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1.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 183: 113137, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones and rifampicin are antibiotics frequently used for the treatment of osteoarticular infections, and their therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a rapid and selective method of simultaneous quantification of levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin and rifampicin with short pretreatment and run times in order to be easily used in clinical practice. METHODS: After a simple protein precipitation of plasma samples, the chromatographic separation was performed using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography system coupled with mass tandem spectrometry in a positive ionization mode. The mobile phase consisted of a gradient elution of water-formic acid (100:0.1, v/v)-ammonium acetate 2 mM (A) and methanol-formic acid (100:0.1, v/v)-ammonium acetate 2 mM (B) at a flow rate at 0.3 mL/min. RESULTS: Analysis time was 5 min per run, and all analytes and internal standards eluted within 0.85-1.69 minutes. The calibration curves were linear over the range from 0.5-30 µg/mL for levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin and rifampicin with linear regression coefficients above 0.995 for all analytes. The intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation were below 10 % for lower and higher concentration. This method was successfully applied to drug monitoring in patients with an osteoarticular infection. CONCLUSION: A simple, rapid, and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin and rifampicin in human plasma.

3.
Therapie ; 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992452

RESUMO

AIMS: Following the serious adverse events that occurred in January 2016 during the BIA 10-2474 First-in-Human study, the French Ministry of Health asked the Regional Health Agencies to inspect operations at all research sites conducting phase I/II clinical trials of experimental drugs. The aim of this study was to assess the medical relevance of the inspections made in Île-de-France (Paris region) in 2017. METHODS: All 30 sites of Île-de-France region fully authorized to perform phase I/II trials were inspected by a public health physician and a public health pharmacist. Their reported list of observations was submitted to three physicians with longstanding experience of early pharmacology studies performed in academic or private research facilities. These physicians were asked to adjudicate each observation according to their perceived medical importance regarding safety. Adjudications were first performed separately and disagreements were later settled during a final adjudication meeting. RESULTS: At least one disagreement occurred initially among the 3 adjudicators for 84 of the 120 observations (70%) reported by the inspectors. Following reconciliation, the 3 physicians agreed that 20% of the observations were likely to have potentially serious medical consequences. These observations mainly concerned the management of emergencies and of serious adverse events and the continuity of care. CONCLUSIONS: Maintenance of on-site inspections periodically carried out by regulatory authorities granting authorisations to perform phase I/II trials are justified. However, the medical relevance of these inspections can be improved with more emphasis on factors affecting the safety of research participants than on administrative or purely regulatory issues.

6.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abiraterone and enzalutamide are recently-approved androgen deprivation therapies (ADTs) for metastatic prostate cancer, with unknown cardiac safety profiles. Abiraterone has a propensity to hypermineralocorticism on top of androgen deprivation, so might carry an additional risk for atrial tachyarrhythmia (AT) and heart failure (HF) compared with other ADTs. AIM: To determine if abiraterone was associated with an increased proportion of AT and HF reports among all suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported in several pharmacovigilance databases compared with enzalutamide, other ADTs and all other drugs. METHODS: In this observational retrospective pharmacovigilance study, we performed a disproportionality analysis of reports of suspected ADRs in men in the French pharmacovigilance database, the European pharmacovigilance database and the international pharmacovigilance database VigiBase, to evaluate the reporting odds ratios (RORs) of AT and HF for abiraterone compared with enzalutamide, other ADTs and all other drugs. RESULTS: In the 5,759,781 ADR reports in men in VigiBase, 55,070 pertained to ADTs. The RORs for AT for abiraterone versus enzalutamide, other ADTs and all other drugs were 4.1 (95% confidence interval 3.1-5.3), 3.7 (3-4.5) and 3.2 (2.7-3.7), respectively (P<0.0001 for all). The corresponding RORs for HF were 2.5 (2-3), 1.5 (1.3-1.7) and 2 (1.7-2.3), respectively (P<0.0001 for all). These results were concordant with the French and European pharmacovigilance databases. Mean times to AT and HF onset were shorter with abiraterone (5.2±0.8 and 4.5±0.6 months, respectively) versus other ADTs (13.3±3.2 and 9.2±1.1 months, respectively) (both P<0.05). Cases on abiraterone versus other ADTs were more frequently associated with at least two ADR terms, including AT, HF, hypokalaemia, hypertension and oedema (13.6% vs 6%; P<0.0001). For abiraterone, age, but not dose, was associated with reporting of AT and HF versus any other ADR. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with other ADTs, abiraterone was associated with higher reporting of AT and HF, associated with hypokalaemia, hypertension and oedema. These findings are consistent with the hypermineralocorticism induced by abiraterone, but not by other ADTs.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(22): e013267, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711383

RESUMO

Background Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) have emerged as potential atrial fibrillation (AF) preventive therapy, but inconsistent results have been reported. We aimed to examine the effects of MRAs on AF occurrence and explore factors that could influence the magnitude of the effect size. Methods and Results PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central databases were used to search for randomized clinical trials and observational studies addressing the effect of MRAs on AF occurrence from database inception through April 03, 2018. We performed a systematic review and random effects meta-analyses to compute odds ratios with 95% CIs. Meta-regression was then applied to explore the sources of between-study heterogeneity. We included 24 studies, 11 randomized clinical trials and 13 observational cohorts, representing a total number of 7914 patients (median age: 64.2 years; median left ventricular ejection fraction: 49.7%; median follow-up: 12.0 months), 2843 (35.9%) of whom received MRA therapy. Meta-analyses showed a significant overall reduction in AF occurrence in the MRA-treated patients versus the control groups (15.0% versus 32.2%; odds ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.44-0.70 [P<0.00001]), with the greatest benefit regarding recurrent AF episodes (odds ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.31-0.59 [P<0.00001]) and with significant heterogeneity among the included studies (I2=54%; P=0.0008). Meta-regression analyses showed that effect size was significantly associated with older studies and higher AF occurrence rate in the control groups. Conclusions MRAs seem to be effective in AF prevention, especially regarding recurrent AF episodes.

8.
Rev Prat ; 69(6): 607-611, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626415

RESUMO

The first administrations of a molecule to humans, so-called phase I studies of drug development, follow experimental animal studies which allow to have a first assessment of the pharmacological effects and toxicity of the molecule under development. Typically, these studies are performed in "healthy" subjects or in relapsing patients with cancer. Participants' safety is a priority. Trained professionals administer single doses, followed by repeated doses, in authorized medical centres. They allow to study the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of tested molecules in humans and to explore some sources of variability of these parameters. These studies are highly regulated and their methodology is fairly standardized.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Indústria Farmacêutica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria Farmacêutica/legislação & jurisprudência , Guias como Assunto , Humanos
9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(13): 1667-1678, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ibrutinib has revolutionized treatment for several B-cell malignancies. However, a recent clinical trial where ibrutinib was used in a front-line setting showed increased mortality during treatment compared with conventional chemotherapy. Cardiovascular toxicities were suspected as the culprit but not directly assessed in the study. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize cardiovascular adverse drug reactions (CV-ADR) associated with ibrutinib. METHODS: This study utilized VigiBase (International pharmacovigilance database) and performed a disproportionality analysis using reporting odds ratios (ROR) and information component (IC) to determine whether CV-ADR and CV-ADR deaths were associated with ibrutinib. IC compares observed and expected values to find associations between drugs and adverse drug reactions using disproportionate Bayesian-reporting; IC025 (lower end of the IC 95% credibility interval) >0 is significant. RESULTS: This study identified 303 ibrutinib-associated cardiovascular deaths. Ibrutinib was associated with higher reporting of supraventricular arrhythmias (SVAs) (ROR: 23.1; 95% confidence interval: 21.6 to 24.7; p < 0.0001; IC025: 3.97), central nervous system (CNS) hemorrhagic events (ROR: 3.7; 95% confidence interval: 3.4 to 4.1; p < 0.0001; IC025: 1.63), heart failure (ROR: 3.5; 95% confidence interval: 3.1 to 3.8; p < 0.0001; IC025: 1.46), ventricular arrhythmias (ROR: 4.7; 95% confidence interval: 3.7 to 5.9; p < 0.0001; IC025: 0.96), conduction disorders (ROR: 3.5; 95% confidence interval: 2.7 to 4.6; p < 0.0001; IC025: 0.76), CNS ischemic events (ROR: 2.2; 95% confidence interval: 2.0 to 2.5; p < 0.0001; IC025: 0.73), and hypertension (ROR: 1.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.5 to 1.9; p < 0.0001; IC025: 0.4). CV-ADR often occurred early after ibrutinib administration. Importantly, CV-ADR were associated with fatalities that ranged from ∼10% (SVAs and ventricular arrhythmias) to ∼20% (CNS events, heart failure, and conduction disorders). Ibrutinib-associated SVA portends poor prognosis when CNS events occur concomitantly, with 28.8% deaths (15 of 52 cases). CONCLUSIONS: Severe and occasionally fatal cardiac events occur in patients exposed to ibrutinib. These events should be considered in patient care and in clinical trial designs. (Evaluation of Reporting of Cardio-vascular Adverse Events With Antineoplastic and Immunomodulating Agents [EROCA]; NCT03530215).

10.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(5): 481-488, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505456

RESUMO

Background: HLA-G is an immune checkpoint molecule, naturally expressed during pregnancy, playing a critical role in the tolerance of the fetal semi-allograft from the maternal immune system. While HLA-G expression levels are associated with progesterone, the influence of other hormones is still unclear. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) represents an adequate model to study the hormonal influence on biomarkers as it leads to impaired cortisol biosynthesis and increased progesterone and androgens production due to 21-hydroxylase enzyme deficiency. Methods: In a cross-sectional study of CAH patients matched on sex and age with healthy control, the association between circulating levels of soluble HLA-G and hormones was assessed by use of non-parametric analyses tests. Multivariable linear regressions were performed on normalized data. Results: Overall, 83 CAH patients and 69 healthy controls were included. Among CAH patients, all were under glucocorticoid and 52 (62.6%) were under mineralocorticoid supplementation. Compared to controls, CAH patients had increased HLA-G levels (15 vs 8 ng/mL, P = 0.02). In controls, HLA-G level was independently associated with progesterone and estradiol (ß = 0.44 (0.35-1.27) and -0.44 (-0.94, -0.26) respectively, both P values = 0.001). In CAH patients, HLA-G level was independently associated with mineralocorticoid supplementation dosage (ß = 0.25 (0.04-0.41), P = 0.001) and estradiol (ß = -0.22 (-0.57, -0.02), P < 0.001). Conclusion: CAH patients had higher HLA-G levels than healthy controls. HLA-G level was positively associated with progesterone and corticosteroid supplementation, and negatively with estradiol. The association between mineralocorticoid, renin and HLA-G levels may suggest a role of the renin-angiotensin system in the expression of soluble HLA-G.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/metabolismo , Antígenos HLA-G/sangue , Hormônios/sangue , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Estradiol/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mineralocorticoides/sangue , Progesterona/uso terapêutico , Renina/sangue , Adulto Jovem
11.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 112(11): 699-712, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long QT syndrome (LQTS) can cause the potentially fatal ventricular tachycardia torsades de pointes (TdP). QT interval corrected for heart rate (QTc) is shorter in men than in women, with testosterone contributing to shorten QTc. We recently described male hypogonadism as a reversible risk factor for acquired LQTS and TdP, but the clinical characteristics of such patients have not been characterized. AIMS: To describe the clinical characteristics of men with acquired LQTS or TdP associated with hypogonadism caused by endocrine conditions or androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), and to evaluate the relationship between testosterone concentrations and electrocardiographic changes. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (to 04 January 2019) and the French pharmacovigilance database (to 09 August 2018) to identify male cases of acquired LQTS and TdP associated with endocrine hypogonadism or ADT; their narratives were gathered from reporting collaborators. RESULTS: We identified seven cases of TdP (one fatal) with endocrine hypogonadism, abnormally long QTc and morphologically abnormal T-wave notches. After reversion of low testosterone concentrations in the surviving patients (N=6), QTc shortened, T-wave morphology normalized and there was no TdP recurrence. Among these cases, none had mutation in the LQTS genes, three men required testosterone and three had reversible hypogonadism after resolution of a concurrent acute severe illness. We found an additional 27 reports of men with LQTS (N=6), TdP (N=9; 2/9 fatal) or sudden death (N=12; 10/12 fatal) suspected to be induced or favoured by ADT (24/27 for prostate cancer). Generally, after ADT withdrawal, QTc shortened and no TdP recurred. CONCLUSION: We propose seeking for hypogonadism caused by endocrine conditions or ADT in men presenting with TdP. Caution is warranted when ADT is used in situations at risk of TdP. Testosterone may be useful to treat or prevent TdP.

12.
Circulation ; 140(13): 1070-1080, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male hypogonadism, arising from a range of etiologies including androgen-deprivation therapies (ADTs), has been reported as a risk factor for acquired long-QT syndrome (aLQTS) and torsades de pointes (TdP). A full description of the clinical features of aLQTS associated with ADT and of underlying mechanisms is lacking. METHODS: We searched the international pharmacovigilance database VigiBase for men (n=6 560 565 individual case safety reports) presenting with aLQTS, TdP, or sudden death associated with ADT. In cardiomyocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells from men, we studied electrophysiological effects of ADT and dihydrotestosterone. RESULTS: Among subjects receiving ADT in VigiBase, we identified 184 cases of aLQTS (n=168) and/or TdP (n=68; 11% fatal), and 99 with sudden death. Of the 10 ADT drugs examined, 7 had a disproportional association (reporting odds ratio=1.4-4.7; P<0.05) with aLQTS, TdP, or sudden death. The minimum and median times to sudden death were 0.25 and 92 days, respectively. The androgen receptor antagonist enzalutamide was associated with more deaths (5430/31 896 [17%]; P<0.0001) than other ADT used for prostate cancer (4208/52 089 [8.1%]). In induced pluripotent stem cells, acute and chronic enzalutamide (25 µM) significantly prolonged action potential durations (action potential duration at 90% when paced at 0.5 Hz; 429.7±27.1 (control) versus 982.4±33.2 (acute, P<0.001) and 1062.3±28.9 ms (chronic; P<0.001), and generated afterdepolarizations and/or triggered activity in drug-treated cells (11/20 acutely and 8/15 chronically). Enzalutamide acutely and chronically inhibited delayed rectifier potassium current, and chronically enhanced late sodium current. Dihydrotestosterone (30 nM) reversed enzalutamide electrophysiological effects on induced pluripotent stem cells. CONCLUSIONS: QT prolongation and TdP are a risk in men receiving enzalutamide and other ADTs. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03193138.

13.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 85(11): 2540-2546, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318079

RESUMO

AIMS: Drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM) is an adverse drug reaction of exclusion; only few studies have addressed this iatrogenic disease. The aim was to characterize DIAM and to identify suspected drugs. METHODS: Data were collected from the analysis of the French Pharmacovigilance Database from inception (1 January 1985) to 8 March 2017. All cases were initially analysed according to the French imputability method by institutional pharmacologists (clinicians or pharmacists). Further analyses of well documented cases were then performed. RESULTS: In this study, 329 cases of aseptic meningitis were retrieved from the French Pharmacovigilance Database for a total of 429 suspected drugs. Analysis of 203 well documented cases, including 282 drugs, showed that the main reported classes were intravenous polyvalent immunoglobulin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), vaccines, antimicrobials, intrathecal antimetabolites, corticosteroids and antalgics/anaesthetics (except NSAIDs). Lymphocytic (33.0%) and purulent (44.8%) meningitis represented the majority of cases of aseptic meningitis. In other cases, the cerebrospinal fluid was mixed (45-55% of neutrophils +45-55% of lymphocytes) or data about cerebrospinal fluid composition were lacking. Most DIAM cases (96%) had a favourable reported outcome with full recovery or minimal residual symptoms. CONCLUSION: The most frequently involved drugs in DIAM were intravenous polyvalent immunoglobulin, NSAIDs, vaccines, and antimicrobials and this without being able to differentiate them in terms of biological characteristics. Although further studies are needed to better understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of DIAM, a continuous enrichment of pharmacovigilance databases is essential to identify new signals and to help clinicians in the understanding of DIAM.

14.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 141: 112-124, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276964

RESUMO

Protein kinase inhibitors (PKI) are a growing class of anticancer agents. They are prescribed with flat doses, and their oral administration is associated with interindividual variability in exposure. Patients can be over- or underexposed, due to numerous factors. We reviewed key pharmacokinetic concepts and mechanisms by which PKIs prescription could be altered. Challenging situations that could lead to increased toxicity or to therapeutic failure are described and recommendation for clinicians are proposed. Finally, the interest of therapeutic drug monitoring and indications for its use in daily practice is discussed.


Assuntos
Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações de Medicamentos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Inativação Metabólica/fisiologia , Farmacologia Clínica , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Distribuição Tecidual
15.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 11: 32, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168327

RESUMO

Background: Medial calcification in diabetes contributes to the arterial occlusive process occurring below the knee level. Adiponectin is an adipokine with atheroprotective properties and possible protective role against arterial calcification. The aim of the study was to investigate, in type 2 diabetes, the link between vascular expression and serum concentration of adiponectin and (1) peripheral arterial calcification and (2) lower limb occlusive arterial disease. Methods: Scoring of peripheral vascular calcification and peripheral arterial occlusive disease, using CT-scan and color-duplex ultrasonography respectively, were conducted and explored in relation to serum adiponectin level in a cross sectional study of 197 patients with type 2 diabetes. Vascular adiponectin expression in the arterial wall of diabetic patients with and without medial calcification was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results: Peripheral arterial calcification score was higher in patients with the highest adiponectin concentration. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, an increase of 1 µg/mL of adiponectin was associated with a 22% increase of arterial calcification (adjusted OR = 1.22; 95% CI 1.03-1.44; p = 0.02). Arterial occlusive score was also higher in patients with adiponectin concentration > median (2.8 ± 4.8 vs 4.2 ± 5.7, p = 0.034). Immunohistochemical analyses showed a strong and specific staining of adiponectin in smooth muscle cells in calcified arteries, with a more pronounced expression of adiponectin in early stages of medial calcification. Conclusions: Peripheral arterial calcification is positively associated with circulating adiponectin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes, but vascular adiponectin expression is already observed at early stages of calcification. Adiponectin secretion could be a compensatory mechanism against the calcification process.Trial registration DIACART NCT number: NCT02431234. Registered 30 April 2015.

16.
J Hypertens ; 37(11): 2225-2231, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the product of the ABCB1 gene, is involved in the transport of aldosterone and cortisol in adrenal cells in vitro but its physiological role in humans remains controversial. Our objective was to test the influence of P-gp polymorphisms on aldosterone. METHODS: We evaluated plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC), urinary aldosterone, and blood pressure in a cohort of white normotensive men at baseline on diets unrestricted for sodium and potassium and after a 5-day treatment with 500 mg b.i.d. clarithromycin, a P-gp inhibitor. Included were 20 homozygous wild-type (P-gp0), 20 heterozygous (P-gp1), and 20 individuals with combined 2677G>T/A-3435C>T loss-of-function polymorphism of the ABCB1 gene (P-gp2). RESULTS: At baseline, PAC, urinary aldosterone, urinary free cortisol to urine creatinine ratios, and blood pressure did not differ in the three genotypes. After clarithromycin administration, the urinary aldosterone to creatinine ratio increased by an average of 30% in the entire cohort (P < 0.001, n = 60). Increases were pronounced in P-gp1 (+40%; P = 0.014) and P-gp2 individuals (+50%; P = 0.020) but lesser and were NS in P-gp0 individuals (+10%; P = 0.259). PAC also increased from baseline after clarithromycin treatment in all individuals (+19%, P = 0.050); however, the increase in PAC was NS when the three genotypes were analyzed separately. CONCLUSION: In our experimental conditions, the interaction between P-gp inhibition and the ABCB1 genotype, suggests that aldosterone is indeed a physiological endogenous substrate of P-gp in humans and that P-gp interferes with the net equilibrium between aldosterone secretion and elimination processes in humans.Clinical Trial Registration - URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01627665.

17.
J Thromb Haemost ; 17(10): 1670-1682, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rivaroxaban is a direct factor Xa inhibitor with substantial inter-individual pharmacokinetic (PK) variability. Pharmacodynamic (PD) variability, especially assessed with thrombin generation (TG), has been less documented. OBJECTIVES: (i) To assess TG parameter time profiles in healthy volunteers, with TG being studied under different conditions and (ii) to model the relationship between rivaroxaban concentrations and TG parameters and subsequently estimate interindividual variability. METHODS: Sixty healthy male volunteers (DRIVING-NCT01627665) received a single 40-mg rivaroxaban dose. Blood sampling was performed at baseline and 10 predefined time points over 24 h. The TG was investigated with the fully automated ST-Genesia system (Stago), using two tissue-factor (TF) concentrations, in the absence (-), or presence (+) of thrombomodulin (TM) for the lowest one. The PD models were built to characterize the relationships between plasma rivaroxaban concentrations and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) or peak height induced by the lowest TF concentration. RESULTS: Thrombin generation parameter time profiles with the lowest TF concentration showed a good sensitivity to rivaroxaban, especially +TM (active protein C negative feedback). The relationship between rivaroxaban concentrations and TG parameters was modeled with a sigmoidal relation. Mean rivaroxaban concentrations halving the baseline value of ETP and peak height (-TM) (C50 ) were of 284 and 33.2 ng/mL, respectively: +TM, C50 declined to 19.4 and 13.8 ng/mL, reflecting a powerful inhibitory effect. The estimated C50 population coefficients of variation were of 12.2% (-TM) and 31.3% (+TM) with the peak height models, 34.8% (+TM) with the ETP model. CONCLUSIONS: This low-rivaroxaban to moderate-rivaroxaban PD variability in healthy volunteers contrasts with the substantial PK variability and deserves to be studied in different patient settings.

18.
Drug Saf ; 42(7): 813-825, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868436

RESUMO

Inhibitors of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors) are used as antiproliferative immunosuppressive drugs and have many clinical applications in various drug combinations. Experience in transplantation studies has been gained regarding the side effect profile of these drugs and the potential benefits and limitations compared with other immunosuppressive agents. This article reviews the adverse effects of mTOR inhibitors in solid organ transplantation, with special attention given to mechanisms hypothesized to cause adverse events and their management strategies.

19.
Ther Drug Monit ; 41(4): 476-482, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is approved for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Therapeutic drug monitoring of HCQ is necessary to detect nonadherence and to improve treatment efficacy in patients with SLE. Liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescent methods are currently used to measure whole blood concentrations of HCQ and its 2 main metabolites desethylhydroxychloroquine and desethylchloroquine in patients with SLE. This study reports the development and validation of an ultra-HPLC (U-HPLC) method with fluorescence detection for the simultaneous quantification of HCQ and its metabolites in whole blood. METHODS: After adding chloroquine (internal standard) to the samples, a single-step protein precipitation and a subsequent filtration were used for blood sample preparation. Analytes were separated under isocratic elution on a U-HPLC RP18 column with a total run time of 7 minutes. The mobile phase consisted of piperazine buffer (46.4 mM, pH = 9.8) and acetonitrile (68:32, vol/vol), which was delivered at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths were 335 and 390 nm, respectively. Assay performance parameters were evaluated per FDA bioanalytical guidelines. RESULTS: The calibration curve was linear from 125 to 4000 ng/mL for HCQ. The lower limit of quantification was 10 ng/mL for all analytes. For HCQ, desethylchloroquine, and desethylhydroxychloroquine, accuracies and imprecisions ranged from -7.90% to 7.85% and 1.14% to 8.78%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A sensitive, accurate, and fast U-HPLC-fluorescent method was validated and successfully applied to quantify whole blood concentrations to perform therapeutic drug monitoring of HCQ in pediatric and adult lupus patients.

20.
Int J Cardiol ; 286: 159-161, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients at increased cardiovascular (CV) risk, noticeably hypertensive patients, have multiple CV risk factors which may be treatment targets. LDL-cholesterol is one of such targets. Using the SPRINT cohort, studying the cardiovascular outcomes of hypertensive patients at increased CV risk, this post-hoc study aimed to assess the association of LDL-C with CV outcomes. METHODS: Clinical outcomes were those defined in SPRINT: a composite of various CV outcomes, all-cause mortality, and CV mortality. Association between LDL-C and the primary outcome was analyzed using survival regression adjusted on confounding factors (age, sex, body-mass index, active smoking status, eGFR-estimated kidney function, history of CV disease, Framingham risk score, SPRINT treatment arm (intensive or control), baseline high-density-lipoprotein-bound cholesterol, and co-treatments by aspirin and statins). RESULTS: LDL-C was not associated with the primary outcome in the overall cohort (n = 9631). Among patients in secondary prevention (i.e. with a previous history of CV disease) (n = 1562), LDL-C was marginally associated with the incidence of the primary outcome (adjusted hazard-ratio 1.005 (95% CI = 1.002-1.009), p = 0.005 (per 1 mg/dl increase)) however, discrimination was poor with a ROC AUC of 0.54, p = 0.087. There was no association between LDL-C and the primary outcome in other subgroup analyses (those under statin or not, and those in primary prevention). CONCLUSION: This post-hoc analysis of SPRINT indicates that LDL-C levels do not influence cardiovascular events over a period of 3 years in a large cohort of hypertensive patients at increased risk of cardiovascular events but without previous history of clinical cardiovascular disease other than stroke.

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