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Br J Haematol ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566733


Viral respiratory infections (VRIs) contribute to the morbidity and transplant-related mortality (TRM) after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and strategies to prevent and treat VRIs are warranted. We monitored VRIs before and after transplant in children undergoing allogeneic HSCT with nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) and assessed the impact on clinical outcome. Between 2007 and 2017, 585 children underwent 620 allogeneic HSCT procedures. Out of 75 patients with a positive NPA screen (12%), transplant was delayed in 25 cases (33%), while 53 children started conditioning with a VRI. Patients undergoing HSCT with a positive NPA screen had a significantly lower overall survival (54% vs. 79%) and increased TRM (26% vs. 7%) compared to patients with a negative NPA. Patients with a positive NPA who delayed transplant and cleared the virus before conditioning had improved overall survival (90%) and lower TRM (5%). Pre-HSCT positive NPA was the only significant risk factor for progression to a lower respiratory tract infection and was a major risk factor for TRM. Transplant delay, whenever feasible, in case of a positive NPA screen for VRIs can positively impact on survival of children undergoing HSCT.

Front Immunol ; 10: 1570, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333680


Background: This retrospective study assessed the use and long-term outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe autoimmune diseases (ADs), reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) registry. Methods: Between 1997 and 2014, 128 patients received allogeneic HSCT for various hematological (n = 49) and non-hematological (n = 79) refractory ADs. The median age was 12.7 years (0.2-62.2). Donors were syngeneic for seven, matched related for 46, unrelated for 51, haploidentical for 15, and cord blood for nine patients. Results: The incidence of grades II-IV acute graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD) was 20.8% at 100 days. Cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD was 27.8% at 5-years. Non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 12.7% at 100-days. Overall survival (OS) and Progression-Free Survival (PFS) were 70.2 and 59.4% at 5-years, respectively. By multivariate analysis, age <18 years, males, and more recent year of transplant were found to be significantly associated with improved PFS. Reduced conditioning intensity was associated with a lower NRM. On a subgroup of 64 patients with detailed information a complete clinical response was obtained in 67% of patients at 1-year. Conclusions: This large EBMT survey suggests the potential of allogeneic HSCT to induce long-term disease control in a large proportion of refractory ADs, with acceptable toxicities and NRM, especially in younger patients.

Clin Pharmacokinet ; 58(12): 1609-1620, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131436


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Alemtuzumab (Campath®) is used to prevent graft-versus-host disease and graft failure following pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. The main toxicity includes delayed immune reconstitution, subsequent viral reactivations, and leukemia relapse. Exposure to alemtuzumab is highly variable upon empirical milligram/kilogram dosing. METHODS: A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for alemtuzumab was developed based on a total of 1146 concentration samples from 206 patients, aged 0.2-19 years, receiving a cumulative intravenous dose of 0.2-1.5 mg/kg, and treated between 2003 and 2015 in two centers. RESULTS: Alemtuzumab PK were best described using a two-compartment model with a parallel saturable and linear elimination pathway. The linear clearance pathway, central volume of distribution, and intercompartmental distribution increased with body weight. Blood lymphocyte counts, a potential substrate for alemtuzumab, did not impact clearance. CONCLUSION: The current practice with uniform milligram/kilogram doses leads to highly variable exposures in children due to the non-linear relationship between body weight and alemtuzumab PK. This model may be used for individualized dosing of alemtuzumab.