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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The HeartMate 3 ventricular assist device (VAD) is a newer centrifugal continuous-flow VAD used for bridge-to-transplant and destination therapy in adults. However, there is limited experience regarding its use in children and adults with complex congenital heart disease (CHD). METHODS: The Advanced Cardiac Therapies Improving Outcomes Network (ACTION) is a multicenter learning network comprised of pediatric hospitals implanting VADs in children and adults with complex CHD. We examined the outcomes of patients undergoing HeartMate 3 implantation at an ACTION center between December 2017 and September 2019. RESULTS: The HeartMate 3 was implanted in 35 patients at 9 ACTION centers, with a median age of 15.7 (8.8-47.3) years, median weight of 65.7 (19.1-114.1) kg, and median body surface area (BSA) of 1.74 (0.78-2.36) m2. Of the cohort, 14 patients (40%) weighed <60 kg. Diagnoses included dilated cardiomyopathy (63%), dilated cardiomyopathy in neuromuscular disease (20%), and CHD (17%). Of those with CHD, most had a Fontan circulation. With a median 78 days of follow-up, there was 1 death on device (97% survival); 20 out of 35 (57%) underwent transplantation with no post-transplantation mortality. There were no episodes of stroke or pump thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the HeartMate 3 in ACTION centers was associated with a low incidence of mortality and adverse events. Patients as small as 19 kg (BSA 0.78 m2) were successfully implanted and supported, indicating that this device may be appropriate for older children and small adults.

3.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 21(1): 75-81, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To quantify and identify factors associated with bleeding events during pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study with primary outcome of bleeding days on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. SETTING: Single tertiary care children's hospital. SUBJECTS: One-hundred twenty-two children supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for greater than 12 hours during January 2015 through December 2016. INTERVENTIONS: Bleeding days were identified if mediastinal or cannula site exploration, activated factor VII administration, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, or intracranial hemorrhages occurred. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with bleeding days. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Study population was identified from institutional extracorporeal membrane oxygenation database. Clinical, laboratory, and survival data were obtained from medical records. Only data from patients' first extracorporeal membrane oxygenation run were used. One-hundred twenty-two patients with median age of 17 weeks (interquartile range, 1-148 wk) were analyzed. Congenital heart disease (n = 56, 46%) was the most common diagnosis. Bleeding days comprised 179 (16%) of the 1,121 observed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-patient-days. By extracorporeal membrane oxygenation day 4, 50% of users had experienced a bleeding day. Central rather than peripheral cannulation (odds ratio, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.47-4.52; p < 0.001), older age (odds ratio, 1.31 per increased week; 95% CI, 1.14-1.52; p < 0.001), higher lactate (odds ratio, 1.08 per 1 mmol/L increase; 95% CI, 1.05-1.12; p < 0.001), and lower platelets (odds ratio, 0.87 per 25,000 cell/µL increase; 95% CI, 0.77-0.99; p = 0.005) were associated with bleeding days. Patients who experienced more frequent bleeding (> 75th percentile) had fewer ventilator-free and hospital-free days in the 60 days after cannulation (0 vs 31; p = 0.002 and 0 vs 0; p = 0.008) and higher in-hospital mortality (68 vs 34%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Central cannulation, older age, low platelets, and high lactate are associated with bleeding days during pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Patients who bleed more frequently during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation have higher in-hospital mortality, longer technological dependence, and reduced hospital-free days.

4.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 130: 109799, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe a multidisciplinary approach for the treatment of plastic bronchitis (PB) in children. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of children with PB between 1997 and 2017. Data regarding clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 34 patients presenting with PB, 24 had single ventricle (SV) heart disease, 9 had pulmonary disease, and one had no underlying disease. Median (IQR: interquartile range) age at the time of PB diagnosis was 5.5 years (IQR: 9.0). Presenting symptoms included cough productive of casts (n = 27, 79%), wheezing (n = 5, 15%), dyspnea (n = 18, 53%), hypoxia (n = 31, 91%), and respiratory failure (n = 9, 26%). Diagnosis was made based on clinical evaluation, bronchoscopy findings, and/or pathology of casts. Treatment methods included bronchoscopy for cast removal (25% of SV patients, 91% of non-SV patients), chest physiotherapy (SV: 92%, non-SV: 45%), albuterol (SV: 79%, non-SV: 73%), inhaled steroids (SV: 75%, non-SV: 18%), nebulized hypertonic saline (SV: 29%, non-SV: 9%), nebulized heparin (SV: 8%, non-SV: 55%), nebulized tissue plasminogen activator (tPA; SV: 33%, non-SV: 9%), inhaled Dornase Alfa (SV: 54%, non-SV: 9%), antibiotics (SV: 46%, non-SV: 45%), systemic steroids (SV: 13%, non-SV: 45%), and lymphatic embolization (SV: 8%, non-SV: 45%). Of SV patients, 11 had no recurrence, 5 underwent heart transplantation, one awaits transplant, and 3 died due to cardiac disease. Three patients with respiratory disease had recurrent PB and one died from MRSA pneumonia. CONCLUSION: PB is a highly morbid disease with limited treatment options. Bronchoscopy and chest physiotherapy for airway clearance are among the most-utilized therapies.

5.
ASAIO J ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789654

RESUMO

Thrombotic and bleeding complications have historically been major causes of morbidity and mortality in pediatric ventricular assist device (VAD) support. Standard anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin is fraught with problems related to its heterogeneous biochemical composition and unpredictable pharmacokinetics. We sought to describe the utilization and outcomes in children with paracorporeal VAD support who are treated with direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) antithrombosis therapy. Retrospective multicenter review of all pediatric patients (aged <19 years) treated with a DTI (bivalirudin or argatroban) on paracorporeal VAD support, examining bleeding and thrombotic adverse events. From May 2012 to 2018, 43 children (21 females) at 10 centers in North America, median age 9.5 months (0.1-215 months) weighing 8.6 kg (2.8-150 kg), were implanted with paracorporeal VADs and treated with a DTI. Diagnoses included cardiomyopathy 40% (n = 17), congenital heart disease 37% (n = 16; single ventricle n = 5), graft vasculopathy 9% (n = 4), and other 14% (n = 6). First device implanted included Berlin Heart EXCOR 49% (n = 21), paracorporeal continuous flow device 44% (n = 19), and combination of devices in 7% (n = 3). Adverse events on DTI therapy included; major bleeding in 16% (n = 7) (2.6 events per 1,000 patient days of support on DTI), and stroke 12% (n = 5) (1.7 events per 1,000 patient days of support on DTI). Overall survival to transplantation (n = 30) or explantation (n = 8) was 88%. This is the largest multicenter experience of DTI use for anticoagulation therapy in pediatric VAD support. Outcomes are encouraging with lower major bleeding and stroke event rate than that reported in literature using other anticoagulation agents in pediatric VAD support.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658187

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is used for postcardiotomy low cardiac output but is less established following heart transplantation. We characterized outcomes for children supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after heart transplantation. DESIGN: Single-center retrospective study. SETTING: Large pediatric cardiac referral center. PATIENTS: All patients who received heart transplantation and were cannulated to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation between 1995 and 2016. INTERVENTIONS: Primary outcome measure was mortality 12 months postextracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Patient characteristics were analyzed for association with outcome according to early graft failure (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation ≤ 7 d after heart transplantation), or late graft failure. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: There were 246 heart transplants during the study period and 50 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs in 44 patients. Median time from transplant to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was 1 day (range, 0-11.7 yr), with early graft failure in 28 patients (median 1, range 0-2 d) and 22 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs in 20 late graft failure patients (median, 0.8 yr; range, 8 d to 11.7 yr), including four patients with prior extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for early graft failure. Twenty-six patients (59%) survived to hospital discharge, and survival 12 months postextracorporeal membrane oxygenation was 24 patients (55%), lower in those with late graft failure (40% vs 67%; p 0.02). Independent risk factors for 12-month mortality were congenital heart disease, higher pulmonary vascular resistance indexed to body surface area (> 2.2 Woods U/m), and higher creatinine. Higher panel reactive antibody levels were associated with 12-month mortality in the late graft failure group only. CONCLUSIONS: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can be effectively used to rescue patients with graft dysfunction after heart transplantation but is associated with high early mortality. Factors associated with mortality within 12 months include presence of congenital heart disease, renal dysfunction, elevated pulmonary vascular resistance indexed to body surface area and in those supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation late after heart transplantation, significant human leukocyte antigen sensitization.

8.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 15(2): 145-148, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384378

RESUMO

Steady advances in the diagnosis and management of congenital heart disease over the last few decades has resulted in a growing population of adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD). Consequently, there has been a parallel increase in the number of ACHD patients plagued with end-stage heart failure. Even so, the transplantation rate for these patients has remained low, at about 3% of all adult heart transplants. This review discusses the scope of transplantation for ACHD, including indications and contraindications, specific challenges and nuances, and post-transplant outcomes.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Progressão da Doença , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Cardiopatias Congênitas/mortalidade , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Listas de Espera
9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(3): 346-358, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a variably penetrant disease increasingly identified in young patients. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe the diverse phenotype, genotype, and outcomes in pediatric and adolescent patients. METHODS: Records from 1999 to 2016 were reviewed for individuals age <21 years with a consistent personal or family history. Patients were categorized by right ventricular (RV), left dominant (LD), or biventricular subtypes using 2010 Task Force Criteria or proposed features of LD disease, encompassing electrocardiographic, structural, histological, and arrhythmic characteristics. Genetic variants classified as pathogenic and/or likely pathogenic by 2015 American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics criteria in recognized disease-associated genes were included. RESULTS: Manifest disease was evident in 32 patients (age 15.1 ± 3.8 years), of whom 22 were probands, including 16 RV, 7 LD, and 9 biventricular ACM. Nondiagnostic features were seen in 5 of 15 family members. RV disease was associated with cardiac arrest and ventricular tachycardia (p = 0.02) and prevalence of PKP2 variants (p < 0.01), whereas biventricular disease was associated with a younger age of onset (p = 0.02). LD ACM was associated with variants in DSP and LMNA, and biventricular ACM with more a diverse etiology in desmosomal genes. Cardiac arrest was observed in 5 probands (age 15.3 ± 1.9 years) and ventricular tachycardia in 10 (age 16.6 ± 2.7 years), 6 probands, and 4 family members. Features suggestive of myocardial inflammation were seen in 6 patients, with ventricular tachycardia and/or cardiac arrest in 3 patients. Cardiac transplantation was performed in 10 patients. There were no deaths. In RV and biventricular disease, electrocardiographic preceded imaging features, whereas the reverse was seen in LD disease. CONCLUSIONS: ACM in the young has highly varied phenotypic expression incorporating life-threatening arrhythmia, heart failure, and myocardial inflammation. Increased awareness of early onset, aggressive disease has important implications for patient management and familial screening.

12.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 38(4): 385-393, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2012, there has been growing use of the HeartWare (Medtronic, Mounds View, MN) intracorporeal continuous flow (CF) ventricular assist device (VAD) in children, despite it not being labeled for use in pediatric patients. We sought to describe the use and outcomes of children with HeartWare VADs. METHODS: We identified all patients aged < 19 years and young adults aged 19 to 30 years supported with HeartWare who were entered into the pediatric portion (Pedimacs) of the Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (Intermacs) and the Intermacs registries, respectively, between September 2012 and June 2017. Adverse events and outcomes were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: We identified 192 children and 247 young adult HeartWare patients. Baseline characteristics of children differed from young adults, with lower median weight of 51.5 kg (range, 13.1-162) vs 75.8 kg (range, 29.8-191; p ≤ 0.0001) and body surface area of 1.5 m2 (range, 0.6-2.9 m2) vs 1.9 m2 (range, 1.1-3.2 m2; p ≤ 0.0001) . At the time of implant, 12 children weighed < 20 kg, and 58.3% of these children had congenital heart disease compared with 11.7% in children who weighed ≥ 20 kg and 6.1% in young adults (p ≤ 0.0001). Median duration of support was 2.8 months (IQR, 1.3-6.0 months) in children and 9.7 months (IQR 4.0-19.2 months) in young adults (p ≤ 0.0001). Serious adverse events in children and young adults included infection in 27% and 44% of patients, respectively (p=0.0002), major bleeding in 23% and 23%, respectively (p = 0.9), device malfunction/pump thrombosis in 11% and 19.0%, respectively (p = 0.04), and stroke in 10% and 12%, respectively (p = 0.5). Of the children who weighed < 20 kg at time of implant, 0% had major bleeding, 16.7% had infections, and 8.3% had stroke. Overall survival was not statistically different between children and young adults, and there was no increased mortality in children who weighed < 20 kg. Rate of discharge on HeartWare was 80% in young adults vs 48% in children who weighed ≥ 20 kg and only 33% in children who weighed < 20 kg. CONCLUSIONS: Survival in children supported with HeartWare is encouraging and comparable to young adults; however, adverse events are not uncommon in children. Ongoing evaluation of the HeartWare use in children is necessary to further decrease the rate of adverse events and understand obstacles to discharge.

13.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 4(10): 1289-1297, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the long-term effect of dual-site ventricular pacing (i.e., cardiac resynchronization therapy [CRT]) versus single-site pacing in patients with Fontan physiology and high-grade atrioventricular block (AVB). BACKGROUND: Chronic single-site ventricular pacing in Fontan patients is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. METHODS: The study conducted a retrospective review of all Fontan patients with high-grade AVB who received pacemakers at a single institution between 1990 and 2016 with follow-up of 12 months or greater. The primary study outcome was a composite of death or heart transplantation. RESULTS: Nineteen patients received CRT devices and 43 patients received single-site ventricular pacemakers (SVPMs), with a median follow-up of 4.9 years (range 1.1 to 11.3 years) and 10.4 years (range 1.1 to 26.8 years), respectively. One (5.3%) CRT patient and 11 (25.6%) SVPM patients reached the composite endpoint of death or transplant (odds ratio: 0.16; 95% confidence interval: 0.02 to 1.36; p = 0.09). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed similar rates of freedom from death or transplant between the 2 study groups over a 5-year follow-up period (p = 0.08). The proportion of SVPM patients with abnormal ventricular systolic function before device implantation (9.5%) and at follow-up (33.3%) significantly increased (p=0.009). The CRT cohort had less change in their ventricular function (42.1% before device implant, 36.8% at follow-up; p = 1.00); however, a Kaplan-Meier analysis over a 5-year follow-up period found no difference in the presence of abnormal ventricular systolic function between groups (p = 0.27). CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in long-term outcomes between Fontan patients who were single- or dual-site paced for high-grade AVB.


Assuntos
Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Técnica de Fontan , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Técnica de Fontan/efeitos adversos , Técnica de Fontan/métodos , Técnica de Fontan/mortalidade , Bloqueio Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Cardíaco/cirurgia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Heart Rhythm ; 15(10): 1439-1447, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A child with an epicardial pacemaker presented with sudden death at our institution, secondary to coronary artery compression. This case prompted enhanced surveillance of all patients with epicardial pacing or defibrillation systems. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of coronary artery compression and the diagnostic yield of catheter angiography (CA) and computed tomography (CT). METHODS: All patients with epicardial leads who underwent CA or cine CT were retrospectively reviewed. A patient with postmortem diagnosis of coronary compression was also included. RESULTS: Coronary compression was noted in 8 of 145 patients (5.5%) with epicardial leads. Median age at diagnosis was 11.4 years (range 3.0-29.6 years). Six patients had compression noted by CA, 6 by CT, and 1 by postmortem analysis. Chest radiography had sensitivity and specificity of 57% and 96%, respectively; CT 100% and 93%, respectively; and CA 86% and 100%, respectively. There was no difference in age or weight at the time of lead implant between those who did and those who did not have compression (age: median 1.3 vs 2.4 years; P = .36; weight: 9.5 vs 11.8 kg; P = .46). Among those with coronary compression, 6 of 8 (75%) had symptoms (1 sudden death, 3 chest pain [2 with associated troponin leak]), 2 unexplained fatigue). Seven patients had surgical repositioning of their lead. CONCLUSION: We found a higher incidence of coronary artery compression by epicardial leads (5.5%) than previously reported in the literature. Chest radiography can serve as a good surveillance tool, with cine CT scans considered in those with concerning radiographs or with symptoms. Confirmatory CA can be performed before surgical intervention.


Assuntos
Oclusão Coronária/etiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/terapia , Marca-Passo Artificial/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Angiografia Coronária , Oclusão Coronária/diagnóstico , Oclusão Coronária/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pericárdio , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
15.
Heart Surg Forum ; 21(4): E254-E256, 2018 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084774

RESUMO

Traumatic pericardial rupture is a rare event with high mortality. We present the case of a 15-year-old boy who sustained thoracic and abdominal trauma secondary to motor vehicle collision, with a delayed diagnosis of traumatic pericardial rupture with cardiac herniation. Out of concern for torsion and hemodynamic collapse, surgical repair was advised. We have developed a novel surgical approach to this rare condition, utilizing a combination of thoracoscopic and open surgical techniques. The guiding principles of our repair include the utilization of fenestrated pieces of bovine pericardium to create a tension free repair, minimizing the likelihood of pericardial effusion, and returning the cardiac mass to normal anatomic position.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Traumatismos Cardíacos/diagnóstico , Traumatismo Múltiplo , Pericárdio/lesões , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico , Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adolescente , Ecocardiografia , Traumatismos Cardíacos/cirurgia , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pericárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Pericárdio/cirurgia , Ruptura , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/cirurgia
16.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 19(8): 767-774, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To quantify and identify factors associated with large RBC exposure in children supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Single tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENTS: One-hundred twenty-two children supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for greater than 12 hours during January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2016. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Clinical, laboratory, and survival data were obtained from medical records. Only data from patients' first extracorporeal membrane oxygenation run were used. The primary outcome was RBC volume exposure during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (mL/kg/d). Patients with RBC exposure volume greater than 75th percentile were categorized as "high RBC use" patients. A "bleeding day" was identified if mediastinum or cannula sites were explored and/or Factor VIIa administration, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, or intracranial hemorrhages occurred. Median age was 0.3 years (interquartile range, 0-3 yr). Congenital heart disease (n = 56; 46%) was the most common diagnosis. Median RBC volume transfused during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was 39 mL/kg/d (interquartile range, 21-66 mL/kg/d). High RBC use patients were more likely be supported by venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (100 vs 76%; p = 0.006), have congenital heart disease (68 vs 39%; p = 0.02), and experience bleeding (33 vs 11% d; p < 0.001). High RBC use patients showed a trend toward higher in-hospital mortality (58 vs 37%; p = 0.07). In the multivariable analysis, younger age (-9% per year; 95% CI, -10% to -7%; p < 0.001), more blood draws per day (+8%; 95% CI, 6-11%; p < 0.001), and higher proportion of bleeding days (+22% per 10% increase; 95% CI, 16-29%; p < 0.001) were associated with larger RBC exposure (model R = 0.66). CONCLUSIONS: Bleeding during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, frequent laboratory draws, and younger age were associated with increased RBC exposure during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Higher transfusion volume was associated with increased mortality.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Eritrócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/efeitos adversos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/mortalidade , Feminino , Hemorragia/etiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Flebotomia/efeitos adversos , Flebotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Perfusion ; 33(7): 525-532, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29638202

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Comparison of two pediatric cases at our institution that utilized bivalirudin for anticoagulation on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); a bilateral lung transplant (BLT) and a ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation. METHODS: The same bivalirudin protocol was utilized in both cases with an initial bolus of 1 mg/kg administered by the anesthesia team, a 50 mg bolus in the pump prime at the time of the initial patient bolus and an initial infusion rate of 2.5 mg/kg/h, with titration as needed during CPB to maintain kaolin-activated clotting time (K-ACT) values >400 s. RESULTS: The BLT experienced high K-ACT levels (>720 s) for the majority of the case despite decreasing the bivalirudin infusion rate to 0.5 mg/kg/h. The VAD implantation case required the bivalirudin infusion rate to be increased to 5.0 mg/kg/h throughout the case due to low K-ACTs. CONCLUSION: The literature strongly supports a specific infusion rate1-7 (2.5 mg/kg/h) for bivalirudin anticoagulation during extracorporeal circulation. Clinicians must consider the loss of clotting factors and the administration of blood products while adjusting the bivalirudin infusion during bypass. We have now elected to maintain an infusion rate of ≥0.5 mg/kg/h for bivalirudin anticoagulation at our center, based on institutional experience, though consideration for a higher infusion rate for an added margin of safety should be considered. It is imperative to have a well-developed protocol for the management of these cardiopulmonary bypass patients and we offer our one-page timeline of events to help guide other pediatric centers looking to use bivalirudin anticoagulation.


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Antitrombinas/farmacologia , Criança , Feminino , Hirudinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico
18.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 28(5): 450-457, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29575610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion has well-documented adverse effects. As part of a blood conservation initiative at our center, we began routine use of cell saver for all congenital heart surgery performed on cardiopulmonary bypass since 2014. AIMS: This study aimed to compare transfusion rates prior to, and in the first and second year after this initiative. We hypothesized that cell saver use would decrease transfusion requirements in second year after use of the cell saver compared to the pre cell saver group. METHODS: Consecutive patients under 18 years undergoing congenital heart surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass were retrospectively analyzed as 3 one-year cohorts defined above. We excluded patients who required mechanical support or reoperation at index admission. Baseline characteristics, and use of blood intraoperatively and postoperatively were compared between groups. RESULTS: The 3 groups had similar baseline characteristics. Blood use was significantly lower in year 2 after cell saver initiation as compared to the pre cell saver group both intra- and postoperatively. The median difference in volume of intraoperative blood transfusion was lower by 138 mL/m2 (-266, -10 mL/m2 ) in year 2 when compared to the pre cell saver group. Similarly, the proportion of subjects requiring red blood cell transfusion postoperatively on day of surgery was lower by 10% (-15%, -6%). CONCLUSION: Standardized use of cell saver significantly decreased perioperative blood use in children undergoing cardiac surgery at our center. A risk-adjusted transfusion threshold for children undergoing heart surgery needs to be developed to further decrease exposure to blood products and associated costs.


Assuntos
Preservação de Sangue/métodos , Transfusão de Sangue Autóloga/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/métodos , Eritrócitos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Adolescente , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Albumina Sérica Humana/administração & dosagem
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