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1.
Gastroenterology ; 158(6): 1789-1810.e15, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359563

RESUMO

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the esophagus. Many new studies have been reported recently that describe EoE management. An expert panel was convened by the American Gastroenterological Association Institute and the Joint Task Force on Allergy-Immunology Practice Parameters to provide a technical review to be used as the basis for an updated clinical guideline. This technical review was developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. Eighteen focused EoE management questions were considered, with 15 answered using the GRADE framework and 3 with a narrative summary. There is moderate certainty in the evidence that topical glucocorticosteroids effectively reduce esophageal eosinophil counts to <15 per high-power field over a short-term treatment period of 4-12 weeks, but very low certainty about the effects of using topical glucocorticosteroids as maintenance therapy. Multiple dietary strategies may be effective in reducing esophageal eosinophil counts to <15 per high-power field over a short-term treatment period, with moderate certainty for elemental diets, low certainty for empiric 2-, 4-, and 6-food elimination diets, and very low certainty that allergy-based testing dietary eliminations have a higher failure rate compared to empiric diet elimination. There is very low certainty for the effect of proton pump inhibitors in patients with esophageal eosinophilia. Although esophageal dilation appears to be relatively safe, there is no evidence that it reduces esophageal eosinophil counts. There is very low certainty in the effects of multiple other medical treatments for EoE: anti-interleukin-5 therapy, anti-interleukin-13 therapy, anti-IgE therapy, montelukast, cromolyn, and anti-TNF therapy.

2.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 124(5): 424-440.e17, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336463

RESUMO

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the esophagus. Many new studies have been reported recently that describe EoE management. An expert panel was convened by the American Gastroenterological Association Institute and the Joint Task Force on Allergy-Immunology Practice Parameters to provide a technical review to be used as the basis for an updated clinical guideline. This technical review was developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. Eighteen focused EoE management questions were considered, with 15 answered using the GRADE framework and 3 with a narrative summary. There is moderate certainty in the evidence that topical glucocorticosteroids effectively reduce esophageal eosinophil counts to <15 per high-power field over a short-term treatment period of 4-12 weeks, but very low certainty about the effects of using topical glucocorticosteroids as maintenance therapy. Multiple dietary strategies may be effective in reducing esophageal eosinophil counts to <15 per high-power field over a short-term treatment period, with moderate certainty for elemental diets, low certainty for empiric 2-, 4-, and 6-food elimination diets, and very low certainty that allergy-based testing dietary eliminations have a higher failure rate compared to empiric diet elimination. There is very low certainty for the effect of proton pump inhibitors in patients with esophageal eosinophilia. Although esophageal dilation appears to be relatively safe, there is no evidence that it reduces esophageal eosinophil counts. There is very low certainty in the effects of multiple other medical treatments for EoE: anti-interleukin-5 therapy, anti-interleukin-13 therapy, anti-IgE therapy, montelukast, cromolyn, and anti-TNF therapy.


Assuntos
Dieta , Esofagite Eosinofílica/terapia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Comitês Consultivos , Alérgenos/imunologia , Alergia e Imunologia , Esofagite Eosinofílica/epidemiologia , Prova Pericial , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico
3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 145(6): 1629-1640.e4, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence for a role of type 2 cytokines in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE); however, heterogeneity in type 2 gene expression has not been examined. OBJECTIVE: We examined type 2 immunity-associated gene expression in esophageal biopsy specimens, aiming to determine the degree of cytokine heterogeneity and its potential clinical significance. METHODS: Patients (n = 312) were recruited from 10 sites associated with the Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers. In addition to histologic and endoscopic assessment, esophageal biopsy specimens were examined for expression of 96 genes within the EoE diagnostic panel. RESULTS: Five subgroups of patients with active EoE were identified by unsupervised clustering based on expression of IL4, IL5, IL13, C-C motif chemokine ligand 26 (CCL26), thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), Charcot-Leyden crystal (CLC), C-C motif chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3), and CPA3. These groups differed in age (P < .02) and EoE diagnostic panel score (P < 1.08E-30) but not in eosinophil levels. The group V patients had the highest expression of IL5, TSLP, and CCL26 and genes associated with tissue remodeling, such as COL8A1, actin γ-2 (ACTG2), and tetraspanin 12 (TSPAN12). IL5 and IL13 were highly expressed in group IV; however, groups IV and V differed in age (34 vs 14 years [P < .05]). Groups II and III, which exhibited intermediate expression of IL5 and CPA3, were differentiated by high TSLP and IL13 in group III. CONCLUSION: We observed heterogeneous type 2 gene expression among patients with active EoE. Type 2 gene overexpression was not directly proportional to disease features; this was especially true for tissue remodeling events. These findings highlight a clinical opportunity for leveraging molecular endotypes to implement personalized medicine in EoE.

4.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 38: 341-363, 2020 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961750

RESUMO

Recent years have witnessed an emergence of interest in understanding metabolic changes associated with immune responses, termed immunometabolism. As oxygen is central to all aerobic metabolism, hypoxia is now recognized to contribute fundamentally to inflammatory and immune responses. Studies from a number of groups have implicated a prominent role for oxygen metabolism and hypoxia in innate immunity of healthy tissue (physiologic hypoxia) and during active inflammation (inflammatory hypoxia). This inflammatory hypoxia emanates from a combination of recruited inflammatory cells (e.g., neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes), high rates of oxidative metabolism, and the activation of multiple oxygen-consuming enzymes during inflammation. These localized shifts toward hypoxia have identified a prominent role for the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in the regulation of innate immunity. Such studies have provided new and enlightening insight into our basic understanding of immune mechanisms, and extensions of these findings have identified potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we summarize recent literature around the topic of innate immunity and mucosal hypoxia with a focus on transcriptional responses mediated by HIF.

5.
Gastroenterology ; 158(4): 840-851, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836530

RESUMO

Treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis has progressed from elemental formula for children and esophageal dilation for adults to selective exclusion of food triggers and swallowed topical corticosteroids. Management guidelines are available from the American Gastroenterological Association and the Joint Task Force on Allergy Immunology Practice Parameters. We cannot, however, evaluate the efficacy of treatments without a definition of response. We propose a treat-to-target approach, based on symptoms and findings from endoscopy and histology. This approach addresses dissociations between outcomes, such as symptom persistence despite normalization of histologic features and symptom resolution after esophageal dilation despite histologic features of active disease. Eosinophilic esophagitis can now be treated with biologic agents that target specific immune pathways, and findings from prospective trials have indicated that less-restrictive, empiric, elimination diets can be effective and reduce the need for repeated endoscopic assessment of disease activity during food reintroduction. We also discuss eosinophilic esophagitis subtypes, factors associated with disease, and advances in management.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Esofagite Eosinofílica/terapia , Gastroenterologia/métodos , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Deglutição , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Dilatação/métodos , Dilatação/normas , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Esofagite Eosinofílica/diagnóstico , Esofagite Eosinofílica/etiologia , Esofagite Eosinofílica/patologia , Esofagoscopia , Esôfago/diagnóstico por imagem , Esôfago/patologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Gastroenterologia/normas , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Lactente , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 145(1): 28-37, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758958

RESUMO

Recent advances in rare disease research are accelerated by the work of consortia that have been supported by the National Institutes of Health. Development of such consortia rely on multidisciplinary relationships and engagement with patient advocacy groups, as well as the National Institutes of Health and industry and academic partners. In this rostrum we present the development of such a process that focuses on eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases. Principal investigators, patient advocacy groups, research assistants, and trainees work together to perform natural history studies that promote clinical trial readiness tools, conduct clinical trials, train a new generation of investigators, and perform innovative pilot studies.

7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 145(1): 255-269, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic gastritis (EG) is a clinicopathologic disorder with marked gastric eosinophilia and clinical symptoms. There is an unmet need among patients with EG for more precise diagnostic tools. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop tissue- and blood-based diagnostic platforms for EG. METHODS: Patients with EG and control subjects without EG were enrolled across 9 Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers-associated sites. An EG Diagnostic Panel (EGDP; gastric transcript subset) and EG blood biomarker panel (protein multiplex array) were analyzed. EGDP18 scores were derived from the expression of 18 highly dysregulated genes, and blood EG scores were derived from dysregulated cytokine/chemokine levels. RESULTS: Gastric biopsy specimens and blood samples from 185 subjects (patients with EG, n = 74; control subjects without EG, n = 111) were analyzed. The EGDP (1) identified patients with active EG (P < .0001, area under the curve ≥ 0.95), (2) effectively monitored disease activity in longitudinal samples (P = .0078), (3) highly correlated in same-patient samples (antrum vs body, r = 0.85, P < .0001), and (4) inversely correlated with gastric peak eosinophil levels (r = -0.83, P < .0001), periglandular circumferential collars (r = -0.73, P < .0001), and endoscopic nodularity (r = -0.45, P < .0001). For blood-based platforms, eotaxin-3, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, IL-5, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin levels were significantly increased. Blood EG scores (1) distinguished patients with EG from control subjects without EG (P < .0001, area under the curve ≥ 0.91), (2) correlated with gastric eosinophil levels (plasma: r = 0.72, P = .0002; serum: r = 0.54, P = .0015), and (3) inversely correlated with EGDP18 scores (plasma: r = -0.64, P = .0015; serum: r = -0.46, P = .0084). Plasma eotaxin-3 levels strongly associated with gastric CCL26 expression (r = 0.81, P < .0001). CONCLUSION: We developed tissue- and blood-based platforms for assessment of EG and uncovered robust associations between specific gastric molecular profiles and histologic and endoscopic features, providing insight and clinical readiness tools for this emerging rare disease.

8.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 70(3): 324-329, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688699

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to identify practices of gastroenterologists screening for adrenal insufficiency (AI) and report prevalence of AI in children with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) treated with topical corticosteroids (TCS); compare serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels to morning serum cortisol (MSC) levels as screening tool for AI. METHODS: A multipart study was conducted. In part 1, a survey about screening practices for AI in children with EoE on TCS was sent to gastroenterologists belonging to a PedsGI listserv and to EoE consortia. In part 2, children with EoE on TCS for ≥6 months were prospectively screened for AI with MSC levels. For subjects with a MSC level of <10 µg/dL, a repeat MSC level and/or confirmatory adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation testing was offered. AI was defined by peak serum cortisol level <18 µg/dL. In part 3, DHEA-S levels were drawn with MSC levels. RESULTS: Seven percent (16/238) of gastroenterologists screened for AI. Providers in EoE consortia were more likely to screen than nonconsortia providers [9/21(43%) vs 7/217(3%); P = 0.0001]. Thirty-seven children were prospectively screened for AI, and 51% (19/37) had a low MSC level. Ten patients had a low-dose ACTH stimulation test (LDST) after 1 or more low MSC levels. Five percent (2/37) of patients were diagnosed with AI. DHEA-S and MSC levels had a moderate correlation (rs = 0.44, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Gastroenterologists belonging to EoE consortia were more likely to screen for AI. Prevalence of AI in our prospective cohort was 5%. DHEA-S has a moderate correlation with MSC levels, but more data is required to assess utility as a screening tool for AI.

9.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the endoscopic and histologic findings of non-esophageal eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGID). AIM: To characterize the presenting endoscopic and histologic findings in patients with eosinophilic gastritis (EG), eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE), and eosinophilic colitis (EC) at diagnosis and 6 months after initiating the treatment. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at 6 US centers associated with the Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Researchers. Data abstracted included demographics, endoscopic findings, tissue eosinophil counts, and associated histologic findings at diagnosis and, when available, after initial treatment. RESULTS: Of 373 subjects (317 children and 56 adults), 142 had EG, 123 EGE, and 108 EC. Normal endoscopic appearance was the most common finding across all EGIDs (62% of subjects). Baseline tissue eosinophil counts were quantified in 105 (74%) EG, 36 (29%) EGE, and 80 (74%) EC subjects. The mean peak gastric eosinophil count across all sites was 87 eos/hpf for EG and 78 eos/hpf for EGE. The mean peak colonic eosinophil count for EC subjects was 76 eos/hpf (range 10-500). Of the 29% of subjects with post-treatment follow-up, most had an improvement in clinical, endoscopic, and histologic findings regardless of treatment utilized. Reductions in tissue eosinophilia correlated with improvements in clinical symptoms as well as endoscopic and histologic findings. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort, normal appearance was the most common endoscopic finding, emphasizing the importance of biopsy, regardless of endoscopic appearance. Decreased tissue eosinophilia was associated with improvement in symptoms, endoscopic, and histologic findings, showing that disease activity is reversible.

10.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 114(10): 1614-1625, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567192

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a chronic food allergic disease, lacks sensitive and specific peripheral biomarkers. We hypothesized that levels of EoE-related biomarkers captured using a 1-hour minimally invasive Esophageal String Test (EST) would correlate with mucosal eosinophil counts and tissue concentrations of these same biomarkers. We aimed to determine whether a 1-hour EST accurately distinguishes active from inactive EoE or a normal esophagus. METHODS: In a prospective, multisite study, children and adults (ages 7-55 years) undergoing a clinically indicated esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed an EST with an esophageal dwell time of 1 hour. Subjects were divided into 3 groups: active EoE, inactive EoE, and normal esophageal mucosa. Eosinophil-associated protein levels were compared between EST effluents and esophageal biopsy extracts. Statistical modeling was performed to select biomarkers that best correlated with and predicted eosinophilic inflammation. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-four subjects (74 children, 60 adults) with active EoE (n = 62), inactive EoE (n = 37), and patient controls with a normal esophagus (n = 35) completed the study. EST-captured eosinophil-associated biomarkers correlated significantly with peak eosinophils/high-power field, endoscopic visual scoring, and the same proteins extracted from mucosal biopsies. Statistical modeling, using combined eotaxin-3 and major basic protein-1 concentrations, led to the development of EoE scores that distinguished subjects with active EoE from inactive EoE or normal esophagi. Eighty-seven percent of children, 95% of parents, and 92% of adults preferred the EST over endoscopy if it provided similar information. DISCUSSION: The 1-hour EST accurately distinguishes active from inactive EoE in children and adults and may facilitate monitoring of disease activity in a safe and minimally invasive fashion.


Assuntos
Esofagite Eosinofílica/diagnóstico , Eosinófilos , Mucosa Esofágica/citologia , Esôfago/citologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biópsia , Quimiocina CCL24/análise , Quimiocina CCL24/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL26/análise , Quimiocina CCL26/metabolismo , Criança , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório , Esofagite Eosinofílica/patologia , Mucosa Esofágica/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucosa Esofágica/patologia , Esôfago/diagnóstico por imagem , Esôfago/patologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 69(6): 682-689, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436703

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether children with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) demonstrated an association between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) improvements and symptom reduction during 12 months of treatment; to examine age-related EoE discrete symptom presentation; and to describe residual symptom and HRQoL burden. METHODS: Children ages 2 to 18 years with EoE were assessed at the onset of treatment and 12 months later at 4 tertiary care centers. Continuous measures of symptoms and symptom severity were based on 8 discrete EoE symptoms. HRQoL was measured with the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) parent-proxy (PR) report, child self-report (CR), and Family Impact Module. Mixed-effects modeling was used to test changes over time for symptom burden and child and family HRQoL. RESULTS: One hundred nine children were followed (ages 2-18 years, mean age 7.6 [4.6] years, 77% boys, 87% white). Baseline symptom number mean was 3.5 (standard deviation = 2.3, range 0-8) and symptom severity mean was 5.5 (standard deviation = 4.3, range 0-24). EoE symptom number and symptom severity decreased significantly over the 12 months (P = 0.013, P < 0.001, respectively). PedsQL PR Total, Physical, Psychosocial, and Family Impact scores all improved significantly (P = 0.001, 0.012, 0.012, 0.015, respectively) but PedsQL child self-report scores did not. Symptom reduction correlated with PR PedsQL improvement (P = 0.01). Few discrete symptoms completely remitted, but lowered severity ratings indicated clinically significant improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Year-long treatment in multidisciplinary tertiary centers reduced most symptoms and improved parent-reported HRQoL in children with EoE. The frequency of residual symptoms and persistently lower HRQoL, however, underscore the chronic nature of pediatric EoE.

14.
J Clin Invest ; 129(8): 3224-3235, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264974

RESUMO

Epithelial barrier dysfunction is a significant factor in many allergic diseases, including eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Infiltrating leukocytes and tissue adaptations increase metabolic demands and decrease oxygen availability at barrier surfaces. Understanding of how these processes impact barrier is limited, particularly in allergy. Here, we identified a regulatory axis whereby the oxygen-sensing transcription factor HIF-1α orchestrated epithelial barrier integrity, selectively controlling tight junction CLDN1 (claudin-1). Prolonged experimental hypoxia or HIF1A knockdown suppressed HIF-1α-dependent claudin-1 expression and epithelial barrier function, as documented in 3D organotypic epithelial cultures. L2-IL5OXA mice with EoE-relevant allergic inflammation displayed localized eosinophil oxygen metabolism, tissue hypoxia, and impaired claudin-1 barrier via repression of HIF-1α/claudin-1 signaling, which was restored by transgenic expression of esophageal epithelial-targeted stabilized HIF-1α. EoE patient biopsy analysis identified a repressed HIF-1α/claudin-1 axis, which was restored via pharmacologic HIF-1α stabilization ex vivo. Collectively, these studies reveal HIF-1α's critical role in maintaining barrier and highlight the HIF-1α/claudin-1 axis as a potential therapeutic target for EoE.

15.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(3): 275-281, May-June 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012612

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the practical diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to eosinophilic esophagitis and to increase the visibility of the disease among pediatricians. Sources: A search of the MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL databases and recent consensus statements and guidelines were performed. Summary of the findings: The definition of eosinophilic esophagitis is based on symptoms and histology. It is important to rule out other diseases associated with esophageal eosinophil-predominant inflammation. It is not yet clear whether the increased prevalence is due to a real increase in incidence or a result of increased awareness of the disease. Various options for management have been used in pediatric patients, including proton pump inhibitors, dietary restriction therapies, swallowed topical steroids, and endoscopic dilations. More recently, proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia and eosinophilic esophagitis have been contemplated on the same spectrum, and proton pump inhibitors should be considered the initial step in the treatment of these patients. Conclusions: Eosinophilic esophagitis is a relatively new disease with a remarkable progression of its incidence and prevalence in the past two to three decades, and diagnostic criteria that are constantly evolving. It is important to better understand the pathogenesis of the disease, the predisposing factors, the natural history, and the categorization of varying phenotypes to develop diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that meet the clinical needs of patients.


Resumo Objetivo: Fornecer uma visão geral do diagnóstico e do tratamento da esofagite eosinofílica na prática clínica e aumentar a visibilidade da doença entre os pediatras. Fontes dos dados: Foi feita uma busca na literatura relevante nos bancos de dados Medline, Embase, CINAHL e consensos e diretrizes recentes foram revisados. Síntese dos dados: A definição de esofagite eosinofílica é baseada nos sintomas e na histologia. É importante excluir outras doenças associadas com inflamação esofágica predominantemente eosinofílica. Ainda não está claro se o aumento na prevalência é devido a um real aumento da incidência ou se é o resultado da maior suspeição diagnóstica. Várias opções para tratamento, inclusive inibidores de bomba de prótons, restrições dietéticas, esteroides tópicos deglutidos e dilatações endoscópicas têm sido usadas em pacientes pediátricos. Mais recentemente a eosinofilia esofágica responsiva a inibidores de bomba de prótons e a esofagite eosinofílica têm sido contempladas no mesmo espectro e os inibidores de bomba de prótons devem ser considerados como opção inicial no tratamento desses pacientes. Conclusões: A esofagite eosinofílica é uma doença relativamente nova com uma notável progressão da incidência e prevalência nas últimas 2-3 décadas e critérios diagnósticos estão em evolução constante. É importante entender melhor a patogênese dessa doença, os fatores predisponentes, a história natural e a categorização dos diferentes fenótipos para desenvolver estratégias diagnósticas e terapêuticas que vão ao encontro das necessidades clínicas dos pacientes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Esofagite Eosinofílica/diagnóstico , Esofagite Eosinofílica/terapia , Esofagoscopia , Dilatação , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico
16.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 114(6): 984-994, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The literature related to eosinophilic gastritis (EG), gastroenteritis (EGE), and colitis (EC) is limited. We aimed to characterize rates of diagnosis, clinical features, and initial treatments for patients with EG, EGE, and EC. METHODS: In this retrospective study, data were collected from 6 centers in the Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Researchers from 2005 to 2016. We analyzed demographics, time trends in diagnosis, medical history, presenting symptoms, disease overlap, and initial treatment patterns/responses. RESULTS: Of 373 subjects (317 children and 56 adults), 38% had EG, 33% EGE, and 29% EC. Rates of diagnosis of all diseases increased over time. There was no male predominance, and the majority of subjects had atopy. Presenting symptoms were similar between diseases with nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain, the most common. One hundred fifty-four subjects (41%) had eosinophilic inflammation outside of their primary disease location with the esophagus the second most common gastrointestinal (GI) segment involved. Multisite inflammation was more common in children than in adults (68% vs 37%; P < 0.001). Initial treatment patterns varied highly between centers. One hundred-nine subjects (29%) had follow-up within 6 months, and the majority had clinical, endoscopic, and histologic improvements. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, EG, EGE, and EC were diagnosed more frequently over time, and inflammation of GI segments outside the primary disease site co-occurrence of atopy was common with a lack of male predominance. Symptoms were similar between diseases, and initial treatment strategies were highly variable. Future investigation should assess the cause of the increased prevalence of eosinophilic GI disorders and prospectively assess outcomes to establish treatment algorithms.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Colite/epidemiologia , Enterite/epidemiologia , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Eosinófilos/patologia , Gastrite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colite/diagnóstico , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Comorbidade/tendências , Enterite/diagnóstico , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Previsões , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Gastrite/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 68(5): 611-614, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724794

RESUMO

Our bodies are protected from the external environment by mucosal barriers that are lined by epithelial cells. The epithelium plays a critical role as a highly dynamic, selective semipermeable barrier that separates luminal contents and pathogens from the rest of the body and controlling the absorption of nutrients, fluid and solutes. A series of protein complexes including the adherens junction, desmosomes, and tight junctions function as the principal barrier in paracellular diffusion and regulators of intracellular solute, protein, and lipid transport. Tight junctions are composed of a series of proteins called occludins, junctional adhesion molecules, and claudins that reside primarily as the most apical intercellular junction. Here we will review one of these protein families, claudins, and their relevance to gastrointestinal and liver diseases.

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