrectomized versus nonvitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE and EMBASE until August 2016. Data on ocular hypertension and open-angle glaucoma incidence and mean intraocular pressure after at least 1 year were pooled using random-effects metaanalysis models. Because only nonrandomized studies were retrieved, ROBINS-I tool was used to assess risk of bias in the review. RESULTS: Seven included studies had a paired design to compare the outcomes of vitrectomized versus fellow eyes, with mean follow-up of least 12 months. Four studies (851 patients) provided data on open-angle glaucoma: incidence in vitrectomized versus non-vitrectomized eyes was 7.8% and 4.8%, respectively, yielding a metaanalytic odds ratio of 1.67 (95% CI: 1.08-2.57). Six studies (1,060 patients) reported on the occurrence of ocular hypertension, which was 5.8% in vitrectomized eyes versus 3.1% in fellow eyes (odds ratio: 2.03, 95% CI: 0.97-4.22), without significant differences in the mean postoperative intraocular pressure (mean difference 0.31 mmHg, 95% CI: -0.26 to 0.89). CONCLUSION: Although the review found increased risk of open-angle glaucoma with pars plana vitrectomy, the studies were heterogenous or inconsistent regarding ocular hypertension and intraocular pressure increase. Larger studies should be conducted in homogenous cohorts of patients undergoing macular surgery, excluding complex conditions such as retinal detachment or diabetic retinopathy.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/etiologia , Hipertensão Ocular/etiologia , Vitrectomia/efeitos adversos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/epidemiologia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Hipertensão Ocular/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Ocular/fisiopatologia , Retina/patologia
20.
Heart Rhythm ; 13(2): 457-63, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26362577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) is a promising option for patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Patients with HCM can present markedly abnormal electrocardiograms (ECGs), and there are no data on what percentage of patients with HCM fail the prerequisite S-ICD vector screening. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the failure rate of the prerequisite vector screening using 1 or 2 acceptable vectors stratified for risk profile for sudden cardiac death and predictors of failure. METHODS: ECG recordings from consecutive patients with HCM simulating the S-ICD sensing vectors were analyzed with the S-ICD screening tool. Eligibility was defined by 1 or 2 appropriate vectors. Medical history, ultrasound characteristics, and 12-lead ECG characteristics were analyzed and the individual arrhythmic risk at 5 year was determined to study potential predictors of failure. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-five (118 men; mean age 51 ± 16 years) patients were analyzed. Twenty-two patients (13%) had a high risk of sudden cardiac death, 33 (20%) had intermediate to high risk, and 110 (67%) had low risk. Twenty-six patients (16%) had no suitable vector, including 8 of 22 high-risk patients (36%). The primary cause of failure was high T-wave voltages in 25% of the vectors analyzed. T-wave inversions in >2 leads on the surface 12-lead ECG (odds ratio 15.6; 95% confidence interval 4.9-50.3; P < .001) and prior myectomy (odds ratio 8.4; 95% confidence interval 2.1-33.1; P = .002) were significantly associated with screening failure in a multivariable model. CONCLUSION: Currently available preimplant screening algorithms recommended by the manufacturer are associated with a significant failure rate in patients with HCM, particularly in the high-risk subgroup.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/efeitos adversos , Cardioversão Elétrica , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Cardioversão Elétrica/efeitos adversos , Cardioversão Elétrica/instrumentação , Cardioversão Elétrica/métodos , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Seleção de Pacientes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
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