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2.
Biomedicines ; 9(9)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572414

RESUMO

The synergic combination of D-dimer (as proxy of thrombotic/vascular injury) and static compliance (as proxy of parenchymal injury) in predicting mortality in COVID-19-ARDS has not been systematically evaluated. The objective is to determine whether the combination of elevated D-dimer and low static compliance can predict mortality in patients with COVID-19-ARDS. A "training sample" (March-June 2020) and a "testing sample" (September 2020-January 2021) of adult patients invasively ventilated for COVID-19-ARDS were collected in nine hospitals. D-dimer and compliance in the first 24 h were recorded. Study outcome was all-cause mortality at 28-days. Cut-offs for D-dimer and compliance were identified by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Mutually exclusive groups were selected using classification tree analysis with chi-square automatic interaction detection. Time to death in the resulting groups was estimated with Cox regression adjusted for SOFA, sex, age, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and sample (training/testing). "Training" and "testing" samples amounted to 347 and 296 patients, respectively. Three groups were identified: D-dimer ≤ 1880 ng/mL (LD); D-dimer > 1880 ng/mL and compliance > 41 mL/cmH2O (LD-HC); D-dimer > 1880 ng/mL and compliance ≤ 41 mL/cmH2O (HD-LC). 28-days mortality progressively increased in the three groups (from 24% to 35% and 57% (training) and from 27% to 39% and 60% (testing), respectively; p < 0.01). Adjusted mortality was significantly higher in HD-LC group compared with LD (HR = 0.479, p < 0.001) and HD-HC (HR = 0.542, p < 0.01); no difference was found between LD and HD-HC. In conclusion, combination of high D-dimer and low static compliance identifies a clinical phenotype with high mortality in COVID-19-ARDS.

4.
Respir Care ; 66(12): 1797-1804, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic increased the number of patients needing invasive mechanical ventilation, either through an endotracheal tube or through a tracheostomy. Tracheomalacia is a rare but potentially severe complication of mechanical ventilation, which can significantly complicate the weaning process. The aim of this study was to describe the strategies of airway management in mechanically ventilated patients with respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2, the incidence of severe tracheomalacia, and investigate the factors associated with its occurrence. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center study was performed in an Italian teaching hospital. All adult subjects admitted to the ICU between February 24, 2020, and June 30, 2020, treated with invasive mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure caused by SARS-CoV-2 were included. Clinical data were collected on the day of ICU admission, whereas information regarding airway management was collected daily. RESULTS: A total of 151 subjects were included in the study. On admission, ARDS severity was mild in 21%, moderate in 62%, and severe in 17% of the cases, with an overall mortality of 40%. A tracheostomy was performed in 73 (48%), open surgical technique in 54 (74%), and percutaneous Ciaglia technique in 19 (26%). Subjects who had a tracheostomy performed had, compared to the other subjects, a longer duration of mechanical ventilation and longer ICU and hospital stay. Tracheomalacia was diagnosed in 8 (5%). The factors associated with tracheomalacia were female sex, obesity, and tracheostomy. CONCLUSIONS: In our population, approximately 50% of subjects with ARDS due to SARS-CoV-2 were tracheostomized. Tracheostomized subjects had a longer ICU and hospital stay. In our population, 5% were diagnosed with tracheomalacia. This percentage is 10 times higher than what is reported in available literature, and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Traqueomalácia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Traqueostomia/efeitos adversos
6.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(9): 995-1008, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373952

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the daily values and trends over time of relevant clinical, ventilatory and laboratory parameters during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay and their association with outcome in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). METHODS: In this retrospective-prospective multicentric study, we enrolled COVID-19 patients admitted to Italian ICUs from February 22 to May 31, 2020. Clinical data were daily recorded. The time course of 18 clinical parameters was evaluated by a polynomial maximum likelihood multilevel linear regression model, while a full joint modeling was fit to study the association with ICU outcome. RESULTS: 1260 consecutive critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted in 24 ICUs were enrolled. 78% were male with a median age of 63 [55-69] years. At ICU admission, the median ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) was 122 [89-175] mmHg. 79% of patients underwent invasive mechanical ventilation. The overall mortality was 34%. Both the daily values and trends of respiratory system compliance, PaO2/FiO2, driving pressure, arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, creatinine, C-reactive protein, ferritin, neutrophil, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, and platelets were associated with survival, while for lactate, pH, bilirubin, lymphocyte, and urea only the daily values were associated with survival. The trends of PaO2/FiO2, respiratory system compliance, driving pressure, creatinine, ferritin, and C-reactive protein showed a higher association with survival compared to the daily values. CONCLUSION: Daily values or trends over time of parameters associated with acute organ dysfunction, acid-base derangement, coagulation impairment, or systemic inflammation were associated with patient survival.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estado Terminal , Idoso , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
7.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 39, 2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281575

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: The COVID-19 pandemic drastically strained the health systems worldwide, obligating the reassessment of how healthcare is delivered. In Lombardia, Italy, a Regional Emergency Committee (REC) was established and the regional health system reorganized, with only three hospitals designated as hubs for trauma care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of this reorganization of regional care, comparing the distribution of patients before and during the COVID-19 outbreak and to describe changes in the epidemiology of severe trauma among the two periods. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted using retrospectively collected data from the Regional Trauma Registry of Lombardia (LTR). We compared the data of trauma patients admitted to three hub hospitals before the COVID-19 outbreak (September 1 to November 19, 2019) with those recorded during the pandemic (February 21 to May 10, 2020) in the same hospitals. Demographic data, level of pre-hospital care (Advanced Life Support-ALS, Basic Life Support-BLS), type of transportation, mechanism of injury (MOI), abbreviated injury score (AIS, 1998 version), injury severity score (ISS), revised trauma score (RTS), and ICU admission and survival outcome of all the patients admitted to the three trauma centers designed as hubs, were reviewed. Screening for COVID-19 was performed with nasopharyngeal swabs, chest ultrasound, and/or computed tomography. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, trauma patients admitted to the hubs increased (46.4% vs 28.3%, p < 0.001) with an increase in pre-hospital time (71.8 vs 61.3 min, p < 0.01), while observed in hospital mortality was unaffected. TRISS, ISS, AIS, and ICU admission were similar in both periods. During the COVID-19 outbreak, we observed substantial changes in MOI of severe trauma patients admitted to three hubs, with increases of unintentional (31.9% vs 18.5%, p < 0.05) and intentional falls (8.4% vs 1.2%, p < 0.05), whereas the pandemic restrictions reduced road- related injuries (35.6% vs 60%, p < 0.05). Deaths on scene were significantly increased (17.7% vs 6.8%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 outbreak affected the epidemiology of severe trauma patients. An increase in trauma patient admissions to a few designated facilities with high level of care obtained satisfactory results, while COVID-19 patients overwhelmed resources of most other hospitals.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde/tendências , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Sistema de Registros , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
10.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(10): 1091-1099, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lombardy was the epicenter in Italy of the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic. To face the contagion growth, from March 8 to May 8, 2020, a regional law redesigned the hub-and-spoke system for time-dependent diseases to better allocate resources for COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We report the reorganization of the major hospital in Lombardy during COVID-19 pandemic, including the rearrangement of its ICU beds to face COVID-19 pandemic and fulfill its role as extended hub for time-dependent diseases while preserving transplant activity. To highlight the impact of the emergently planned hub-and-spoke system, all patients admitted to a COVID-19-free ICU hub for trauma, neurosurgical emergencies and stroke during the two-month period were retrospectively collected and compared to 2019 cohort. Regional data on organ procurement was retrieved. Observed-to-expected (OE) in-ICU mortality ratios were computed to test the impact of the pandemic on patients affected by time-dependent diseases. RESULTS: Dynamic changes in ICU resource allocation occurred according to local COVID-19 epidemiology/trends of patients referred for time-dependent diseases. The absolute increase of admissions for trauma, neurosurgical emergencies and stroke was roughly two-fold. Patients referred to the hub were older and characterized by more severe conditions. An increase in crude mortality was observed, though OE ratios for in-ICU mortality were not statistically different when comparing 2020 vs. 2019. An increase in local organ procurement was observed, limiting the debacle of regional transplant activity. CONCLUSIONS: We described the effects of a regional emergently planned hub-and-spoke system for time-dependent diseases settled in the epicenter of COVID-19 pandemic in Italy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 574091, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149401

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus SARS-CoV2 is spreading over millions of people worldwide, leading to thousands of deaths, even among the healthcare providers. Italy has registered the deaths of 337 physicians and more than 200 nurses as of March 14, 2021. Anesthesiologists are at higher risk as they are the care providers in both ICU and operating rooms.Although the vaccination of healthcare providers has been the prioirity, physicians are still continually exposed to the virus and potentially risk contagion and must thus protect themselves and their patients from the risks of infection while providing the best care to their surgical patients.Regional anesthesia allows for a reduction in airway manipulation, reducing environmental contamination as a result. Furthermore, regional anesthesia reduces the opioid requirements as well as the muscle paralysis due to muscle-relaxants and should be recommended whenever possible in COVID-19 patients. Our aim is to evaluate the advantages and criticisms of regional anesthesia in the management of surgical patients in the pandemic age.

12.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 155, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The surge of critically ill patients due to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) overwhelmed critical care capacity in areas of northern Italy. Anesthesia machines have been used as alternatives to traditional ICU mechanical ventilators. However, the outcomes for patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure cared for with Anesthesia Machines is currently unknow. We hypothesized that COVID-19 patients receiving care with Anesthesia Machines would have worse outcomes compared to standard practice. METHODS: We designed a retrospective study of patients admitted with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis at a large tertiary urban hospital in northern Italy. Two care units were included: a 27-bed standard ICU and a 15-bed temporary unit emergently opened in an operating room setting. Intubated patients assigned to Anesthesia Machines (AM group) were compared to a control cohort treated with standard mechanical ventilators (ICU-VENT group). Outcomes were assessed at 60-day follow-up. A multivariable Cox regression analysis of risk factors between survivors and non-survivors was conducted to determine the adjusted risk of death for patients assigned to AM group. RESULTS: Complete daily data from 89 mechanically ventilated patients consecutively admitted to the two units were analyzed. Seventeen patients were included in the AM group, whereas 72 were in the ICU-VENT group. Disease severity and intensity of treatment were comparable between the two groups. The 60-day mortality was significantly higher in the AM group compared to the ICU-vent group (12/17 vs. 27/72, 70.6% vs. 37.5%, respectively, p = 0.016). Allocation to AM group was associated with a significantly increased risk of death after adjusting for covariates (HR 4.05, 95% CI: 1.75-9.33, p = 0.001). Several incidents and complications were reported with Anesthesia Machine care, raising safety concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that care associated with the use of Anesthesia Machines is inadequate to provide long-term critical care to patients with COVID-19. Added safety risks must be considered if no other option is available to treat severely ill patients during the ongoing pandemic. CLINICAL TRIAL NUMBER: Not applicable.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/instrumentação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
J Hepatol ; 75(3): 610-622, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver transplantation (LT) has been proposed as an effective salvage therapy even for the sickest patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). This large collaborative study was designed to assess the current clinical practice and outcomes of patients with ACLF who are wait-listed for LT in Europe. METHODS: This was a retrospective study including 308 consecutive patients with ACLF, listed in 20 centres across 8 European countries, from January 2018 to June 2019. RESULTS: A total of 2,677 patients received a LT: 1,216 (45.4%) for decompensated cirrhosis. Of these, 234 (19.2%) had ACLF at LT: 58 (4.8%) had ACLF-1, 78 (6.4%) had ACLF-2, and 98 (8.1%) had ACLF-3. Wide variations were observed amongst countries: France and Germany had high rates of ACLF-2/3 (27-41%); Italy, Switzerland, Poland and the Netherlands had medium rates (9-15%); and the United Kingdom and Spain had low rates (3-5%) (p <0.0001). The 1-year probability of survival after LT for patients with ACLF was 81% (95% CI 74-87). Pre-LT arterial lactate levels >4 mmol/L (hazard ratio [HR] 3.14; 95% CI 1.37-7.19), recent infection from multidrug resistant organisms (HR 3.67; 95% CI 1.63-8.28), and renal replacement therapy (HR 2.74; 95% CI 1.37-5.51) were independent predictors of post-LT mortality. During the same period, 74 patients with ACLF died on the waiting list. In an intention-to-treat analysis, 1-year survival of patients with ACLF on the LT waiting list was 73% for ACLF-1 or -2 and 50% for ACLF-3. CONCLUSION: The results reveal wide variations in the listing of patients with ACLF in Europe despite favourable post-LT survival. Risk factors for mortality were identified, enabling a more precise prognostic assessment of patients with ACLF. LAY SUMMARY: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a severe clinical condition for which liver transplantation is an effective therapeutic option. This study has demonstrated that in Europe, referral and access to liver transplantation (LT) for patients with ACLF needs to be harmonised to avoid inequities. Post-LT survival for patients with ACLF was >80% after 1 year and some factors have been identified to help select patients with favourable outcomes.

14.
EClinicalMedicine ; 34: 100815, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997730

RESUMO

Background: Though variable, many major metropolitan cities reported profound and unprecedented increases in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in early 2020. This study examined the relative magnitude of those increases and their relationship to COVID-19 prevalence. Methods: EMS (9-1-1 system) medical directors for 50 of the largest U.S. cities agreed to provide the aggregate, de-identified, pre-existing monthly tallies of OHCA among adults (age >18 years) occurring between January and June 2020 within their respective jurisdictions. Identical comparison data were also provided for corresponding time periods in 2018 and 2019.  Equivalent data were obtained from the largest cities in Italy, United Kingdom and France, as well as Perth, Australia and Auckland, New Zealand. Findings: Significant OHCA escalations generally paralleled local prevalence of COVID-19. During April, most U.S. cities (34/50) had >20% increases in OHCA versus 2018-2019 which reflected high local COVID-19 prevalence. Thirteen observed 1·5-fold increases in OHCA and three COVID-19 epicenters had >100% increases (2·5-fold in New York City). Conversely, cities with lesser COVID-19 impact observed unchanged (or even diminished) OHCA numbers. Altogether (n = 50), on average, OHCA cases/city rose 59% during April (p = 0·03). By June, however, after mitigating COVID-19 spread, cities with the highest OHCA escalations returned to (or approached) pre-COVID OHCA numbers while cities minimally affected by COVID-19 during April (and not experiencing OHCA increases), then had marked OHCA escalations when COVID-19 began to surge locally. European, Australian, and New Zealand cities mirrored the U.S. experience. Interpretation: Most metropolitan cities experienced profound escalations of OHCA generally paralleling local prevalence of COVID-19.  Most of these patients were pronounced dead without COVID-19 testing. Funding: No funding was involved. Cities provided de-identified aggregate data collected routinely for standard quality assurance functions.

15.
Dimens Crit Care Nurs ; 40(4): 248-256, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033446

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the implementation of an intensive care unit (ICU) diary in an Italian general ICU. METHODS: A mixed-methods pilot study was performed, enrolling all patients who received an ICU diary in an Italian ICU during the study period. RESULTS: Study results are presented in 2 sections: (1) diary evaluation and content themes and (2) follow-up program results. Sixty-six patients were assessed for eligibility. Diary administration was possible in 31 patients (47%). The overall diary entries, in 31 analyzed diaries, were 1331, with a median of 25 entries (interquartile range, 16-57 entries) for each diary. Participants' relatives and friends wrote a median of 1.2 (0.3-1.6), and nurses wrote 1.1 (0.8-1.2). Other ICU staff wrote a total of 24 entries (2%). Follow-up results revealed low incidence of delirium detected in only 1 patient at the 7-day visit (3%). The median value of PTSS-10 (Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms) score was 12 (3.5-12) at the 7-day visit, 6 (1.5-12) at 3 months' telephone interview, and 12 (1.5-17) at 6 months' visit. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first Italian report about the introduction of an ICU diary. The diaries were easily implemented in our clinical practice as a "low-cost" initiative. In our study, nurses and participants' relatives and friends wrote a similar number of entries in each analyzed diary. This project could be effective in reducing survivors' delirium and post-traumatic stress disorder and in implementing mutual understanding between clinical staff and relatives during ICU stay.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália , Projetos Piloto
16.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 128, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the use of prone position in intubated, invasively ventilated patients with Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Aim of this study is to investigate the use and effect of prone position in this population during the first 2020 pandemic wave. METHODS: Retrospective, multicentre, national cohort study conducted between February 24 and June 14, 2020, in 24 Italian Intensive Care Units (ICU) on adult patients needing invasive mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure caused by COVID-19. Clinical data were collected on the day of ICU admission. Information regarding the use of prone position was collected daily. Follow-up for patient outcomes was performed on July 15, 2020. The respiratory effects of the first prone position were studied in a subset of 78 patients. Patients were classified as Oxygen Responders if the PaO2/FiO2 ratio increased ≥ 20 mmHg during prone position and as Carbon Dioxide Responders if the ventilatory ratio was reduced during prone position. RESULTS: Of 1057 included patients, mild, moderate and severe ARDS was present in 15, 50 and 35% of patients, respectively, and had a resulting mortality of 25, 33 and 41%. Prone position was applied in 61% of the patients. Patients placed prone had a more severe disease and died significantly more (45% vs. 33%, p < 0.001). Overall, prone position induced a significant increase in PaO2/FiO2 ratio, while no change in respiratory system compliance or ventilatory ratio was observed. Seventy-eight % of the subset of 78 patients were Oxygen Responders. Non-Responders had a more severe respiratory failure and died more often in the ICU (65% vs. 38%, p = 0.047). Forty-seven % of patients were defined as Carbon Dioxide Responders. These patients were older and had more comorbidities; however, no difference in terms of ICU mortality was observed (51% vs. 37%, p = 0.189 for Carbon Dioxide Responders and Non-Responders, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, prone position has been widely adopted to treat mechanically ventilated patients with respiratory failure. The majority of patients improved their oxygenation during prone position, most likely due to a better ventilation perfusion matching. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT04388670.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Intubação/normas , Posicionamento do Paciente/normas , Decúbito Ventral , Respiração Artificial/normas , Decúbito Dorsal , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Chest ; 160(2): 454-465, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few small studies have described hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) occurring in patients with COVID-19. RESEARCH QUESTION: What characteristics in critically ill patients with COVID-19 are associated with HAIs and how are HAIs associated with outcomes in these patients? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Multicenter retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data including adult patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to eight Italian hub hospitals from February 20, 2020, through May 20, 2020. Descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariate Weibull regression models were used to assess incidence, microbial cause, resistance patterns, risk factors (ie, demographics, comorbidities, exposure to medication), and impact on outcomes (ie, ICU discharge, length of ICU and hospital stays, and duration of mechanical ventilation) of microbiologically confirmed HAIs. RESULTS: Of the 774 included patients, 359 patients (46%) demonstrated 759 HAIs (44.7 infections/1,000 ICU patient-days; 35% multidrug-resistant [MDR] bacteria). Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP; n = 389 [50%]), bloodstream infections (BSIs; n = 183 [34%]), and catheter-related BSIs (n = 74 [10%]) were the most frequent HAIs, with 26.0 (95% CI, 23.6-28.8) VAPs per 1,000 intubation-days, 11.7 (95% CI, 10.1-13.5) BSIs per 1,000 ICU patient-days, and 4.7 (95% CI, 3.8-5.9) catheter-related BSIs per 1,000 ICU patient-days. Gram-negative bacteria (especially Enterobacterales) and Staphylococcus aureus caused 64% and 28% of cases of VAP, respectively. Variables independently associated with infection were age, positive end expiratory pressure, and treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics at admission. Two hundred thirty-four patients (30%) died in the ICU (15.3 deaths/1,000 ICU patient-days). Patients with HAIs complicated by septic shock showed an almost doubled mortality rate (52% vs 29%), whereas noncomplicated infections did not affect mortality. HAIs prolonged mechanical ventilation (median, 24 days [interquartile range (IQR), 14-39 days] vs 9 days [IQR, 5-13 days]; P < .001), ICU stay (24 days [IQR, 16-41 days] vs 9 days [IQR, 6-14 days]; P = .003), and hospital stay (42 days [IQR, 25-59 days] vs 23 days [IQR, 13-34 days]; P < .001). INTERPRETATION: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are at high risk for HAIs, especially VAPs and BSIs resulting from MDR organisms. HAIs prolong mechanical ventilation and hospitalization, and HAIs complicated by septic shock almost double mortality. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT04388670; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Infecção Hospitalar/complicações , Idoso , Estado Terminal , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/complicações , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/epidemiologia
19.
JAMA ; 325(12): 1164-1172, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755076

RESUMO

Importance: Tracheal intubation is one of the most commonly performed and high-risk interventions in critically ill patients. Limited information is available on adverse peri-intubation events. Objective: To evaluate the incidence and nature of adverse peri-intubation events and to assess current practice of intubation in critically ill patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: The International Observational Study to Understand the Impact and Best Practices of Airway Management in Critically Ill Patients (INTUBE) study was an international, multicenter, prospective cohort study involving consecutive critically ill patients undergoing tracheal intubation in the intensive care units (ICUs), emergency departments, and wards, from October 1, 2018, to July 31, 2019 (August 28, 2019, was the final follow-up) in a convenience sample of 197 sites from 29 countries across 5 continents. Exposures: Tracheal intubation. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the incidence of major adverse peri-intubation events defined as at least 1 of the following events occurring within 30 minutes from the start of the intubation procedure: cardiovascular instability (either: systolic pressure <65 mm Hg at least once, <90 mm Hg for >30 minutes, new or increase need of vasopressors or fluid bolus >15 mL/kg), severe hypoxemia (peripheral oxygen saturation <80%) or cardiac arrest. The secondary outcomes included intensive care unit mortality. Results: Of 3659 patients screened, 2964 (median age, 63 years; interquartile range [IQR], 49-74 years; 62.6% men) from 197 sites across 5 continents were included. The main reason for intubation was respiratory failure in 52.3% of patients, followed by neurological impairment in 30.5%, and cardiovascular instability in 9.4%. Primary outcome data were available for all patients. Among the study patients, 45.2% experienced at least 1 major adverse peri-intubation event. The predominant event was cardiovascular instability, observed in 42.6% of all patients undergoing emergency intubation, followed by severe hypoxemia (9.3%) and cardiac arrest (3.1%). Overall ICU mortality was 32.8%. Conclusions and Relevance: In this observational study of intubation practices in critically ill patients from a convenience sample of 197 sites across 29 countries, major adverse peri-intubation events-in particular cardiovascular instability-were observed frequently.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/terapia , Hipotensão/etiologia , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Idoso , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Erros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
20.
ASAIO J ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788801

RESUMO

Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vv-ECMO) represents one of the most advanced respiratory support for patients suffering from severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. During vv-ECMO a certain amount of extracorporeal oxygenated blood can flow back from the reinfusion into the drainage cannula without delivering oxygen to the patient. Detection and quantification of this dynamic phenomenon, defined recirculation, are critical to optimize the ECMO efficiency. Our study aimed to measure the recirculation fraction (RF) using a thermodilution technique. We built an in vitro circuit to simulate patients undergoing vv-ECMO (ECMO flow: 1.5, 3, and 4.5 L/min) with different cardiac output, using a recirculation bridge to achieve several known RFs (from 0% to 50%). The RF, computed as the ratio of the area under temperature-time curves (AUC) of the drainage and reinfusion, was significantly related to the set RF (AUC ratio (%) = 0.979 × RF (%) + 0.277%, p < 0.0001), but it was not dependent on tested ECMO and cardiac output values. A Bland-Altman analysis showed an AUC ratio bias (precision) of -0.21% for the overall data. Test-retest reliability showed an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.993. This study proved the technical feasibility and computation validity of the applied thermodilution technique in computing vv-ECMO RF.

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