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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 159, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995766

RESUMO

Introduction: the new coronavirus (COVID-19) that emerged from Wuhan, Hubei Province of China in December 2019, causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has fast spread across the entire globe, with most countries struggling to slow and reduce the spread of the virus through rapid screening, testing, isolation, case management, contact tracing, implementing social distancing and lockdowns. This has been shown to be a major factor in countries that have been successful in containing COVID-19 transmission. Early detection of cases is important, and the use of geospatial technology can support to detect and easily identify potential hotspots that will require timely response. The use of spatial analysis with geographic information systems (GIS) had proved to be effective in providing timely and effective solutions in supporting epidemic response and pandemics over the years. It has developed and evolved rapidly with a complete technological tool for representing data, model construction, visualization and platform construction among others. Methods: we conducted a geospatial analysis to develop a web mapping application using ArcMap and ArcGIS online to guide and support active case search of potential COVID-19 cases, within 500m radius of COVID-19 confirmed cases to improve detection and testing of suspected cases. Results: the web mapping application tool guides the active case search teams in the field, with clear boundaries on the houses to be visited within 500-meter radius of confirmed positive cases, to conduct active case search of all cases of severe acute respiratory illnesses (SARI), acute respiratory illnesses (ARI), pneumonia etc, to detect and test for COVID-19 towards containing the pandemic. Conclusion: the use of GIS and spatial statistical tools have become an important and valuable tool in decision-making and, more importantly, guiding health care professional and other stakeholders in the response being carried out in a more coherent and easy manner. It has proven to be effective in supporting the active case search process to rapidly detect, test and isolate cases during the process, towards containing the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Saúde Pública , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Análise Espacial , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
2.
J Immunol Sci ; Spec Issue(2): 1108, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954304

RESUMO

Mobile phone data collection tools are increasingly becoming very usable collecting, collating and analysing data in the health sector. In this paper, we documented the experiences with mobile phone data collection, collation and analysis in 5 countries of the East and Southern African, using Open Data Kit (ODK), where questionnaires were designed and coded on an XML form, uploaded and data collected using Android-Based mobile phones, with a web-based system to monitor data in real-time during EPI comprehensive review. The ODK interface supports in real-time monitoring of the flow of data, detection of missing or incomplete data, coordinate location of all locations visited, embedded charts for basic analysis. It also minimized data quality errors at entry level with the use of validation codes and constraint developed into the checklist. These benefits, combined with the improvement that mobile phones offer over paper-based in terms of timeliness, data loss, collation, and real-time data collection, analysis and uploading difficulties, make mobile phone data collection a feasible method of data collection that needs to be further explored in the conduct of all surveys in the organization.

3.
J Immunol Sci ; Spec Issue(2): 1114, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954307

RESUMO

The use of online Integrated Supportive Supervision (ISS) is aimed to improve the quality of services provided by front line health workers. This work is aimed to document the effects of ISS on the performance of health workers in Zambia using selected key surveillance and immunization process indicators. ISS data on WHO ODK server of all Integrated Supportive Supervisory (ISS) visits that were conducted in Zambia between 1st January 2018 to 30th September 2018 were analysed to determine the Percentage point difference between the first and the most recent ISS visits in order to determine whether an observed gap during first ISS visit had persisted during the most recent ISS visit. Our study demonstrated that ISS has remarkable percentage point increase between the first and the most recent ISS visits on availability of an updated monitoring chart, health workers knowledge of AFP case definition and AFP case files. However, there exist variations in the frequency of ISS visits across the provinces of the country. Future research effort should consider assessing the quality of the ISS data through periodic data validation missions.

4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 1): 4, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373255

RESUMO

Introduction: Immunization program monitoring includes numerous activities, some of which include monitoring of vaccination coverage, surveillance performance and epidemiological patterns. The provision of timely, high quality and actionable feedback is an essential component of strengthening health systems. Within the African region of the WHO, various bulletins are produced and disseminated regularly to provide feedback on the performance of immunization programs and vaccine preventable disease control initiatives. Methods: The 2019 annual national immunization program managers' meeting for countries in the eastern and southern African subregion was held in Asmara from 18 - 20 March 2019. A survey questionnaire was administered to the participants representing the national programs and in-country partners across the 20 countries. Results: On average, the 75 respondents receive 1.8 e-mailed feedback bulletins monthly. Twenty-three (31%) respondents receive 3 or more written feedback bulletins per month, and 72% receive the bulletins regularly. On a scale of 1 - 5 (from lowest to highest), 87% participants rated the relevance of the bulletins they receive at 4 - 5. Only 19% of the respondents responded that the results are discussed within the national immunization program, and 14% stated that action points are generated based on the feedback received. Fifty-nine (79%) respondents want to receive more frequent feedback on routine immunization performance. Among the EPI program managers and the EPI program data managers, the access to these feedback bulletins was quite limited. Even though the primary objective of the bulletins is to initiate discussions and action based on the provided feedback, such discussions do not happen regularly at country level. The programmatic use and advocacy value of the bulletins is not optimal. Conclusion: We recommend integrating program feedback, regularly updating the distribution lists, the additional use of instant messaging platforms for distribution, as well as online posting of the bulletins for wider availability.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cobertura Vacinal , África Oriental/epidemiologia , África Austral/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/normas , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Nações Unidas , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal/métodos , Cobertura Vacinal/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 1): 7, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373258

RESUMO

Introduction: The Expanded Program on Immunisation (EPI) has been operational in Eritrea since 1980. Eritrea has endorsed the resolution of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organisation African region, committing to a measles elimination goal for 2020 in the African Region. The country is implementing the recommended strategies. Methods: We reviewed administrative coverage and WHO UNICEF coverage estimates for Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus (DPT) and measles routine vaccination, as well as for measles supplemental immunization activities. We reviewed national surveillance performance and analyzed the epidemiological trends of measles as reported in the case-based surveillance database. Results: Eritrea has maintained more than 90% coverage with the first dose of measles vaccine at national level since 2001 and 88% MCV2 coverage from 2015 - 2017 according to the WHO-UNICEF coverage estimates. Since 2011, the country has not met the surveillance performance target of at least 80% districts reporting suspected measles cases with blood specimen. Measles incidence was between 16.8 - 24.7 cases per million population in the period 2015 - 2018. The mean and median age of confirmed measles cases was more than 10 years in 8 of the 14 years covered by the analysis. In 2017, Eritrea reported 1,199 cases of measles which differs significantly from the 185 suspected cases in the case based surveillance database for the same year. Eritrea has maintained high coverage for MCV1 and MCV2 and made progress towards measles elimination. However, the country has gaps in surveillance performance which may mask the true incidence of measles. Conclusion: In order to attain elimination of measles, Eritrea needs to implement measures to improve surveillance quality, to conduct regular risk assessment and implement targeted measures to close immunity gaps. In addition, setting up a national committee for the verification of measles elimination will help the country document progress and also to highlight and advocate for addressing issues related to data quality and performance gaps.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Programas de Imunização , Vacina contra Sarampo/uso terapêutico , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal/tendências , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/uso terapêutico , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Eritreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Esquemas de Imunização , Incidência , Lactente , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 3: 120, 2010 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21162751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis elimination programs are based upon preventative chemotherapy annually in populations with prevalence more than or equal to 1%. The goal is to treat 80% of the eligible, at risk population yearly, for at least 5 years, in order to interrupt transmission and prevent children from becoming infected. This level of coverage has been a challenge in urban settings. Assessing the coverage in a rapidly growing urban/non-rural setting with inadequate population data is also problematic. In Sierra Leone, a 5-day preventative chemotherapy campaign was carried out in the Western Area including the capital: Freetown. An intensive, social mobilization strategy combined traditional and modern communication channels. To aid dissemination of appropriate information Frequently Asked Questions were developed and widely circulated. The population of the Western Area has grown faster than projected by the 2004 National Census due to the post-war settlement of internally displaced persons. As a reliable denominator was not available, independent monitoring was adapted and performed "in process" to aid program performance and "end process" to assess final coverage. RESULTS: In 5 days 1,104,407 eligible persons were treated. Using the projected population from the 2004 census this figure represented coverage of 116% in the Urban Western Area and 129% in the Rural Western Area. Independent monitors interviewed a total of 9,253 persons during the 2 End Process days representing 1% of the projected population. Of these, 85.8% recalled taking both ivermectin and albendazole (Urban: 85.2%, Rural: 87.1%). No serious adverse drug reactions were reported. CONCLUSION: The paper presents the key elements of success of the social mobilization and implementation strategy and describes the independent monitoring used to estimate final coverage in this urban/non-rural setting where the current population size is uncertain. This implementation strategy and Independent Monitoring tool could be useful in similar, rapidly growing cities implementing lymphatic filariasis elimination programs.

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