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Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 532-541, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426190


Monthly phytoplankton samples were collected from January 2013 to December 2015 at a fixed sampling site in Bahía de La Paz, Gulf of California. During this study 26 samplings were Amphidinium cf. carterae positive. The highest densities of A. cf. carterae (754.2 × 103 to 1022.4 × 103 cells L-1) were recorded during a bloom detected in January 2015 when water temperatures were 20-22 °C. This dinoflagellate showed a well-marked seasonal variation, being found mainly from November to April. Blooms of the species were linked to the upwelled water due to the northwesterly wind. Cysts surrounded by a mucilaginous membrane of A. cf. carterae were found. We also observed these hyaline cysts inside zooplankton fecal pellets. Other benthic/tychoplanktonic dinoflagellates and diatoms, including some potentially toxic species were also found. The occurrence of blooms of A. cf. carterae in Bahía de La Paz could represent a risk for aquaculture activities and human health.

Dinoflagelados , Brasil , California , Diatomáceas , Eutrofização , Fitoplâncton , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
Mar Pollut Bull ; 128: 390-395, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571387


From December 2016 to May 2017, 22 phytoplankton surface samples were collected with a 20-µm mesh net at three islands of the Archipiélago de Revillagigedo (Partida, Socorro and San Benedicto), Mexican Pacific. The sites depth was approximately 20-80 m; the surface water temperature was 21-27 °C. The potentially toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis lenticularis was present in all the samples. Cells had a lenticular to broadly oval shape, 65-100 µm long and 50-80 µm wide. The taxonomy of the genus Ostreopsis has been unclear due to equivocal ascribing some taxonomic features among species. The identification of specimens from the archipelago was made based on the most important taxonomic characteristics: the thecal plates, the presence of two types of thecal pores (larger and smaller), and the lack of cingulum undulation. The studied cells are compared with O. cf. siamensis, O. labens and O. marina. This is the first record of the species in the archipelago waters.

Dinoflagelados/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água do Mar/química , Biodiversidade , Dinoflagelados/classificação , Dinoflagelados/ultraestrutura , México , Ilhas do Pacífico , Oceano Pacífico , Temperatura
Mar Drugs ; 17(1)2018 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597874


Historical records of ciguatera in Mexico date back to 1862. This review, including references and epidemiological reports, documents 464 cases during 25 events from 1984 to 2013: 240 (51.72%) in Baja California Sur, 163 (35.12%) in Quintana Roo, 45 (9.69%) in Yucatan, and 16 (3.44%) cases of Mexican tourists intoxicated in Cuba. Carnivorous fish, such as snapper (Lutjanus) and grouper (Epinephelus and Mycteroperca) in the Pacific Ocean, and great barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda) and snapper (Lutjanus) in the Atlantic (Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea), were involved in all cases. In the Mexican Caribbean, a sub-record of ciguatera cases that occurred before 1984 exists. However, the number of intoxications has increased in recent years, and this food poisoning is poorly studied in the region. Current records suggest that ciguatera fish poisoning in humans is the second most prevalent form of seafood poisoning in Mexico, only exceeded by paralytic shellfish poisoning (505 cases, 21 fatalities in the same 34-year period). In this study, the status of ciguatera in Mexico (epidemiological and treatment), and the fish vectors are reviewed. Dinoflagellate species Gambierdiscus, Ostreopsis, and Prorocentrum are related with the reported outbreaks, marine toxins, ecological risk, and the potential toxicological impact.

Intoxicação por Ciguatera/epidemiologia , Ciguatoxinas/química , Animais , Peixes , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
Mar Pollut Bull ; 108(1-2): 289-96, 2016 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27197764


A circadian rhythm of the dinoflagellate Peridinium quadridentatum was studied at a time-series station in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, in May 2007. Different substrates (water column, the seagrass Thalassia testudinum, macroalgae, coral rubble and sandy sediment surface) were sampled at the site at 1.5-3.5m depth. In the samples of coral rubble, P. quadridentatum was scarce. In the water column, the species showed an abundance peak at 15:00. The cell abundance of P. quadridentatum in Thalassia samples increased from 15:00 until 18:00 (1.81×10(4)cells/gsubstratewet weight), and then continuously decreased until 06:00. Changes in P. quadridentatum cell abundance on macroalgae followed the same trend as on Thalassia, with the maximal value at 18:00. The higher abundance of P. quadridentatum (up to 1.40×10(4)cells/gSWW) in macroalgae samples showed the preference for seaweeds. P. quadridentatum has a neritic tropical-boreal distribution. A new combination is proposed: Peridinium quadridentatum var. trispiniferum.

Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Hydrocharitaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinoflagelados/genética , Dinoflagelados/ultraestrutura , Golfo do México , Hydrocharitaceae/genética , Hydrocharitaceae/ultraestrutura , México , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar
Acta biol. colomb ; 20(1): 195-206, ene.-abr. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-734912


El género Prorocentrum Ehrenberg, incluye 81 especies, 21 son consideradas formadoras de florecimientos algales nocivos, de las cuales aproximadamente nueve especies producen toxinas. Considerando lo anterior, el objetivo de este trabajo consistió en determinar la distribución y abundancia de las especies del género Prorocentrum durante un ciclo anual, en dos estaciones de muestreo ubicadas dentro del ámbito de las granjas atuneras y en una estación fuera de la influencia de las granjas en la Bahía de La Paz, Golfo de California. Las muestras de agua se recolectaron mensualmente (junio 2006-mayo 2007) con una botella van Dorn en diferentes niveles de profundidad. En San Juan de La Costa (SC) se recolectaron en superficie 25 y 50 m, en Rancheros del Mar (RM) en superficie, 15, y 30 m, y en El Mogote (M) solo en superficie. A lo largo del ciclo anual, en las granjas atuneras en la Bahía de La Paz, se registraron 12 especies: P. compressum, P. dactylus, P. emarginatum, P. gracile, P. lima, P. micans, P. minimum, P. rhathymum, P. rostratum, P. shikokuense, P. triestinum y P. vaginula, de las cuales, ocho son formadoras de florecimientos algales. El estudio de los florecimientos de Prorocentrum se ha vuelto importante ya que estos han sido relacionados por su impacto nocivo en los ecosistemas.

The genus Prorocentrum Ehrenberg includes 81 marine species, of which 21 are considered causative agents of harmful algal blooms, and approximately 9 species produce toxins. The objectives of this study were to determine distribution and abundance of Prorocentrum species during an annual cycle at two sampling sites within tuna farms near San Juan de La Costa (SC), Rancheros del Mar (RM) and at a station without the influence of these farms located off El Mogote (M), in the Bahia de la Paz, Gulf of California. Samples were taken monthly (June 2006-May 2007) at different depths at SC (0.25 and 50 m), at the RM (0.15 and 30 m) and at El Mogote (0 m) with a van Dorn bottle. The results showed a total of twelve species in the annual cycle: P. compressum, P. dactylus, P. emarginatum, P. gracile, P. lima, P. micans, P. minimum, P. rhathymum, P. rostratum, P. shikokuense, P. triestinum and P. vaginula, of which the first eight form blooms. The study of Prorocentrum blooms became important because they have been linked to widespread harmful ecosystem impacts.

Mar Pollut Bull ; 67(1-2): 217-22, 2013 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23290658


As part of a continuing toxic microalgae monitoring program, phytoplankton samples were collected on 16-17 August 2012 at several sampling sites in the southern part of the Bahía de La Paz. A bloom of the dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides was detected. Abundance of C. polykrikoides ranged from 73 to 276×10(3) cells L(-1) on the first day to 980-1425×10(3) cells L(-1) on the second day. Study of live specimens showed great variation in cell size and form, mainly as single cells or chains of two cells. Live cells were 30-47 µm long and 20-35 µm wide (n=30). Seawater temperature during the bloom was 29-30°C. Low densities of Cochlodinium convolutum, Cochlodinium helicoides, and Cochlodinium shuettii were also found in the samples of the bloom event. These high densities of C. polykrikoides did not lead to fish die-offs in the bay.

Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , México , Água do Mar/química , Temperatura , Poluentes da Água/análise
Mar Pollut Bull ; 62(3): 626-30, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21276986


As part of a continuing toxic microalgae monitoring program, 22 phytoplankton samples were collected from July to November 2010 at several sampling stations along the southern coast of the Baja California Peninsula. For the first time, the toxic dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum was found along the southeastern and southwestern coasts of the peninsula. P. bahamense var. bahamense was first observed off San José del Cabo, which is an extension of the range of this variety. Both varieties occur as solitary cells. P. bahamense var. compressum occurred at temperatures ranging between 24.5°C and 31°C, whereas var. P.bahamense occurred at 28.5°C to 29°C, indicating its tropical and subtropical nature. Occurrence of P. bahamense var. compressum along this coastline may be related to El Niño 2009-2010.

Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental , Dinoflagelados/classificação , México , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
Mar Drugs ; 8(6): 1935-61, 2010 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20631876


This review presents a detailed analysis of the state of knowledge of studies done in Mexico related to the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a paralytic toxin producer. This species was first reported in the Gulf of California in 1939; since then most studies in Mexico have focused on local blooms and seasonal variations. G. catenatum is most abundant during March and April, usually associated with water temperatures between 18 and 25 °C and an increase in nutrients. In vitro studies of G. catenatum strains from different bays along the Pacific coast of Mexico show that this species can grow in wide ranges of salinities, temperatures, and N:P ratios. Latitudinal differences are observed in the toxicity and toxin profile, but the presence of dcSTX, dcGTX2-3, C1, and C2 are usual components. A common characteristic of the toxin profile found in shellfish, when G. catenatum is present in the coastal environment, is the detection of dcGTX2-3, dcSTX, C1, and C2. Few bioassay studies have reported effects in mollusks and lethal effects in mice, and shrimp; however no adverse effects have been observed in the copepod Acartia clausi. Interestingly, genetic sequencing of D1-D2 LSU rDNA revealed that it differs only in one base pair, compared with strains from other regions.

Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Oceano Pacífico , Saxitoxina/metabolismo , Saxitoxina/toxicidade , Estações do Ano , Frutos do Mar/análise , Frutos do Mar/microbiologia , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/prevenção & controle , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura