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1.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 26(3): 204-212, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833785

RESUMO

The structural features that govern broad-spectrum activity of broadly neutralizing anti-ebolavirus antibodies (Abs) outside of the internal fusion loop epitope are currently unknown. Here we describe the structure of a broadly neutralizing human monoclonal Ab (mAb), ADI-15946, which was identified in a human survivor of the 2013-2016 outbreak. The crystal structure of ADI-15946 in complex with cleaved Ebola virus glycoprotein (EBOV GPCL) reveals that binding of the mAb structurally mimics the conserved interaction between the EBOV GP core and its glycan cap ß17-ß18 loop to inhibit infection. Both endosomal proteolysis of EBOV GP and binding of mAb FVM09 displace this loop, thereby increasing exposure of ADI-15946's conserved epitope and enhancing neutralization. Our work also mapped the paratope of ADI-15946, thereby explaining reduced activity against Sudan virus, which enabled rational, structure-guided engineering to enhance binding and neutralization of Sudan virus while retaining the parental activity against EBOV and Bundibugyo virus.

2.
J Virol ; 93(8)2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728263

RESUMO

The human B cell response to natural filovirus infections early after recovery is poorly understood. Previous serologic studies suggest that some Ebola virus survivors exhibit delayed antibody responses with low magnitude and quality. Here, we sought to study the population of individual memory B cells induced early in convalescence. We isolated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from memory B cells from four survivors treated for Ebola virus disease (EVD) 1 or 3 months after discharge from the hospital. At the early time points postrecovery, the frequency of Ebola-specific B cells was low and dominated by clones that were cross-reactive with both Ebola glycoprotein (GP) and with the secreted GP (sGP) form. Of 25 MAbs isolated from four donors, only one exhibited neutralization activity. This neutralizing MAb, designated MAb EBOV237, recognizes an epitope in the glycan cap of the surface glycoprotein. In vivo murine lethal challenge studies showed that EBOV237 conferred protection when given prophylactically at a level similar to that of the ZMapp component MAb 13C6. The results suggest that the human B cell response to EVD 1 to 3 months postdischarge is characterized by a paucity of broad or potent neutralizing clones. However, the neutralizing epitope in the glycan cap recognized by EBOV237 may play a role in the early human antibody response to EVD and should be considered in rational design strategies for new Ebola virus vaccine candidates.IMPORTANCE The pathogenesis of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans is complex, and the mechanisms contributing to immunity are poorly understood. In particular, it appears that the quality and magnitude of the human B cell response early after recovery from EVD may be reduced compared to most viral infections. Here, we isolated human monoclonal antibodies from B cells of four survivors of EVD at 1 or 3 months after hospital discharge. Ebola-specific memory B cells early in convalescence were low in frequency, and the antibodies they encoded demonstrated poor neutralizing potencies. One neutralizing antibody that protected mice from lethal infection, EBOV237, was identified in the panel of 25 human antibodies isolated. Recognition of the glycan cap epitope recognized by EBOV237 suggests that this antigenic site should be considered in vaccine design and treatment strategies for EVD.

3.
MBio ; 9(5)2018 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206174

RESUMO

Only one naturally occurring human antibody has been described thus far that is capable of potently neutralizing all five ebolaviruses. Here we present two crystal structures of this rare, pan-ebolavirus neutralizing human antibody in complex with Ebola virus and Bundibugyo virus glycoproteins (GPs), respectively. The structures delineate the key protein and glycan contacts for binding that are conserved across the ebolaviruses, explain the antibody's unique broad specificity and neutralization activity, and reveal the likely mechanism behind a known escape mutation in the fusion loop region of GP2. We found that the epitope of this antibody, ADI-15878, extends along the hydrophobic paddle of the fusion loop and then dips down into a highly conserved pocket beneath the N-terminal tail of GP2, a mode of recognition unlike any other antibody elicited against Ebola virus, and likely critical for its broad activity. The fold of Bundibugyo virus glycoprotein, not previously visualized, is similar to the fold of Ebola virus GP, and ADI-15878 binds to each virus's GP with a similar strategy and angle of attack. These findings will be useful in deployment of this antibody as a broad-spectrum therapeutic and in the design of immunogens that elicit the desired broadly neutralizing immune response against all members of the ebolavirus genus and filovirus family.IMPORTANCE There are five different members of the Ebolavirus genus. Provision of vaccines and treatments able to protect against any of the five ebolaviruses is an important goal of public health. Antibodies are a desired result of vaccines and can be delivered directly as therapeutics. Most antibodies, however, are effective against only one or two, not all, of these pathogens. Only one human antibody has been thus far described to neutralize all five ebolaviruses, antibody ADI-15878. Here we describe the molecular structure of ADI-15878 bound to the relevant target proteins of Ebola virus and Bundibugyo virus. We explain how it achieves its rare breadth of activity and propose strategies to design improved vaccines capable of eliciting more antibodies like ADI-15878.

4.
Cell Host Microbe ; 24(2): 221-233.e5, 2018 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30092199

RESUMO

The recent Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic highlighted the need for effective vaccines and therapeutics to limit and prevent outbreaks. Host antibodies against EBOV are critical for controlling disease, and recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can protect from infection. However, antibodies mediate an array of antiviral functions including neutralization as well as engagement of Fc-domain receptors on immune cells, resulting in phagocytosis or NK cell-mediated killing of infected cells. Thus, to understand the antibody features mediating EBOV protection, we examined specific Fc features associated with protection using a library of EBOV-specific mAbs. Neutralization was strongly associated with therapeutic protection against EBOV. However, several neutralizing mAbs failed to protect, while several non-neutralizing or weakly neutralizing mAbs could protect. Antibody-mediated effector functions, including phagocytosis and NK cell activation, were associated with protection, particularly for antibodies with moderate neutralizing activity. This framework identifies functional correlates that can inform therapeutic and vaccine design strategies against EBOV and other pathogens.

5.
Cell ; 174(4): 938-952.e13, 2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096313

RESUMO

Antibodies are promising post-exposure therapies against emerging viruses, but which antibody features and in vitro assays best forecast protection are unclear. Our international consortium systematically evaluated antibodies against Ebola virus (EBOV) using multidisciplinary assays. For each antibody, we evaluated epitopes recognized on the viral surface glycoprotein (GP) and secreted glycoprotein (sGP), readouts of multiple neutralization assays, fraction of virions left un-neutralized, glycan structures, phagocytic and natural killer cell functions elicited, and in vivo protection in a mouse challenge model. Neutralization and induction of multiple immune effector functions (IEFs) correlated most strongly with protection. Neutralization predominantly occurred via epitopes maintained on endosomally cleaved GP, whereas maximal IEF mapped to epitopes farthest from the viral membrane. Unexpectedly, sGP cross-reactivity did not significantly influence in vivo protection. This comprehensive dataset provides a rubric to evaluate novel antibodies and vaccine responses and a roadmap for therapeutic development for EBOV and related viruses.

6.
Immunity ; 49(2): 363-374.e10, 2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029854

RESUMO

Ebolaviruses cause severe disease in humans, and identification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that are effective against multiple ebolaviruses are important for therapeutics development. Here we describe a distinct class of broadly neutralizing human mAbs with protective capacity against three ebolaviruses infectious for humans: Ebola (EBOV), Sudan (SUDV), and Bundibugyo (BDBV) viruses. We isolated mAbs from human survivors of ebolavirus disease and identified a potent mAb, EBOV-520, which bound to an epitope in the glycoprotein (GP) base region. EBOV-520 efficiently neutralized EBOV, BDBV, and SUDV and also showed protective capacity in relevant animal models of these infections. EBOV-520 mediated protection principally by direct virus neutralization and exhibited multifunctional properties. This study identified a potent naturally occurring mAb and defined key features of the human antibody response that may contribute to broad protection. This multifunctional mAb and related clones are promising candidates for development as broadly protective pan-ebolavirus therapeutic molecules.

7.
Nat Microbiol ; 3(6): 670-677, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29736037

RESUMO

Ebola virus (EBOV) in humans causes a severe illness with high mortality rates. Several strategies have been developed in the past to treat EBOV infection, including the antibody cocktail ZMapp, which has been shown to be effective in nonhuman primate models of infection 1 and has been used under compassionate-treatment protocols in humans 2 . ZMapp is a mixture of three chimerized murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)3-6 that target EBOV-specific epitopes on the surface glycoprotein7,8. However, ZMapp mAbs do not neutralize other species from the genus Ebolavirus, such as Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Reston virus (RESTV) or Sudan virus (SUDV). Here, we describe three naturally occurring human cross-neutralizing mAbs, from BDBV survivors, that target an antigenic site in the canonical heptad repeat 2 (HR2) region near the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the glycoprotein. The identification of a conserved neutralizing antigenic site in the glycoprotein suggests that these mAbs could be used to design universal antibody therapeutics against diverse ebolavirus species. Furthermore, we found that immunization with a peptide comprising the HR2-MPER antigenic site elicits neutralizing antibodies in rabbits. Structural features determined by conserved residues in the antigenic site described here could inform an epitope-based vaccine design against infection caused by diverse ebolavirus species.

8.
Cell Host Microbe ; 23(1): 101-109.e4, 2018 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29324225

RESUMO

Since their first identification 50 years ago, marburgviruses have emerged several times, with 83%-90% lethality in the largest outbreaks. Although no vaccines or therapeutics are available for human use, the human antibody MR191 provides complete protection in non-human primates when delivered several days after inoculation of a lethal marburgvirus dose. The detailed neutralization mechanism of MR191 remains outstanding. Here we present a 3.2 Å crystal structure of MR191 complexed with a trimeric marburgvirus surface glycoprotein (GP). MR191 neutralizes by occupying the conserved receptor-binding site and competing with the host receptor Niemann-Pick C1. The structure illuminates previously disordered regions of GP including the stalk, fusion loop, CX6CC switch, and an N-terminal region of GP2 that wraps about the outside of GP1 to anchor a marburgvirus-specific "wing" antibody epitope. Virus escape mutations mapped far outside the MR191 receptor-binding site footprint suggest a role for these other regions in the GP quaternary structure.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Marburgvirus/imunologia , Receptores Virais/imunologia , Receptores Virais/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/imunologia , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/ultraestrutura , Agrobacterium tumefaciens , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/ultraestrutura , Sítios de Ligação/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Cercopithecus aethiops , Cristalografia por Raios X , Drosophila melanogaster , Humanos , Marburgvirus/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Tabaco , Células Vero , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Ligação Viral
9.
J Infect Dis ; 214(suppl 3): S210-S217, 2016 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27587634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe viral illness caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). The 2013-2016 EVD outbreak in West Africa is the largest recorded, with >11 000 deaths. Development of the ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test (ReEBOV RDT) was expedited to provide a point-of-care test for suspected EVD cases. METHODS: Recombinant EBOV viral protein 40 antigen was used to derive polyclonal antibodies for RDT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay development. ReEBOV RDT limits of detection (LOD), specificity, and interference were analytically validated on the basis of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance. RESULTS: The ReEBOV RDT specificity estimate was 95% for donor serum panels and 97% for donor whole-blood specimens. The RDT demonstrated sensitivity to 3 species of Ebolavirus (Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, and Bundibugyo ebolavirus) associated with human disease, with no cross-reactivity by pathogens associated with non-EBOV febrile illness, including malaria parasites. Interference testing exhibited no reactivity by medications in common use. The LOD for antigen was 4.7 ng/test in serum and 9.4 ng/test in whole blood. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing of nonhuman primate samples determined the range to be equivalent to 3.0 × 105-9.0 × 108 genomes/mL. CONCLUSIONS: The analytical validation presented here contributed to the ReEBOV RDT being the first antigen-based assay to receive FDA and World Health Organization emergency use authorization for this EVD outbreak, in February 2015.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/sangue , Surtos de Doenças , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/diagnóstico , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/sangue , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Animais , Ebolavirus/isolamento & purificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Limite de Detecção , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Nat Microbiol ; 1(9): 16128, 2016 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27562261

RESUMO

The Ebola virus (EBOV) GP gene encodes two glycoproteins. The major product is a soluble, dimeric glycoprotein (sGP) that is secreted abundantly. Despite the abundance of sGP during infection, little is known regarding its structure or functional role. A minor product, resulting from transcriptional editing, is the transmembrane-anchored, trimeric viral surface glycoprotein (GP). GP mediates attachment to and entry into host cells, and is the intended target of antibody therapeutics. Because large portions of sequence are shared between GP and sGP, it has been hypothesized that sGP may potentially subvert the immune response or may contribute to pathogenicity. In this study, we present cryo-electron microscopy structures of GP and sGP in complex with GP-specific and GP/sGP cross-reactive antibodies undergoing human clinical trials. The structure of the sGP dimer presented here, in complex with both an sGP-specific antibody and a GP/sGP cross-reactive antibody, permits us to unambiguously assign the oligomeric arrangement of sGP and compare its structure and epitope presentation to those of GP. We also provide biophysical evaluation of naturally occurring GP/sGP mutations that fall within the footprints identified by our high-resolution structures. Taken together, our data provide a detailed and more complete picture of the accessible Ebolavirus glycoprotein landscape and a structural basis to evaluate patient and vaccine antibody responses towards differently structured products of the GP gene.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Glicoproteínas/química , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/química , Modelos Estruturais , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos , Reações Cruzadas , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Epitopos/imunologia , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Mutação , Multimerização Proteica , Alinhamento de Sequência , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
11.
Cell Rep ; 15(7): 1514-1526, 2016 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27160900

RESUMO

Previous efforts to identify cross-neutralizing antibodies to the receptor-binding site (RBS) of ebolavirus glycoproteins have been unsuccessful, largely because the RBS is occluded on the viral surface. We report a monoclonal antibody (FVM04) that targets a uniquely exposed epitope within the RBS; cross-neutralizes Ebola (EBOV), Sudan (SUDV), and, to a lesser extent, Bundibugyo viruses; and shows protection against EBOV and SUDV in mice and guinea pigs. The antibody cocktail ZMapp™ is remarkably effective against EBOV (Zaire) but does not cross-neutralize other ebolaviruses. By replacing one of the ZMapp™ components with FVM04, we retained the anti-EBOV efficacy while extending the breadth of protection to SUDV, thereby generating a cross-protective antibody cocktail. In addition, we report several mutations at the base of the ebolavirus glycoprotein that enhance the binding of FVM04 and other cross-reactive antibodies. These findings have important implications for pan-ebolavirus vaccine development and defining broadly protective antibody cocktails.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Ebolavirus/fisiologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/ultraestrutura , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Sítios de Ligação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Glicoproteínas/química , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/ultraestrutura , Cobaias , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Cinética , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação/genética , Coloração Negativa , Testes de Neutralização , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Science ; 351(6277): 1078-83, 2016 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26912366

RESUMO

Antibodies targeting the Ebola virus surface glycoprotein (EBOV GP) are implicated in protection against lethal disease, but the characteristics of the human antibody response to EBOV GP remain poorly understood. We isolated and characterized 349 GP-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from the peripheral B cells of a convalescent donor who survived the 2014 EBOV Zaire outbreak. Remarkably, 77% of the mAbs neutralize live EBOV, and several mAbs exhibit unprecedented potency. Structures of selected mAbs in complex with GP reveal a site of vulnerability located in the GP stalk region proximal to the viral membrane. Neutralizing antibodies targeting this site show potent therapeutic efficacy against lethal EBOV challenge in mice. The results provide a framework for the design of new EBOV vaccine candidates and immunotherapies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Formação de Anticorpos , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/química , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Vacinas contra Ebola/imunologia , Vacinas contra Ebola/uso terapêutico , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/terapia , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Camundongos , Sobreviventes , Doadores de Tecidos , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/química , Vírion/imunologia
13.
MBio ; 7(1): e02154-15, 2016 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26908579

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The filovirus surface glycoprotein (GP) mediates viral entry into host cells. Following viral internalization into endosomes, GP is cleaved by host cysteine proteases to expose a receptor-binding site (RBS) that is otherwise hidden from immune surveillance. Here, we present the crystal structure of proteolytically cleaved Ebola virus GP to a resolution of 3.3 Å. We use this structure in conjunction with functional analysis of a large panel of pseudotyped viruses bearing mutant GP proteins to map the Ebola virus GP endosomal RBS at molecular resolution. Our studies indicate that binding of GP to its endosomal receptor Niemann-Pick C1 occurs in two distinct stages: the initial electrostatic interactions are followed by specific interactions with a hydrophobic trough that is exposed on the endosomally cleaved GP1 subunit. Finally, we demonstrate that monoclonal antibodies targeting the filovirus RBS neutralize all known filovirus GPs, making this conserved pocket a promising target for the development of panfilovirus therapeutics. IMPORTANCE: Ebola virus uses its glycoprotein (GP) to enter new host cells. During entry, GP must be cleaved by human enzymes in order for receptor binding to occur. Here, we provide the crystal structure of the cleaved form of Ebola virus GP. We demonstrate that cleavage exposes a site at the top of GP and that this site binds the critical domain C of the receptor, termed Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1). We perform mutagenesis to find parts of the site essential for binding NPC1 and map distinct roles for an upper, charged crest and lower, hydrophobic trough in cleaved GP. We find that this 3-dimensional site is conserved across the filovirus family and that antibody directed against this site is able to bind cleaved GP from every filovirus tested and neutralize viruses bearing those GPs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Ebolavirus/química , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/química , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Linhagem Celular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ebolavirus/genética , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Ebolavirus/fisiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/terapia , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/química , Mutagênese , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Virais/química , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Internalização do Vírus
14.
Cell ; 164(3): 392-405, 2016 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26806128

RESUMO

Recent studies have suggested that antibody-mediated protection against the Ebolaviruses may be achievable, but little is known about whether or not antibodies can confer cross-reactive protection against viruses belonging to diverse Ebolavirus species, such as Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), and Bundibugyo virus (BDBV). We isolated a large panel of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against BDBV glycoprotein (GP) using peripheral blood B cells from survivors of the 2007 BDBV outbreak in Uganda. We determined that a large proportion of mAbs with potent neutralizing activity against BDBV bind to the glycan cap and recognize diverse epitopes within this major antigenic site. We identified several glycan cap-specific mAbs that neutralized multiple ebolaviruses, including SUDV, and a cross-reactive mAb that completely protected guinea pigs from the lethal challenge with heterologous EBOV. Our results provide a roadmap to develop a single antibody-based treatment effective against multiple Ebolavirus infections.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Sobreviventes , Animais , Reações Cruzadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Cobaias , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microscopia Eletrônica , Modelos Moleculares , Mutagênese , Uganda
15.
J Virol ; 90(1): 266-78, 2016 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26468533

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The unprecedented 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa has highlighted the need for effective therapeutics against filoviruses. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) cocktails have shown great potential as EVD therapeutics; however, the existing protective MAbs are virus species specific. Here we report the development of pan-ebolavirus and pan-filovirus antibodies generated by repeated immunization of mice with filovirus glycoproteins engineered to drive the B cell responses toward conserved epitopes. Multiple pan-ebolavirus antibodies were identified that react to the Ebola, Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Reston viruses. A pan-filovirus antibody that was reactive to the receptor binding regions of all filovirus glycoproteins was also identified. Significant postexposure efficacy of several MAbs, including a novel antibody cocktail, was demonstrated. For the first time, we report cross-neutralization and in vivo protection against two highly divergent filovirus species, i.e., Ebola virus and Sudan virus, with a single antibody. Competition studies indicate that this antibody targets a previously unrecognized conserved neutralizing epitope that involves the glycan cap. Mechanistic studies indicated that, besides neutralization, innate immune cell effector functions may play a role in the antiviral activity of the antibodies. Our findings further suggest critical novel epitopes that can be utilized to design effective cocktails for broad protection against multiple filovirus species. IMPORTANCE: Filoviruses represent a major public health threat in Africa and an emerging global concern. Largely driven by the U.S. biodefense funding programs and reinforced by the 2014 outbreaks, current immunotherapeutics are primarily focused on a single filovirus species called Ebola virus (EBOV) (formerly Zaire Ebola virus). However, other filoviruses including Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Marburg viruses have caused human outbreaks with mortality rates as high as 90%. Thus, cross-protective immunotherapeutics are urgently needed. Here, we describe monoclonal antibodies with cross-reactivity to several filoviruses, including the first report of a cross-neutralizing antibody that exhibits protection against Ebola virus and Sudan virus in mice. Our results further describe a novel combination of antibodies with enhanced protective efficacy. These results form a basis for further development of effective immunotherapeutics against filoviruses for human use. Understanding the cross-protective epitopes are also important for rational design of pan-ebolavirus and pan-filovirus vaccines.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Filoviridae/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Imunização Passiva , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Proteção Cruzada , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Infect Dis ; 212 Suppl 2: S359-67, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26232440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Throughout the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, major gaps were exposed in the availability of validated rapid diagnostic platforms, protective vaccines, and effective therapeutic agents. These gaps potentiated the development of prototype rapid lateral flow immunodiagnostic (LFI) assays that are true point-of-contact platforms, for the detection of active Ebola infections in small blood samples. METHODS: Recombinant Ebola and Marburg virus matrix VP40 and glycoprotein (GP) antigens were used to derive a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Antibodies were tested using a multivariate approach to identify antibody-antigen combinations suitable for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and LFI assay development. RESULTS: Polyclonal antibodies generated in goats were superior reagents for capture and detection of recombinant VP40 in test sample matrices. These antibodies were optimized for use in antigen-capture ELISA and LFI assay platforms. Prototype immunoglobulin M (IgM)/immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISAs were similarly developed that specifically detect Ebola virus-specific antibodies in the serum of experimentally infected nonhuman primates and in blood samples obtained from patients with Ebola from Sierra Leone. CONCLUSIONS: The prototype recombinant Ebola LFI assays developed in these studies have sensitivities that are useful for clinical diagnosis of acute ebolavirus infections. The antigen-capture and IgM/IgG ELISAs provide additional confirmatory assay platforms for detecting VP40 and other ebolavirus-specific immunoglobulins.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Filoviridae/imunologia , Imunoensaio/métodos , África Ocidental , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/sangue , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/sangue , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/imunologia , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/virologia , Marburgvirus/imunologia , Serra Leoa
18.
PLoS Pathog ; 11(6): e1005016, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26115029

RESUMO

The filoviruses, which include the marburg- and ebolaviruses, have caused multiple outbreaks among humans this decade. Antibodies against the filovirus surface glycoprotein (GP) have been shown to provide life-saving therapy in nonhuman primates, but such antibodies are generally virus-specific. Many monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been described against Ebola virus. In contrast, relatively few have been described against Marburg virus. Here we present ten mAbs elicited by immunization of mice using recombinant mucin-deleted GPs from different Marburg virus (MARV) strains. Surprisingly, two of the mAbs raised against MARV GP also cross-react with the mucin-deleted GP cores of all tested ebolaviruses (Ebola, Sudan, Bundibugyo, Reston), but these epitopes are masked differently by the mucin-like domains themselves. The most efficacious mAbs in this panel were found to recognize a novel "wing" feature on the GP2 subunit that is unique to Marburg and does not exist in Ebola. Two of these anti-wing antibodies confer 90 and 100% protection, respectively, one hour post-exposure in mice challenged with MARV.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Imunização , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/prevenção & controle , Marburgvirus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Feminino , Masculino , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
19.
Cell ; 160(5): 893-903, 2015 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25723164

RESUMO

The mechanisms by which neutralizing antibodies inhibit Marburg virus (MARV) are not known. We isolated a panel of neutralizing antibodies from a human MARV survivor that bind to MARV glycoprotein (GP) and compete for binding to a single major antigenic site. Remarkably, several of the antibodies also bind to Ebola virus (EBOV) GP. Single-particle EM structures of antibody-GP complexes reveal that all of the neutralizing antibodies bind to MARV GP at or near the predicted region of the receptor-binding site. The presence of the glycan cap or mucin-like domain blocks binding of neutralizing antibodies to EBOV GP, but not to MARV GP. The data suggest that MARV-neutralizing antibodies inhibit virus by binding to infectious virions at the exposed MARV receptor-binding site, revealing a mechanism of filovirus inhibition.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/ultraestrutura , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/imunologia , Marburgvirus/química , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/química , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/química , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Marburgvirus/genética , Marburgvirus/imunologia , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo
20.
Cell ; 160(5): 904-912, 2015 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25723165

RESUMO

The filoviruses, including Marburg and Ebola, express a single glycoprotein on their surface, termed GP, which is responsible for attachment and entry of target cells. Filovirus GPs differ by up to 70% in protein sequence, and no antibodies are yet described that cross-react among them. Here, we present the 3.6 Å crystal structure of Marburg virus GP in complex with a cross-reactive antibody from a human survivor, and a lower resolution structure of the antibody bound to Ebola virus GP. The antibody, MR78, recognizes a GP1 epitope conserved across the filovirus family, which likely represents the binding site of their NPC1 receptor. Indeed, MR78 blocks binding of the essential NPC1 domain C. These structures and additional small-angle X-ray scattering of mucin-containing MARV and EBOV GPs suggest why such antibodies were not previously elicited in studies of Ebola virus, and provide critical templates for development of immunotherapeutics and inhibitors of entry.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Marburgvirus/química , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/química , Linhagem Celular , Reações Cruzadas , Cristalografia por Raios X , Drosophila , Ebolavirus/química , Humanos , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/química , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/imunologia , Marburgvirus/genética , Marburgvirus/imunologia , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mucinas/química , Alinhamento de Sequência , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo
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