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1.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(8): e005809, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaired left ventricular function is associated with worse prognosis among patients with aortic stenosis treated medically or with surgical aortic valve replacement. It is unclear whether reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement in the PARTNER 2 trials (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) and registries were stratified according to presence of reduced LVEF (<50%) at baseline, and 2-year risk of cardiovascular mortality was compared using Kaplan-Meier methods and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Of 2991 patients, 839 (28%) had reduced LVEF. These patients were younger, more often males, and were more likely to have comorbidities, such as coronary disease, diabetes mellitus, and renal insufficiency. Compared with patients with normal LVEF, patients with low LVEF had higher crude rates of 2-year cardiovascular mortality (19.8% versus 12.0%, P<0.0001) and all-cause mortality (27.4% versus 19.2%, P<0.0001). Mean aortic valve gradient was not associated with clinical outcomes other than heart failure hospitalizations (hazard ratio [HR], 0.99; CI, 0.99-1.00; P=0.03). After multivariable adjustment, patients with reduced versus normal LVEF had significantly higher adjusted risk of cardiovascular death (adjusted HR, 1.42, 95% CI, 1.11-1.81; P=0.005), but not all-cause death (adjusted HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.99-1.47; P=0.07). When LVEF was treated as continuous variable, it was associated with increased 2-year risk of both cardiovascular mortality (adjusted HR per 10% decrease in LVEF, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.07-1.27; P=0.0006) and all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.16; P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In this patient-level pooled analysis of PARTNER 2 patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement, baseline LVEF was an independent predictor of 2-year cardiovascular mortality. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT01314313, NCT02184442, NCT03222128, and NCT02184441.

2.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(9): e008007, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SYNTAX (Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) score (SS), a measure of anatomic coronary artery disease (CAD) extent and complexity, has proven useful in past studies to determine the absolute and relative prognosis after revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We sought to assess contemporary outcomes after PCI and CABG in patients with left main CAD according to SS and revascularization type from a large randomized trial. METHODS: The EXCEL trial (Evaluation of XIENCE Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) randomized patients with left main CAD and site-assessed SS≤32 to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents or CABG. Four-year outcomes were examined according to angiographic core laboratory-assessed SS using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: A total of 1840 patients with left main CAD randomized to PCI (n=914) versus CABG (n=926) had angiographic core laboratory SS assessment. The mean SS was 26.5±9.3 (range 5-74); 24.1% of patients had angiographic core laboratory-assessed SS ≥33. The 4-year rate of the primary major adverse cardiac event end point of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction was similar between PCI and CABG (18.6% versus 16.7%, respectively; P=0.40) and did not vary according to SS (Pinteraction=0.33). Rates of ischemia-driven revascularization rose with increasing SS after PCI, but not after CABG. As a result, the major secondary composite end point of major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (major adverse cardiac event or ischemia-driven revascularization) occurred more frequently with PCI than CABG (28.0% versus 22.0%, P=0.01), a difference which rose progressively with increasing SS (Pinteraction=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In the EXCEL trial, the 4-year primary composite major adverse cardiac event end point of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke was similar after PCI with everolimus-eluting stents and CABG and was independent of the baseline anatomic complexity and extent of CAD. In contrast, the relative and absolute hazard of major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events with PCI compared with CABG rose progressively with the SS. These data should be considered by the heart team when deciding between PCI versus CABG for revascularization in patients with left main CAD. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier NCT01205776.

3.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(19): 1941-1950, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521646

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the smoker's paradox using patient-level data from 18 prospective, randomized trials of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation. BACKGROUND: Studies on the effects of smoking and outcomes among patients undergoing PCI have reported conflicting results. METHODS: Data from the RAVEL, E-SIRIUS, SIRIUS, C-SIRIUS, TAXUS IV and V, ENDEAVOR II to IV, SPIRIT II to IV, HORIZONS-AMI, COMPARE I and II, PLATINUM, and TWENTE I and II randomized trials were pooled. Patients were stratified by smoking status at time of enrollment. The 1- and 5-year ischemic outcomes were compared. RESULTS: Among 24,354 patients with available data on smoking status, 6,722 (27.6%) were current smokers. Smokers were younger and less likely to have diabetes mellitus; hypertension; hyperlipidemia; or prior myocardial infarction (MI), PCI, or coronary artery bypass grafting. Angiographically, smokers had longer lesions, more complex lesions, and more occlusions, but were less likely to have moderate or severe calcification or tortuosity. At 5 years, smokers had significantly higher rates of MI (7.8% vs. 5.6%; p < 0.0001) and definite or probable stent thrombosis (3.5% vs. 1.8%; p < 0.0001); however, there were no differences in the rates of death, cardiac death, target lesion revascularization, or composite endpoints (cardiac death, target vessel MI, or ischemic target lesion revascularization). After multivariable adjustment for potential confounders, smoking was a strong independent predictor of death (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63 to 2.12; p < 0.0001), cardiac death (HR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.38 to 2.05; p < 0.0001), MI (HR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.58; p < 0.0001), stent thrombosis (HR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.28 to 1.99; p < 0.0001), and target lesion failure (HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.30; p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: The present large, patient-level, pooled analysis with 5-year follow-up clearly demonstrates smoking to be an important predictor of adverse outcomes after PCI.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 381(19): 1820-1830, 2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with contemporary drug-eluting stents, as compared with coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG), in patients with left main coronary artery disease are not clearly established. METHODS: We randomly assigned 1905 patients with left main coronary artery disease of low or intermediate anatomical complexity (according to assessment at the participating centers) to undergo either PCI with fluoropolymer-based cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents (PCI group, 948 patients) or CABG (CABG group, 957 patients). The primary outcome was a composite of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. RESULTS: At 5 years, a primary outcome event had occurred in 22.0% of the patients in the PCI group and in 19.2% of the patients in the CABG group (difference, 2.8 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.9 to 6.5; P = 0.13). Death from any cause occurred more frequently in the PCI group than in the CABG group (in 13.0% vs. 9.9%; difference, 3.1 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.2 to 6.1). In the PCI and CABG groups, the incidences of definite cardiovascular death (5.0% and 4.5%, respectively; difference, 0.5 percentage points; 95% CI, -1.4 to 2.5) and myocardial infarction (10.6% and 9.1%; difference, 1.4 percentage points; 95% CI, -1.3 to 4.2) were not significantly different. All cerebrovascular events were less frequent after PCI than after CABG (3.3% vs. 5.2%; difference, -1.9 percentage points; 95% CI, -3.8 to 0), although the incidence of stroke was not significantly different between the two groups (2.9% and 3.7%; difference, -0.8 percentage points; 95% CI, -2.4 to 0.9). Ischemia-driven revascularization was more frequent after PCI than after CABG (16.9% vs. 10.0%; difference, 6.9 percentage points; 95% CI, 3.7 to 10.0). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with left main coronary artery disease of low or intermediate anatomical complexity, there was no significant difference between PCI and CABG with respect to the rate of the composite outcome of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 5 years. (Funded by Abbott Vascular; EXCEL ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01205776.).

5.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(9): 1363-1371, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493829

RESUMO

Small vessel diameter and residual platelet reactivity are independent predictors of thrombotic events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We sought to determine whether an interaction exists between residual platelet reactivity and stent diameter regarding the occurrence of stent thrombosis and other adverse events after PCI. We stratified patients in the prospective ADAPT-DES registry who underwent single-lesion PCI according to if they received a small diameter stent (SDS, defined as a stent with a diameter of 2.25 mm). Patients receiving an SDS were compared with patients receiving a stent ≥2.5 mm using Kaplan-Meier rates and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. We defined major adverse cardiac events (MACE) as the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis (ST). Among 5,608 patients who underwent single-lesion PCI in ADAPT-DES, 222 (4.0%) patients received an SDS. Patients with an SDS were more likely than patients without an SDS to have 3-vessel disease but received, on average, fewer stents and were less likely to present with a thrombotic lesion. Receiving versus not receiving an SDS was associated with increased risk of ST (adjusted hazard ratio 4.35, 95% confidence interval 1.95 to 9.73, p <0.001) as well as MACE (adjusted hazard ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 2.75, p = 0.02). There was no statistical interaction between platelet reactivity and SDS regarding ST (p = 0.12) or MACE (p = 0.51). In conclusion, PCI with small drug-eluting stents is associated with a high risk of thrombotic events, including ST. Further studies should explore whether alternative treatment strategies are appropriate in small vessels.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(4): 550-563, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal timing of intervention in patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: This multicenter study sought to test and validate the prognostic value of the staging of cardiac damage in patients with asymptomatic moderate to severe AS. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical, Doppler echocardiographic, and outcome data that were prospectively collected in 735 asymptomatic patients (71 ± 14 years of age; 60% men) with at least moderate AS (aortic valve area <1.5 cm2) and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (≥50%) followed in the heart valve clinics of 4 high-volume centers. Patients were classified according to the following staging classification: no cardiac damage associated with the valve stenosis (Stage 0), left ventricular damage (Stage 1), left atrial or mitral valve damage (Stage 2), pulmonary vasculature or tricuspid valve damage (Stage 3), or right ventricular damage or subclinical heart failure (Stage 4). The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: At baseline, 89 (12%) patients were classified in Stage 0, 200 (27%) in Stage 1, 341 (46%) in Stage 2, and 105 (14%) in Stage 3 or 4. Median follow-up was 2.6 years (interquartile range: 1.1 to 5.2 years). There was a stepwise increase in mortality rates according to staging: 13% in Stage 0, 25% in Stage 1, 44% in Stage 2, and 58% in Stages 3 to 4 (p < 0.0001). The staging was significantly associated with excess mortality in multivariable analysis adjusted for aortic valve replacement as a time-dependent variable (hazard ratio: 1.31 per each increase in stage; 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.61; p = 0.01), and showed incremental value to several clinical variables (net reclassification index = 0.34; p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The new staging system characterizing the extra-aortic valve cardiac damage provides incremental prognostic value in patients with asymptomatic moderate to severe AS. This staging classification may be helpful to identify asymptomatic AS patients who may benefit from elective aortic valve replacement.

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(4): 538-549, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In severe aortic stenosis (AS), patients often show extra-aortic valvular injury. Recently, a new staging system for severe AS has been proposed on the basis of the extent of cardiac damage. OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluated the prevalence and prognostic impact of these different stages of cardiac damage in a large, real-world, multicenter cohort of symptomatic severe AS patients. METHODS: From the ongoing registries from 2 academic institutions, a total of 1,189 symptomatic severe AS patients were selected and retrospectively analyzed. According to the extent of cardiac damage on echocardiography, patients were classified as Stage 0 (no cardiac damage), Stage 1 (left ventricular damage), Stage 2 (mitral valve or left atrial damage), Stage 3 (tricuspid valve or pulmonary artery vasculature damage), or Stage 4 (right ventricular damage). Patients were followed for all-cause mortality and combined endpoint (all-cause mortality, stroke, and cardiac-related hospitalization). RESULTS: On the basis of the proposed classification, 8% of patients were classified as Stage 0, 24% as Stage 1, 49% as Stage 2, 7% as Stage 3, and 12% as Stage 4. On multivariable analysis, cardiac damage was independently associated with all-cause mortality and combined outcome, although this was mainly determined by Stages 3 and 4. CONCLUSIONS: In this large multicenter cohort of symptomatic severe AS patients, stage of cardiac injury as classified by a novel staging system was independently associated with all-cause mortality and combined endpoint, although this seemed to be predominantly driven by tricuspid valve or pulmonary artery vasculature damage (Stage 3) and right ventricular dysfunction (Stage 4).

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202751

RESUMO

New insights into the pathophysiology and natural history of patients with aortic stenosis, coupled with advances in diagnostic imaging and the dramatic evolution of transcatheter aortic valve replacement, are fueling intense interest in the management of asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis. An intervention that is less invasive than surgery could conceivably justify pre-emptive transcatheter aortic valve replacement in subsets of patients, rather than waiting for the emergence of early symptoms to trigger valve intervention. Clinical experience has shown that symptoms can be challenging to ascertain in many sedentary, deconditioned, and/or elderly patients. Evolving data based on imaging and biomarker evidence of adverse ventricular remodeling, hypertrophy, inflammation, or fibrosis may radically transform existing clinical decision paradigms. Clinical trials currently enrolling asymptomatic patients have the potential to change practice patterns and lower the threshold for intervention.

9.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(5): e007448, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084239

RESUMO

Rotational atherectomy (RA) is an established tool in interventional cardiology for treatment of calcified coronary lesions. Over 3 decades of clinical experience and research, techniques have matured and outcomes have improved. Heterogeneity exists, however, in RA utilization and technique. We assembled a group of experienced RA operators and device experts to summarize and critique key elements of contemporary RA technique, to identify areas of consensus and controversy, and to offer recommendations for optimal performance for the practicing interventional cardiologist. Evolution in RA strategy toward a focus on lesion modification to facilitate balloon angioplasty and stenting has underpinned major advances in procedural safety, including opportunity to use smaller caliber equipment and radial access. Optimal technique and improved safety have permitted exploratory use of RA for different lesion types and reevaluation of procedural requirements, including flush solution composition and transvenous pacing. Preparedness to manage complications remains paramount and recommendations for operators and institutions are outlined.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(13): 1616-1628, 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The randomized EXCEL (Evaluation of XIENCE versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) trial reported a similar rate of the 3-year composite primary endpoint of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke in patients with left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) and site-assessed low or intermediate SYNTAX scores treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Whether these results are consistent in high-risk patients with diabetes, who have fared relatively better with CABG in most prior trials, is unknown. OBJECTIVES: In this pre-specified subgroup analysis from the EXCEL trial, the authors sought to examine the effect of diabetes in patients with LMCAD treated with PCI versus CABG. METHODS: Patients (N = 1,905) with LMCAD and site-assessed low or intermediate CAD complexity (SYNTAX scores ≤32) were randomized 1:1 to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents versus CABG, stratified by the presence of diabetes. The primary endpoint was the rate of a composite of all-cause death, stroke, or MI at 3 years. Outcomes were examined in patients with (n = 554) and without (n = 1,350) diabetes. RESULTS: The 3-year composite primary endpoint was significantly higher in diabetic compared with nondiabetic patients (20.0% vs. 12.9%; p < 0.001). The rate of the 3-year primary endpoint was similar after treatment with PCI and CABG in diabetic patients (20.7% vs. 19.3%, respectively; hazard ratio: 1.03; 95% confidence interval: 0.71 to 1.50; p = 0.87) and nondiabetic patients (12.9% vs. 12.9%, respectively; hazard ratio: 0.98; 95% confidence interval: 0.73 to 1.32; p = 0.89). All-cause death at 3 years occurred in 13.6% of PCI and 9.0% of CABG patients (p = 0.046), although no significant interaction was present between diabetes status and treatment for all-cause death (p = 0.22) or other endpoints, including the 3-year primary endpoint (p = 0.82) or the major secondary endpoints of death, MI, or stroke at 30 days (p = 0.61) or death, MI, stroke, or ischemia-driven revascularization at 3 years (p = 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: In the EXCEL trial, the relative 30-day and 3-year outcomes of PCI with everolimus-eluting stents versus CABG were consistent in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with LMCAD and site-assessed low or intermediate SYNTAX scores.(Evaluation of XIENCE versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization [EXCEL]; NCT01205776).

11.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(8): 781-789, 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to assess the distribution and prognostic significance of habitual physical activity (HPA) in older adults undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). BACKGROUND: Low HPA is associated with mortality and disability in community-dwelling older adults. In the setting of TAVR, it is unclear whether low HPA is a risk factor for downstream morbidity or a byproduct of severe aortic stenosis that improves following its correction. METHODS: Older adults undergoing TAVR in the prospective multicentre FRAILTY-AVR (Frailty in Aortic Valve Replacement) study were interviewed to quantify their HPA in kilocalories/week using a validated questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at 12 months. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 755 patients with a median age of 84.0 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 80.0 to 87.0 years). At baseline, median HPA was 1,116 kcal/week (IQR: 227 to 2,715 kcal/week) with 73% of patients performing <150 min/week of moderate or vigorous HPA. Sedentary patients were more likely to be older, female, frail, cognitively impaired, depressed, and have multimorbidity, although they had similar left ventricular function and aortic stenosis severity. In the logistic regression model adjusting for these covariates, HPA was found to be associated with mortality at 12 months (odds ratio: 0.84/100 kcal; 95% confidence interval: 0.73 to 0.98). HPA was associated with longer length of stay, discharge to health care facilities, and disability. At 12 months, median HPA among survivors was 933 kcal/week (IQR: 0 to 2,334 kcal/week) with pre-existing frailty being independently predictive of worsening HPA following TAVR. CONCLUSIONS: Sedentary patients have a higher risk of mortality and functional decline following TAVR.

12.
N Engl J Med ; 380(18): 1695-1705, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among patients with aortic stenosis who are at intermediate or high risk for death with surgery, major outcomes are similar with transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) and surgical aortic-valve replacement. There is insufficient evidence regarding the comparison of the two procedures in patients who are at low risk. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with severe aortic stenosis and low surgical risk to undergo either TAVR with transfemoral placement of a balloon-expandable valve or surgery. The primary end point was a composite of death, stroke, or rehospitalization at 1 year. Both noninferiority testing (with a prespecified margin of 6 percentage points) and superiority testing were performed in the as-treated population. RESULTS: At 71 centers, 1000 patients underwent randomization. The mean age of the patients was 73 years, and the mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk score was 1.9% (with scores ranging from 0 to 100% and higher scores indicating a greater risk of death within 30 days after the procedure). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the rate of the primary composite end point at 1 year was significantly lower in the TAVR group than in the surgery group (8.5% vs. 15.1%; absolute difference, -6.6 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -10.8 to -2.5; P<0.001 for noninferiority; hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.79; P = 0.001 for superiority). At 30 days, TAVR resulted in a lower rate of stroke than surgery (P = 0.02) and in lower rates of death or stroke (P = 0.01) and new-onset atrial fibrillation (P<0.001). TAVR also resulted in a shorter index hospitalization than surgery (P<0.001) and in a lower risk of a poor treatment outcome (death or a low Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score) at 30 days (P<0.001). There were no significant between-group differences in major vascular complications, new permanent pacemaker insertions, or moderate or severe paravalvular regurgitation. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with severe aortic stenosis who were at low surgical risk, the rate of the composite of death, stroke, or rehospitalization at 1 year was significantly lower with TAVR than with surgery. (Funded by Edwards Lifesciences; PARTNER 3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02675114.).


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/instrumentação , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Desenho de Prótese , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos
13.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(3): e007541, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to determine whether the risks and benefits of prolonging dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) beyond 1 year after drug-eluting stent implantation depend on clinical presentation in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. METHODS AND RESULTS: Randomized controlled trials comparing ≤1- versus >1-year DAPT after drug-eluting stent placement were searched through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, and proceedings of international meetings. The primary efficacy end point was myocardial infarction, whereas the primary safety end point was major bleeding. Net clinical benefit was defined as the composite of myocardial infarction or major bleeding. Outcomes were analyzed according to patient presentation with stable ischemic heart disease versus acute coronary syndromes. The meta-analysis included 6 trials with a total of 21 457 patients, including 14 132 with stable ischemic heart disease and 7325 with acute coronary syndrome. After a median follow-up of 19.5 months, ≤1-year DAPT was associated with higher rates of myocardial infarction compared with >1-year DAPT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.63; 95% CI, 1.37-1.95), with no interaction apparent between treatment effect and clinical presentation. Shorter DAPT was associated with reduced rates of major bleeding compared with longer DAPT (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.99) with no significant interaction between treatment effect and clinical presentation. However, a net clinical benefit of >1-year DAPT was present in patients with acute coronary syndrome (HR of shorter versus longer DAPT, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.24-2.02) but not in those with stable ischemic heart disease (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.89-1.51; Pinteraction=0.04). Shorter DAPT was also associated with lower rates of noncardiac mortality compared with longer DAPT (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52-0.96), with no significant interaction between treatment effect and clinical presentation ( Pinteraction=0.12). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with ≤1-year DAPT, >1-year DAPT reduces the risk of myocardial infarction but increases the risk of major bleeding and noncardiac mortality. A net clinical benefit of extended DAPT was apparent for patients with acute coronary syndrome but not for those with stable ischemic heart disease.

14.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(5): 459-469, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to prospectively determine the safety and efficacy of next-day discharge using the Vancouver 3M (Multidisciplinary, Multimodality, but Minimalist) Clinical Pathway. BACKGROUND: Transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an alternative to surgery in high- and intermediate-risk patients; however, hospital stays average at least 6 days in most trials. The Vancouver 3M Clinical Pathway is focused on next-day discharge, made possible by the use of objective screening criteria as well as streamlined peri- and post-procedural management guidelines. METHODS: Patients were enrolled from 6 low-volume (<100 TAVR/year), 4 medium-volume, and 3 high-volume (>200 TAVR/year) centers in Canada and the United States. The primary outcomes were a composite of all-cause death or stroke by 30 days and the proportion of patients successfully discharged home the day following TAVR. RESULTS: Of 1,400 screened patients, 411 were enrolled at 13 centers and received a SAPIEN XT (58.2%) or SAPIEN 3 (41.8%) valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, California). In centers enrolling exclusively in the study, 55% of screened patients were enrolled. The median age was 84 years (interquartile range: 78 to 87 years) with a median STS score of 4.9% (interquartile range: 3.3% to 6.8%). Next-day discharge home was achieved in 80.1% of patients, and within 48 h in 89.5%. The composite of all-cause mortality or stroke by 30 days occurred in 2.9% (95% confidence interval: 1.7% to 5.1%), with neither component of the primary outcome affected by hospital TAVR volume (p = 0.51). Secondary outcomes at 30 days included major vascular complication 2.4% (n = 10), readmission 9.2% (n = 36), cardiac readmission 5.7% (n = 22), new permanent pacemaker 5.7% (n = 23), and >mild paravalvular regurgitation 3.8% (n = 15). CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to the Vancouver 3M Clinical Pathway at low-, medium-, and high-volume TAVR centers allows next-day discharge home with excellent safety and efficacy outcomes.

15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(4): 427-440, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given conflicting findings of previous studies, much remains to be understood regarding a volume-outcomes relationship (VOR) in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was: 1) to determine if, after the initial learning curve (LC), a VOR for balloon-expandable (BE) TAVR persisted; and 2) to determine if LCs and VORs differed across different device generations. METHODS: Data collected by the TVT registry for BE valve implants from November 2011 through January 2017 were included in this analysis (n = 61,949). Primary outcomes included 30-day all-cause mortality, stroke, and major vascular complications. For each center, all implants were ordered chronologically according to case sequence number (CS#). To determine where the learning curve terminated (LCT), a grid search analysis was applied across a range of CS# from 10 to 300 by increments of 1. After LCT, the VOR was assessed by examining case volume/month by center. This analysis was performed separately for: 1) all BE valve types; 2) Sapien 3 (S3) only; and 3) S3 in BE valve naïve sites. RESULTS: In experience with all commercially available BE valve types, there was an initial LC that terminates around case #201. After the initial LC, a volume-outcomes relationship was no longer evident. In analysis limited to S3, there was no demonstrable LC or VOR. Likewise, there was no demonstrable LC or VOR with S3 for BE valve naïve sites. CONCLUSIONS: After a case experience of 200 cases, there was LCT; subsequent to initial learning, a VOR was no longer evident. In the S3-only analysis, there was no LC or no demonstrable VOR. With current-generation BE-TAVR, centers should expect to achieve consistently excellent outcomes even during early case experience.

16.
EuroIntervention ; 14(16): 1676-1684, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561370

RESUMO

AIMS: Residual SYNTAX score (rSS) is known to be associated with cardiac events. We sought to investigate the association between rSS and greyscale and virtual histology (VH)-intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) plaque morphology, and the association between rSS and non-culprit-related major adverse cardiac events (MACE) using data from the PROSPECT study. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 697 patients with acute coronary syndromes were enrolled in the PROSPECT study. Three-vessel greyscale and VH-IVUS were performed. Among them, 688 patients with paired baseline SS or SYNTAX score and rSS were identified and divided into three groups - rSS=0 (n=184), 0 8 (n=140). MACE was defined as the composite of cardiac death, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, or rehospitalisation for unstable or progressive angina. There was a significant difference in the three-year non-culprit-related MACE rates among the three groups (5.7% versus 11.9% versus 19.7%, lowest to highest rSS; p=0.004) mainly due to rehospitalisation for unstable or progressive angina. On multivariable analysis, patients with ≥1 lesion with plaque burden ≥70% or ≥1 lesion with a minimum lumen area ≤4 mm2 and total dense calcium volume per patient were significantly correlated with rSS. Insulin-treated diabetes mellitus, rSS, and patients with ≥1 lesion with plaque burden ≥70% were independent predictors of non-culprit-related MACE. CONCLUSIONS: Plaque morphology based on greyscale IVUS and VH-IVUS was significantly correlated with rSS, and rSS and plaque burden ≥70% independently predicted non-culprit-related MACE.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Placa Aterosclerótica , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Angina Instável , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Humanos
17.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(4): 549-557, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527773

RESUMO

We sought to examine if the risk conferred by high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) varies based upon clinical presentation. We examined the relation between HPR (P2Y12 reaction units >208) and adverse ischemic and bleeding events among patients with and without acute coronary syndromes (ACS) from ADAPT-DES; 51.7% of patients had ACS. After clopidogrel loading, ACS patients had higher P2Y12 reaction units and a greater prevalence of HPR based on VerifyNow P2Y12 assay. Of 92 definite or probable stent thrombosis (ST) events at 2 years, 65.2% occurred among patients with ACS. HPR was independently associated with ST in ACS patients (adjusted hazard ratio 2.29, 95% confidence interval 1.32 to 3.98) but not with clinically relevant bleeding. Although no statistical interactions between ACS status and these associations were observed, non-ACS patients exhibited an attenuated association between HPR and ST, and an inverse association between HPR and clinically relevant bleeding. HPR was similarly associated with myocardial infarction, but not with overall mortality in ACS and non-ACS patients. In conclusion, the majority of ST events in the 2 years after drug-eluting stent placement occurred in ACS patients; HPR was strongly associated with ST in these patients. These data support current recommendations for using more potent antiplatelet therapies in ACS patients.

18.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(11): e006243, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571206

RESUMO

Background In the large-scale ADAPT-DES study (Assessment of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy With Drug-Eluting Stents), drug-eluting stent implantation with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance was associated with a reduction in 1-year rates of stent thrombosis, myocardial infarction (MI), and major adverse cardiac events (cardiac death, MI, or stent thrombosis) compared with angiography guidance alone. We assessed whether the benefits of IVUS guidance were maintained, reduced, or increased at 2 years. Methods and Results ADAPT-DES was a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized all-comers study of 8582 consecutive patients at 11 US and German sites designed to determine the frequency, timing, and correlates of adverse events after drug-eluting stents. Propensity-adjusted multivariable analysis was performed to examine the impact of IVUS guidance on 2-year outcomes. IVUS guidance (n=3361; 39%) compared with angiography guidance (n=5221; 61%) was associated with reduced 2-year adjudicated rates of (1) major adverse cardiac events (cardiac death, MI, or stent thrombosis; 4.9% versus 7.5%; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.59-0.89; P=0.003), (2) definite/probable stent thrombosis (0.55% versus 1.16%; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.22-0.73; P=0.003), and (3) MI (3.5% versus 5.6%; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.51-0.83; P=0.0006). By landmark analysis, IVUS guidance compared with angiography guidance was also associated with significantly reduced rates of major adverse cardiac events, MI, stent thrombosis, and clinically driven target lesion revascularization between 1 and 2 years after drug-eluting stent implantation. The number needed to treat with IVUS guidance to prevent 1 major adverse cardiac event was reduced from 64 (42-137) at 1 year to 41 (29-69) at 2 years. Conclusions In ADAPT-DES, the early improvement in event-free survival after drug-eluting stent implantation with IVUS guidance compared with angiography guidance was further increased with longer term follow-up to 2 years. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00638794.


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária , Doença das Coronárias/terapia , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Radiografia Intervencionista/métodos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Idoso , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Angiografia Coronária/efeitos adversos , Angiografia Coronária/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Trombose Coronária/mortalidade , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia Intervencionista/efeitos adversos , Radiografia Intervencionista/mortalidade , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/efeitos adversos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/mortalidade , Estados Unidos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30489011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the dedicated Tryton side branch (SB) stent for the treatment of true bifurcations involving large SBs. BACKGROUND: Bifurcation lesions are associated with lower procedural success and a higher risk of adverse cardiac events. Provisional stenting (PS) is currently the default approach for the treatment of bifurcation lesions. The Tryton stent is a dedicated bifurcation stent system for the treatment of true bifurcation lesions. METHODS: We performed an individual-patient-data pooled post-hoc analysis of the Tryton Pivotal randomized controlled trial and post-approval Confirmatory Study. Only patients with true bifurcations involving a SB ≥ 2.25 mm in diameter were included. The primary endpoint was non-inferiority of Tryton compared with PS for target vessel failure (TVF) at 1 year. RESULTS: Of the 411 patients meeting the criteria for enrolment, 287 patients were treated with the Tryton stent and 124 with PS. Procedural success was higher in the Tryton group (95.4 versus 82.3%, P < 0.0001). TVF at 1 year was 8.1% in the Tryton group and 9.7% in the PS group, meeting the pre-specified criteria for non-inferiority established for the randomized controlled trail (pnon-inferiority = 0.02). At 9-month angiographic follow-up, SB diameter stenosis was significantly lower in the Tryton group (29.3 ± 21.9 versus 41.1 ± 17.5, P = 0.0008) and in-segment binary restenosis (diameter stenosis ≥ 50%) was higher in the PS group (19.0 versus 34.2%, respectively, P = 0.052). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with true bifurcations involving a large SB, treatment with the Tryton SD Stent was clinically non-inferior to PS and showed favorable angiographic outcomes.

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