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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400191

RESUMO

AIMS: Diagnostic and therapeutic tools have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality associated with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Data about ACS performance measures are scarce in Brazil, and improving its collection is an objective of the Brazilian Registry in Acute Coronary syndromEs (BRACE). METHODS AND RESULTS: BRACE is a cross-sectional, observational epidemiological registry of ACS patients. Stratified "cluster sampling" methodology was adopted to obtain a representative picture of ACS. A performance score (PS) varying from 0 to 100 was developed to compare studied parameters. Performance measures alone and the PS were compared between institutions, and the relationship between the PS and outcomes was evaluated. 1,150 patients, median age 63 years, 64% male, from 72 hospitals were included in the registry. The mean PS for the overall population was 65.9% ± 20.1%. Teaching institutions had a significantly higher PS (71.4% ± 16.9%) compared to non-teaching hospitals (63.4% ± 21%; p <0.001). Overall in-hospital mortality was 5.2%, and the variables that correlated independently with in-hospital mortality included: PS - per point increase (OR=0.97, 95% CI 0.95-0.98, p<0.001), age - per year (OR=1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.09, p<0.001), chronic kidney disease (OR=3.12, 95% CI 1.08-9.00, p=0.036), and prior angioplasty (OR=0.25, 95% CI 0.07-0.84, p=0.025). CONCLUSION: In BRACE, adoption of evidence-based therapies for ACS, as measured by the performance score, was independently associated with lower in-hospital mortality. The use of diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches for the management of ACS is less than ideal in Brazil, with high variability especially among different regions of the country.

2.
Int J Cardiol ; 291: 36-41, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The STICH trial showed superiority of coronary artery bypass plus medical treatment (CABG) over medical treatment alone (MED) in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤35%. In previous publications, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) prior to CABG was associated with worse prognosis. OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of this study was to analyse if prior PCI influenced outcomes in STICH. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients in the STICH trial (n = 1212), followed for a median time of 9.8 years, were included in the present analyses. In the total population, 156 had a prior PCI (74 and 82, respectively, in the MED and CABG groups). In those with vs. without prior PCI, the adjusted hazard-ratios (aHRs) were 0.92 (95% CI = 0.74-1.15) for all-cause mortality, 0.85 (95% CI = 0.64-1.11) for CV mortality, and 1.43 (95% CI = 1.15-1.77) for CV hospitalization. In the group randomized to CABG without prior PCI, the aHRs were 0.82 (95% CI = 0.70-0.95) for all-cause mortality, 0.75 (95% CI = 0.62-0.90) for CV mortality and 0.67 (95% CI = 0.56-0.80) for CV hospitalization. In the group randomized to CABG with prior PCI, the aHRs were 0.76 (95% CI = 0.50-1.15) for all-cause mortality, 0.81 (95% CI = 0.49-1.36) for CV mortality and 0.61 (95% CI = 0.41-0.90) for CV hospitalization. There was no evidence of interaction between randomized treatment and prior PCI for any endpoint (all adjusted p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: In the STICH trial, prior PCI did not affect the outcomes of patients whether they were treated medically or surgically, and the superiority of CABG over MED remained unchanged regardless of prior PCI. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00023595.

3.
Circulation ; 139(22): 2516-2527, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium glucose transporter-2 inhibitors reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Because of their baseline risk, patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) may derive even greater benefit from sodium glucose transporter-2 inhibitor therapy. METHODS: DECLARE-TIMI 58 (Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 58) randomized 17 160 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and either established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (n=6974) or multiple risk factors (n=10 186) to dapagliflozin versus placebo. The 2 primary end points were composite of MACE (cardiovascular death, MI, or ischemic stroke) and the composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure. Those with previous MI (n=3584) made up a prespecified subgroup of interest. RESULTS: In patients with previous MI (n=3584), dapagliflozin reduced the relative risk of MACE by 16% and the absolute risk by 2.6% (15.2% versus 17.8%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.99; P=0.039), whereas there was no effect in patients without previous MI (7.1% versus 7.1%; HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.88-1.13; P=0.97; P for interaction for relative difference=0.11; P for interaction for absolute risk difference=0.048), including in patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease but no history of MI (12.6% versus 12.8%; HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.81-1.19). There seemed to be a greater benefit for MACE within 2 years after the last acute event ( P for interaction trend=0.007). The relative risk reductions in cardiovascular death/hospitalization for heart failure were more similar, but the absolute risk reductions tended to be greater: 1.9% (8.6% versus 10.5%; HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.65-1.00; P=0.046) and 0.6% (3.9% versus 4.5%; HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.72-1.00; P=0.055) in patients with and without previous MI, respectively ( P interaction for relative difference=0.69; P interaction for absolute risk difference=0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and previous MI are at high risk of MACE and cardiovascular death/hospitalization for heart failure. Dapagliflozin appears to robustly reduce the risk of both composite outcomes in these patients. Future studies should aim to confirm the large clinical benefits with sodium glucose transporter-2 inhibitors we observed in patients with previous MI. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01730534.

4.
Circulation ; 139(22): 2528-2536, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In DECLARE-TIMI 58 (Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 58), the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin reduced the composite end point of cardiovascular death/hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) in a broad population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the impact of baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) on the clinical benefit of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition is unknown. METHODS: In the DECLARE-TIMI 58 trial, baseline heart failure (HF) status was collected from all patients, and EF was collected when available. HF with reduced EF (HFrEF) was defined as EF <45%. Outcomes of interest were the composite of cardiovascular death/HHF, its components, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Of 17 160 patients, 671 (3.9%) had HFrEF, 1316 (7.7%) had HF without known reduced EF, and 15 173 (88.4%) had no history of HF at baseline. Dapagliflozin reduced cardiovascular death/HHF more in patients with HFrEF (hazard ratio [HR], 0.62 [95% CI, 0.45-0.86]) than in those without HFrEF (HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.76-1.02]; P for interaction=0.046), in whom the treatment effect of dapagliflozin was similar in those with HF without known reduced EF (HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.66-1.17]) and those without HF (HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.74-1.03]). Whereas dapagliflozin reduced HHF both in those with (HR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.43-0.95]) and in those without HFrEF (HR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.62-0.92]), it reduced cardiovascular death only in patients with HFrEF (HR, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.34-0.90]) but not in those without HFrEF (HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.89-1.31]; P for interaction=0.012). Likewise, dapagliflozin reduced all-cause mortality in patients with HFrEF (HR, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.40-0.88;) but not in those without HFrEF (HR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.86-1.10]; P for interaction=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: In the first sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor cardiovascular outcome trial to evaluate patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus stratified by EF, we found that dapagliflozin reduced HHF in patients with and without HFrEF and reduced cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality in patients with HFrEF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01730534.

5.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 48(2): 217-224, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879169

RESUMO

Recent reports have suggested that aspirin effect might be influenced by bodyweight, with decreased efficacy in heavier individuals. We investigated the influence of bodyweight on aspirin pharmacodynamics in two independent datasets of patients taking non-enteric coated aspirin 100 mg QD for coronary artery disease (CAD). In the first dataset, 368 patients had their platelet aggregation assessed using VerifyNow Aspirin and measured in Aspirin Reaction Units (ARU). In the second dataset, 70 patients had serum thromboxane B2 (TXB2) dosage assessed by an ELISA assay and measured in pg/mL. Platelet aggregation was independently associated with bodyweight, with 8.41 (95% CI 1.86-14.97; adjusted p-value = 0.012) increase in ARU for every 10 kg. Furthermore, the rate of non-response to aspirin (defined as ARU ≥ 550) was significantly associated with increased bodyweight (adjusted p-value = 0.007), with OR = 1.23 (95% CI 1.06-1.42) for every 10 kg. Similar results were found considering body mass index (in kg/m2), with 15.5 (95% CI 5.0 to 25.9; adjusted p-value = 0.004) increase in ARU for every 10 kg and non-response OR = 1.43 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.81, adjusted p-value = 0.003) for every 5 kg/m2. Moreover, serum TXB2 was higher in patients weighting more than 70 kg (222.6 ± 62.9 versus 194.9 ± 61.9 pg/mL; adjusted p-value = 0.018). In two different datasets of patients with CAD on non-enteric coated aspirin 100 mg QD, increased bodyweight was independently associated with impaired response to aspirin.

6.
Circulation ; 139(17): 2022-2031, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RA) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have emerged as 2 new classes of antihyperglycemic agents that also reduce cardiovascular risk. The relative benefits in patients with and without established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease for different outcomes with these classes of drugs remain undefined. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and trial-level meta-analysis of GLP1-RA and SGLT2i cardiovascular outcomes trials using the PubMed and EMBASE databases (Excerpta Medica Database). The primary outcomes were the composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death (MACE); hospitalization for heart failure; and progression of kidney disease. RESULTS: In total, data from 8 trials and 77 242 patients, 42 920 (55.6%) in GLP1-RA trials, and 34 322 (44.4%) in SGLT2i trials, were included. Both drug classes reduced MACE in a similar magnitude with GLP1-RA reducing the risk by 12% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.88; 95% CI, 0.84-0.94; P<0.001) and SGLT2i by 11% (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.96; P=0.001). For both drug classes, this treatment effect was restricted to a 14% reduction in those with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.80-0.93; P=0.002), whereas no effect was seen in patients without established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.87-1.19; P=0.81; P interaction, 0.028). SGLT2i reduced hospitalization for heart failure by 31% (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.61-0.79; P<0.001), whereas GLP1-RA did not have a significant effect (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.83-1.04; P=0.20). Both GLP1-RA (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.75-0.89; P<0.001) and SGLT2i (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.58-0.67; P<0.001) reduced the risk of progression of kidney disease including macroalbuminuria, but only SGLT2i reduced the risk of worsening estimated glomerular filtration rate, end-stage kidney disease, or renal death (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.48-0.64; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In trials reported to date, GLP1-RA and SGLT2i reduce atherosclerotic MACE to a similar degree in patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, whereas SGLT2i have a more marked effect on preventing hospitalization for heart failure and progression of kidney disease. Their distinct clinical benefit profiles should be considered in the decision-making process when treating patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

7.
Lancet ; 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30424892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The magnitude of effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) on specific cardiovascular and renal outcomes and whether heterogeneity is based on key baseline characteristics remains undefined. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised, placebo-controlled, cardiovascular outcome trials of SGLT2i in patients with type 2 diabetes. We searched PubMed and Embase for trials published up to Sept 24, 2018. Data search and extraction were completed with a standardised data form and any discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Efficacy outcomes included major adverse cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death), the composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for heart failure, and progression of renal disease. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs were pooled across trials, and efficacy outcomes were stratified by baseline presence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and degree of renal function. FINDINGS: We included data from three identified trials and 34 322 patients (60·2% with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease), with 3342 major adverse cardiovascular events, 2028 cardiovascular deaths or hospitalisation sfor heart failure events, and 766 renal composite outcomes. SGLT2i reduced major adverse cardiovascular events by 11% (HR 0·89 [95% CI 0·83-0·96], p=0·0014), with benefit only seen in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (0·86 [0·80-0·93]) and not in those without (1·00 [0·87-1·16], p for interaction=0·0501). SGLT2i reduced the risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for heart failure by 23% (0·77 [0·71-0·84], p<0·0001), with a similar benefit in patients with and without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and with and without a history of heart failure. SGLT2i reduced the risk of progression of renal disease by 45% (0·55 [0·48-0·64], p<0·0001), with a similar benefit in those with and without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The magnitude of benefit of SGLT2i varied with baseline renal function, with greater reductions in hospitalisations for heart failure (p for interaction=0·0073) and lesser reductions in progression of renal disease (p for interaction=0·0258) in patients with more severe kidney disease at baseline. INTERPRETATION: SGLT2i have moderate benefits on atherosclerotic major adverse cardiovascular events that seem confined to patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, they have robust benefits on reducing hospitalisation for heart failure and progression of renal disease regardless of existing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or a history of heart failure. FUNDING: None.

8.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 32(5): 435-442, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30128818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of beta-blockers in patients with acute coronary syndromes is mainly derived from studies including patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Little is known about the use of beta-blockers and associated long-term clinical outcomes in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTEACS). METHODS: We analyzed short- and long-term clinical outcomes of 2921 patients with NSTEACS using or not oral beta-blockers in the first 24 h of the acute coronary syndromes (ACS) presentation. The association between beta-blocker use and mortality was assessed using a propensity score adjusted analysis (N = 1378). RESULTS: Patients starting oral beta-blockers in the first 24 h of hospitalization, compared with patients who did not, had lower rates of in-hospital mortality (OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.74, P = 0.002) and higher mean survival times in the long-term follow-up (11.86±0.4 years vs. 9.92±0.39 years, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The use of beta-blockers in the first 24 h of patients presenting with NSTEACS was associated with better in-hospital and long-term mortality outcomes.

9.
Clin Cardiol ; 41(3): 392-399, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29569254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a major determinant of long-term prognosis after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). STEMI patients with reduced LVEF have a poor prognosis, despite successful reperfusion and the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors. HYPOTHESIS: Intracoronary infusion of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMC) may improve LVEF in STEMI patients successfully reperfused. METHODS: The main inclusion criteria for this double-blind, randomized, multicenter study were patient age 30 to 80 years, LVEF ≤50%, successful angioplasty of infarct-related artery, and regional dysfunction in the infarct-related area analyzed before cell injection. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess LVEF, left ventricular volumes, and infarct size at 7 to 9 days and 6 months post-myocardial infarction. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-one patients were included (66 patients in the BMMC group and 55 patients in the placebo group). The primary endpoint, mean LVEF, was similar between both groups at baseline (44.63% ± 10.74% vs 42.23% ± 10.33%; P = 0.21) and at 6 months (44.74% ± 12.95 % vs 43.50 ± 12.43%; P = 0.59). The groups were also similar regarding the difference between baseline and 6 months (0.11% ± 8.5% vs 1.27% ± 8.93%; P = 0.46). Other parameters of left ventricular remodeling, such as systolic and diastolic volumes, as well as infarct size, were also similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized, multicenter, double-blind trial, BMMC intracoronary infusion did not improve left ventricular remodeling or decrease infarct size.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia
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