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1.
Arch. med ; 19(2): 256-266, 2019/07/30.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022908

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar los factores socio-demográficos y clínicos, en la colecistectomía laparoscópica en dos décadas de experiencia en el Hospital Militar de la ciudad de Cuenca. La colecistectomía es la cirugía más común para tratar patologías como la colelitiasis, colecistitis agudas y poliposis vesicular, siendo en la actualidad la técnica laparoscópica el tratamiento de elección. Materiales y Métodos: estudio de tipo descriptivo, retrospectivo, de pacientes sometidos a colecistectomía laparoscópica en las últimas dos décadas; se trabajaron con 468 historias clínicas que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Resultados: un 61,8% fueron mujeres con una edad media de 50,77 años y un desvío estándar (DS) de 0,727. Las indicaciones quirúrgicas fueron colelitiasis 60,2%, colecistitis aguda 29,2%, poliposis vesiculares 4,7%, coledocolitiasis 4,5%, vesícula esclerotrófica 0,9%. La estancia postoperatoria fue de 80,6% menos de tres días y el 19,4% igual o mayor a 4 días; con un promedio de 1,09 y un DS=0,292. El porcentaje de conversión a cirugía abierta fue del 0,4%. El tiempo quirúrgico fue en 50,2% dentro de 31-60min y 46,2% más de 60 minutos con un promedio de 42,43 min y un DS=0,564. Al relacionar la edad y el tiempo operatorio se evidenció que en los mayores de 60 años tenían más días de hospitalización con significancia estadística,con un valor de p=0,0006. Conclusión: la colecistectomía laparoscópica disminuye los tiempos operatorios y de hospitalización, contribuyendo directamente al descenso de la morbilidad y mortalidad por este tipo de patologías y permitiendo a los servicios de salud, de países en vías de desarrollo, mejorar la calidad de la atención de sus poblaciones..(AU)


Objective: to identify the socio-demographic and clinical factors in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in two decades of experience in the Military Hospital of the city of Cuenca. Cholecystectomy is the most common surgery to treat pathologies such as cholelithiasis, acute cholecystitis and vesicular polyposis, currently the laparoscopic technique is the treatment of choice. Materials and Methods: a descriptive, retrospective study of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the last two decades; we worked with 468 clinical records that met the inclusion criteria.. Results: 61,8% were women and 38,2% were men with a mean age of 50,77 years and standard deviation (SD) of 0,727. The surgical indications were cholelithiasis 60,2%, acute cholecystitis 29,2%, vesicular polyposis 4,7%, choledocholithiasis 4,5%, sclerotrophic vesicle 0,9%. The postoperative stay was 80,6% less than three days and 19.4% equal to or greater than 4 days; with an average of 1,09 and DS = 0,292. The conversion percentage to open surgery was 0,4%. The surgical time was 50,2% within 31-60 min and 46,2% more than 60 minutes with an average of 42,43min and DS = 0,564. When the age and operative time were related, it was evidenced that in those older than 60 years, they had more days of hospitalization with statistical significance, with a value of p= 0,0006. Conclusion: laparoscopic cholecystectomy decreases the operative and hospitalization times, contributing directly to the decrease in morbidity and mortality due to this type of pathologies and allowing health services in developing countries to improve the quality of care for their populations..(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica
2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7907, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133675

RESUMO

The Dallol geothermal area in the northern part of the Danakil Depression (up to 124-155 meter below sea level) is deemed one of the most extreme environments on Earth. The area is notable for being part of the Afar Depression, an incipient seafloor-spreading center located at the triple junction, between Nubian, Somali and Arabian plates, and for hosting environments at the very edge of natural physical-chemical extremities. The northern part of the Danakil Depression is dominated by the Assale salt plain (an accumulation of marine evaporite deposits) and hosts the Dallol volcano. Here, the interaction between the evaporitic deposit and the volcanisms have created the unique Dallol hot springs, which are highly acidic (pH ~ 0) and saline (saturation) with maximum temperatures ranging between 90 and 109 °C. Here we report for the first time evidence of life existing with these hot springs using a combination of morphological and molecular analyses. Ultra-small structures are shown to be entombed within mineral deposits, which are identified as members of the Order Nanohaloarchaea. The results from this study suggest the microorganisms can survive, and potential live, within this extreme environment, which has implications for understanding the limits of habitability on Earth and on (early) Mars.

3.
Astrobiology ; 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112043

RESUMO

The remote Dallol Hot Springs, an active hydrothermal system in the volcanic region of Danakil (Ethiopia), is an interesting yet poorly studied polyextreme environment for investigating the limits of life. Here, we explored the presence of signs of life in five samples of sinter deposits at Dallol, by means of lipid biomarkers and stable isotope composition. The results reveal the existence of biological material with predominance of (presently or recently active) microbial sources, according to the relative abundance of low-over-high molecular weight moieties (n-alkanes, n-carboxylic acids, or n-alkanols), and the detection of diverse microbial-diagnostic compounds (i.e., monomethyl alkanes; C16:1 ω7, C18:1 ω9, C18:1 ω10, C18:2 ω6,9 and iso/anteiso C15 and C17 carboxylic acids; or short-chained dicarboxylic acids). The molecular lipid patterns at Dallol suggest a microbial community largely composed of thermophilic members of the Aquificae, Thermotogae, Chroroflexi, or Proteobacteria phyla, as well as microbial consortia of phototrophs (e.g., Cyanobacteria-Chloroflexi) in lower-temperature and higher-pH niches. Autotrophic sources most likely using the Calvin cycle, together with the acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) pathway, were inferred from the depleted bulk δ13C ratios (-25.9/-22.6‰), while sulfate-reducing bacteria were considered according to enriched sulfate (7.3/11.7‰) and total sulfur (20.5/8.2‰) δ34S ratios. The abundance of functionalized hydrocarbons (i.e., n-carboxylic acids and n-alkanols) and the distinct even-over-odd predominance/preference on the typically odd n-alkanes (CPIalkanes ≤ 1) pointed to active or recent microbial metabolisms. This study documents the detection of biosignatures in the polyextreme environment of Dallol and raises the possibility of finding life or its remnants in other remote locations on Earth, where the harsh environmental conditions would lead to expect otherwise. These findings are relevant for understanding the limits of life and have implications for searching for hypothetical life vestiges in extreme environments beyond Earth.

4.
J Exp Bot ; 70(5): 1447-1460, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715461

RESUMO

Life has always found a way to preserve itself. One strategy that has been developed for this purpose is sexual reproduction. In land plants, the gynoecium is considered to be at the top of evolutionary innovation, since it has been a key factor in the success of the angiosperms. The gynoecium is composed of carpels with different tissues that need to develop and differentiate in the correct way. In order to control and guide gynoecium development, plants have adapted elements of pre-existing gene regulatory networks (GRNs) but new ones have also evolved. The GRNs can interact with internal factors (e.g. hormones and other metabolites) and external factors (e.g. mechanical signals and temperature) at different levels, giving robustness and flexibility to gynoecium development. Here, we review recent findings regarding the role of cytokinin-auxin crosstalk and the genes that connect these hormonal pathways during early gynoecium development. We also discuss some examples of internal and external factors that can modify GRNs. Finally, we make a journey through the flowering plant lineage to determine how conserved are these GRNs that regulate gynoecium and fruit development.

5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1932: 187-195, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701501

RESUMO

We present a simple protocol to image floral tissues with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Recently, new imaging techniques have emerged that improve the image quality of plant tissues. In this protocol, as an example, we focus on the fluorescence detection of the miRNA MIR164c precursor. Briefly, the method involves tissue clearing, cell wall staining, and the visualization of fluorescence in tissues in young floral buds of Arabidopsis with CLSM with the use of water dipping lenses.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Fluorescência , Precursores de RNA/genética , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos
6.
Development ; 146(1)2019 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30538100

RESUMO

The gynoecium, the female reproductive part of the flower, is key for plant sexual reproduction. During its development, inner tissues such as the septum and the transmitting tract tissue, important for pollen germination and guidance, are formed. In Arabidopsis, several transcription factors are known to be involved in the development of these tissues. One of them is NO TRANSMITTING TRACT (NTT), essential for transmitting tract formation. We found that the NTT protein can interact with several gynoecium-related transcription factors, including several MADS-box proteins, such as SEEDSTICK (STK), known to specify ovule identity. Evidence suggests that NTT and STK control enzyme and transporter-encoding genes involved in cell wall polysaccharide and lipid distribution in gynoecial medial domain cells. The results indicate that the simultaneous loss of NTT and STK activity affects polysaccharide and lipid deposition and septum fusion, and delays entry of septum cells to their normal degradation program. Furthermore, we identified KAWAK, a direct target of NTT and STK, which is required for the correct formation of fruits in Arabidopsis These findings position NTT and STK as important factors in determining reproductive competence.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/embriologia , Frutas/embriologia , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/ultraestrutura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Mananas/metabolismo , Meristema/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Tubo Polínico/embriologia , Tubo Polínico/metabolismo , Tubo Polínico/ultraestrutura , Ligação Proteica , Reprodução , Transcrição Genética
7.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1409, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319671

RESUMO

Gene function discovery in plants, as other plant science quests, is aided by tools that image, document, and measure plant phenotypes. Tools that acquire images of plant organs and tissues at the microscopic level have evolved from qualitative documentation tools, to advanced tools where software-assisted analysis of images extracts quantitative information that allows statistical analyses. They are useful to perform morphometric studies that describe plant physical characteristics and quantify phenotypes, aiding gene function discovery. In parallel, non-destructive, versatile, robust, and user friendly technologies have also been developed for surface topography analysis and quality control in the industrial manufacture sector, such as optoelectronic three-dimensional (3D) color microscopes. These microscopes combine optical lenses, electronic image sensors, motorized stages, graphics engines, and user friendly software to allow the visualization and inspection of objects of diverse sizes and shapes from different angles. This allow the integration of different automatically obtained images along the Z axis of an object, into a single image with a large depth-of-field, or a 3D model in color. In this work, we explored the performance of an optoelectronic microscope to study plant morphological phenotypes and plant surfaces in different model species. Furthermore, as a "proof-of-concept," we included the phenotypic characterization (morphometric analyses at the organ level, color, and cell size measurements) of Arabidopsis mutant leaves. We found that the microscope tested is a suitable, practical, and fast tool to routinely and precisely analyze different plant organs and tissues, producing both high-quality, sharp color images and morphometric and color data in real time. It is fully compatible with live plant tissues (no sample preparation is required) and does not require special conditions, high maintenance, nor complex training. Therefore, though barely reported in plant scientific studies, optoelectronic microscopes should emerge as convenient and useful tools for phenotypic characterization in plant sciences.

8.
Am J Perinatol ; 2018 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the use and safety of a sedation protocol with sevoflurane for short painful procedures in newborns. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective and observational study conducted in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. Sevoflurane was recommended in patients undergoing an invasive procedure of short length, especially in those with spontaneous breathing or without venous access. Its safety and efficacy was assessed by continuous monitoring of respiratory and hemodynamic variables and clinical data recording. RESULTS: Sevoflurane was used for 39 procedures, the main indications were: intravitreal bevacizumab injection (12), central venous catheterization (11), and biopsy (6). The median administration length was 14 minutes (range: 5-65 minutes). The median minimum dose was 1.5% (range: 1-3%). The median maximum dose was 2.5% (range: 1-6%). An effective control of nociceptive manifestations was achieved in 35 cases (90%). No major adverse effects were noticed. Main adverse effects were hypotension (8), desaturation (4), and apnea (3). All of them were solved by decreasing (14) or discontinuing (1) the administration of sevoflurane. CONCLUSION: Sevoflurane is relatively easy to use and provides an optimal control of pain-related symptoms. Its prescription should be individualized and more long-term follow-up data are needed.

9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(4): 688-696, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-954075

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of preoperative multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) as a predictor of extracapsular extension (ECE) and unfavorable Gleason score (GS) in patients with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer (PCa). Materials and Methods: Patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) and had preoperative mp-MRI between May-2011 and December-2013. Mp-MRI was evaluated according to the European Society of Urogenital Radiology MRI prostate guidelines by two different readers. Histopathological RP results were the standard reference. Results: 79 patients were included; mean age was 61 and median preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 7.0. On MRI, 28% patients had ECE evidenced in the mp-MRI, 5% seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) and 4% lymph node involvement (LNI). At RP, 39.2% had ECE, 26.6% SVI and 12.8% LNI. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of mp-MRI for ECE were 54.9%, 90.9%, 76%, 81% and 74.1% respectively; for SVI values were 19.1%, 100%, 77.3%, 100% and 76.1% respectively and for LNI 20%, 98.4%, 86.7%, 66.7% and 88.7%. Conclusions: Major surgical decisions are made with digital rectal exam (DRE) and ultrasound studies before the use of Mp-MRI. This imaging study contributes to rule out gross extraprostatic extension (ECE, SVI, LNI) without competing with pathological studies. The specificity and NPV are reasonable to decide surgical approach. A highly experienced radiology team is needed to provide accurate estimations of tumor extension and aggressiveness.

10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(7)2018 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041421

RESUMO

Throughout the last decade, a whole new generation of powered transtibial prostheses and exoskeletons has been developed. However, these technologies are limited by a gait phase detection which controls the wearable device as a function of the activities of the wearer. Consequently, gait phase detection is considered to be of great importance, as achieving high detection accuracy will produce a more precise, stable, and safe rehabilitation device. In this paper, we propose a novel gait percent detection algorithm that can predict a full gait cycle discretised within a 1% interval. We called this algorithm an exponentially delayed fully connected neural network (ED-FNN). A dataset was obtained from seven healthy subjects that performed daily walking activities on the flat ground and a 15-degree slope. The signals were taken from only one inertial measurement unit (IMU) attached to the lower shank. The dataset was divided into training and validation datasets for every subject, and the mean square error (MSE) error between the model prediction and the real percentage of the gait was computed. An average MSE of 0.00522 was obtained for every subject in both training and validation sets, and an average MSE of 0.006 for the training set and 0.0116 for the validation set was obtained when combining all subjects' signals together. Although our experiments were conducted in an offline setting, due to the forecasting capabilities of the ED-FNN, our system provides an opportunity to eliminate detection delays for real-time applications.

11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6990, 2018 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29725055

RESUMO

Animal communication occurs in environments that affect the properties of signals as they propagate from senders to receivers. We studied the geographic variation of the advertisement calls of male Pleurodema thaul individuals from eight localities in Chile. Furthermore, by means of signal propagation experiments, we tested the hypothesis that local calls are better transmitted and less degraded than foreign calls (i.e. acoustic adaptation hypothesis). Overall, the advertisement calls varied greatly along the distribution of P. thaul in Chile, and it was possible to discriminate localities grouped into northern, central and southern stocks. Propagation distance affected signal amplitude and spectral degradation in all localities, but temporal degradation was only affected by propagation distance in one out of seven localities. Call origin affected signal amplitude in five out of seven localities and affected spectral and temporal degradation in six out of seven localities. In addition, in northern localities, local calls degraded more than foreign calls, and in southern localities the opposite was observed. The lack of a strict optimal relationship between signal characteristics and environment indicates partial concordance with the acoustic adaptation hypothesis. Inter-population differences in selectivity for call patterns may compensate for such environmental constraints on acoustic communication.

12.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 335, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535699

RESUMO

Growth in sodium chloride (NaCl) is known to induce stress in non-halophilic microorganisms leading to effects on the microbial metabolism and cell structure. Microorganisms have evolved a number of adaptations, both structural and metabolic, to counteract osmotic stress. These strategies are well-understood for organisms in NaCl-rich brines such as the accumulation of certain organic solutes (known as either compatible solutes or osmolytes). Less well studied are responses to ionic environments such as sulfate-rich brines which are prevalent on Earth but can also be found on Mars. In this paper, we investigated the global metabolic response of the anaerobic bacterium Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 to osmotic salt stress induced by either magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) or NaCl at the same water activity (0.975). Using a non-targeted mass spectrometry approach, the intensity of hundreds of metabolites was measured. The compatible solutes L-asparagine and sucrose were found to be increased in both MgSO4 and NaCl compared to the control sample, suggesting a similar osmotic response to different ionic environments. We were able to demonstrate that Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 accumulated a range of other compatible solutes. However, we also found the global metabolic responses, especially with regard to amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism, to be salt-specific, thus, suggesting ion-specific regulation of specific metabolic pathways.

13.
Int Braz J Urol ; 44(4): 688-696, 2018 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29570254

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of preoperative multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) as a predictor of extracapsular extension (ECE) and unfavorable Gleason score (GS) in patients with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer (PCa). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) and had preoperative mp-MRI between May-2011 and December-2013. Mp-MRI was evaluated according to the European Society of Urogenital Radiology MRI prostate guidelines by two different readers. Histopathological RP results were the standard reference. RESULTS: 79 patients were included; mean age was 61 and median preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 7.0. On MRI, 28% patients had ECE evidenced in the mp-MRI, 5% seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) and 4% lymph node involvement (LNI). At RP, 39.2% had ECE, 26.6% SVI and 12.8% LNI. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of mp-MRI for ECE were 54.9%, 90.9%, 76%, 81% and 74.1% respectively; for SVI values were 19.1%, 100%, 77.3%, 100% and 76.1% respectively and for LNI 20%, 98.4%, 86.7%, 66.7% and 88.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Major surgical decisions are made with digital rectal exam (DRE) and ultrasound studies before the use of Mp-MRI. This imaging study contributes to rule out gross extraprostatic extension (ECE, SVI, LNI) without competing with pathological studies. The specificity and NPV are reasonable to decide surgical approach. A highly experienced radiology team is needed to provide accurate estimations of tumor extension and aggressiveness.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Humanos , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfonodos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Glândulas Seminais/diagnóstico por imagem , Glândulas Seminais/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 365(6)2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474542

RESUMO

Four facultative anaerobic and two obligate anaerobic bacteria were isolated from extreme environments (deep subsurface halite mine, sulfidic anoxic spring, mineral-rich river) in the frame MASE (Mars Analogues for Space Exploration) project. The isolates were investigated under anoxic conditions for their survivability after desiccation up to 6 months and their tolerance to ionizing radiation up to 3000 Gy. The results indicated that tolerances to both stresses are strain-specific features. Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 showed a high desiccation tolerance but its radiation tolerance was very low. The most radiation-tolerant strains were Buttiauxella sp. MASE-IM-9 and Halanaerobium sp. MASE-BB-1. In both cases, cultivable cells were detectable after an exposure to 3 kGy of ionizing radiation, but cells only survived desiccation for 90 and 30 days, respectively. Although a correlation between desiccation and ionizing radiation resistance has been hypothesized for some aerobic microorganisms, our data showed that there was no correlation between tolerance to desiccation and ionizing radiation, suggesting that the physiological basis of both forms of tolerances is not necessarily linked. In addition, these results indicated that facultative and obligate anaerobic organisms living in extreme environments possess varied species-specific tolerances to extremes.

15.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0185178, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29069099

RESUMO

The limits of life of aerobic microorganisms are well understood, but the responses of anaerobic microorganisms to individual and combined extreme stressors are less well known. Motivated by an interest in understanding the survivability of anaerobic microorganisms under Martian conditions, we investigated the responses of a new isolate, Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 to individual and combined stresses associated with the Martian surface. This organism belongs to an adaptable and persistent genus of anaerobic microorganisms found in many environments worldwide. The effects of desiccation, low pressure, ionizing radiation, varying temperature, osmotic pressure, and oxidizing chemical compounds were investigated. The strain showed a high tolerance to desiccation, with a decline of survivability by four orders of magnitude during a storage time of 85 days. Exposure to X-rays resulted in dose-dependent inactivation for exposure up to 600 Gy while applied doses above 750 Gy led to complete inactivation. The effects of the combination of desiccation and irradiation were additive and the survivability was influenced by the order in which they were imposed. Ionizing irradiation and subsequent desiccation was more deleterious than vice versa. By contrast, the presence of perchlorates was not found to significantly affect the survival of the Yersinia strain after ionizing radiation. These data show that the organism has the capacity to survive and grow in physical and chemical stresses, imposed individually or in combination that are associated with Martian environment. Eventually it lost its viability showing that many of the most adaptable anaerobic organisms on Earth would be killed on Mars today.


Assuntos
Marte , Estresse Fisiológico , Yersinia/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Dessecação , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Oxirredução , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sais , Raios X , Yersinia/classificação , Yersinia/genética , Yersinia/efeitos da radiação
16.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 9: 149, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28579956

RESUMO

The perception of music depends on the normal function of the peripheral and central auditory system. Aged subjects without hearing loss have altered music perception, including pitch and temporal features. Presbycusis or age-related hearing loss is a frequent condition in elderly people, produced by neurodegenerative processes that affect the cochlear receptor cells and brain circuits involved in auditory perception. Clinically, presbycusis patients have bilateral high-frequency hearing loss and deteriorated speech intelligibility. Music impairments in presbycusis subjects can be attributed to the normal aging processes and to presbycusis neuropathological changes. However, whether presbycusis further impairs music perception remains controversial. Here, we developed a computerized version of the Montreal battery of evaluation of amusia (MBEA) and assessed music perception in 175 Chilean adults aged between 18 and 90 years without hearing complaints and in symptomatic presbycusis patients. We give normative data for MBEA performance in a Latin-American population, showing age and educational effects. In addition, we found that symptomatic presbycusis was the most relevant factor determining global MBEA accuracy in aged subjects. Moreover, we show that melodic impairments in presbycusis individuals were diminished by music training, while the performance in temporal tasks were affected by the educational level and music training. We conclude that music training and education are important factors as they can slow the deterioration of music perception produced by age-related hearing loss.

17.
Behav Processes ; 140: 190-201, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28512036

RESUMO

Degradation phenomena affecting animal acoustic signals may provide cues to assess the distance of emitters. Recognition of degraded signals has been extensively demonstrated in birds, and recently studies have also reported detection of degraded patterns in anurans that call at or above ground level. In the current study we explore the vocal responses of the syntopic burrowing male frogs Eupsophus emiliopugini and E. calcaratus from the South American temperate forest to synthetic conspecific calls differing in amplitude and emulating degraded and non-degraded signal patterns. The results show a strong dependence of vocal responses on signal amplitude, and a general lack of differential responses to signals with different pulse amplitude modulation depths in E. emiliopugini and no effect of relative amplitude of harmonics in E. calcaratus. Such limited discrimination of signal degradation patterns from non-degraded signals is likely related to the burrowing habits of these species. Shelters amplify outgoing and incoming conspecific vocalizations, but do not counteract signal degradation to an extent comparable to calling strategies used by other frogs. The limited detection abilities and resultant response permissiveness to degraded calls in these syntopic burrowing species would be advantageous for animals communicating in circumstances in which signal alteration prevails.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Ranidae/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Florestas , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
J Biomol Tech ; 28(1): 31-39, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28337070

RESUMO

The Extreme Microbiome Project (XMP) is a project launched by the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Metagenomics Research Group (ABRF MGRG) that focuses on whole genome shotgun sequencing of extreme and unique environments using a wide variety of biomolecular techniques. The goals are multifaceted, including development and refinement of new techniques for the following: 1) the detection and characterization of novel microbes, 2) the evaluation of nucleic acid techniques for extremophilic samples, and 3) the identification and implementation of the appropriate bioinformatics pipelines. Here, we highlight the different ongoing projects that we have been working on, as well as details on the various methods we use to characterize the microbiome and metagenome of these complex samples. In particular, we present data of a novel multienzyme extraction protocol that we developed, called Polyzyme or MetaPolyZyme. Presently, the XMP is characterizing sample sites around the world with the intent of discovering new species, genes, and gene clusters. Once a project site is complete, the resulting data will be publically available. Sites include Lake Hillier in Western Australia, the "Door to Hell" crater in Turkmenistan, deep ocean brine lakes of the Gulf of Mexico, deep ocean sediments from Greenland, permafrost tunnels in Alaska, ancient microbial biofilms from Antarctica, Blue Lagoon Iceland, Ethiopian toxic hot springs, and the acidic hypersaline ponds in Western Australia.


Assuntos
Microbiologia Ambiental , Microbiota/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Ambientes Extremos , Metagenoma , Tipagem Molecular/normas , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Padrões de Referência , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas
19.
Astrobiology ; 16(3): 201-43, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27003862

RESUMO

The European AstRoMap project (supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme) surveyed the state of the art of astrobiology in Europe and beyond and produced the first European roadmap for astrobiology research. In the context of this roadmap, astrobiology is understood as the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the context of cosmic evolution; this includes habitability in the Solar System and beyond. The AstRoMap Roadmap identifies five research topics, specifies several key scientific objectives for each topic, and suggests ways to achieve all the objectives. The five AstRoMap Research Topics are • Research Topic 1: Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems • Research Topic 2: Origins of Organic Compounds in Space • Research Topic 3: Rock-Water-Carbon Interactions, Organic Synthesis on Earth, and Steps to Life • Research Topic 4: Life and Habitability • Research Topic 5: Biosignatures as Facilitating Life Detection It is strongly recommended that steps be taken towards the definition and implementation of a European Astrobiology Platform (or Institute) to streamline and optimize the scientific return by using a coordinated infrastructure and funding system.


Assuntos
Exobiologia/tendências , Europa (Continente) , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Origem da Vida , Planetas
20.
Acta méd. colomb ; 41(1): 42-48, Jan.-Mar, 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-797377

RESUMO

En el tratamiento de anticoagulación con warfarina, la reducción de eventos tromboembólicos debe ser valorada con el riesgo de sangrado. El tiempo de rango terapéutico (TRT) por el método de Rosenda al es una herramienta que valora la calidad en la monitorización de la terapia anticoagulante y se correlaciona con presencia de eventos tromboembólicos o sangrados. En este estudio se describe el tiempo de rango terapéutico (TRT R), los factores relacionados con menor (TRT R) y los efectos adversos presentados en la clínica de anticoagulación. Métodos y resultados: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal entre el 1º de enero de 2011 y el 29 de febrero de 2012. Fueron evaluados 2232 resultados de INR de 319 pacientes. 98.550 días de seguimiento. 44% (108) hombres, 66% (211) mujeres, la edad promedio 60.3 años, siete visitas promedio/año, dosis semanal de warfarina 29.8 mg. La dosis semanal presenta una relación inversa con la edad, en menores de 45 años 37.9 mg y en mayores de 75 años 22.1 mg. El TRT R incrementó de 48-54%, respectivamente. Las indicaciones para anticoagulación: fibrilación auricular (FA) 38% (121), enfermedad tromboembólica venosa (ETEV) 35% (112), prótesis valvulares (PV) 17.5%(56) y embolia o trombosis arterial (EA) 9.5%(30). 228 pacientes (71%) presentaron un TRT R promedio del 64%. (40-100) INR mayor de 5 en 2.24% e INR menor de 1.5 en 10.9%. Sangrados menores: 16 pacientes (5%), sangrado mayor se presentó en dos pacientes (0.65%) y un evento adverso por embolia (0.32%). Los factores asociados a un TRT R bajo fueron: sexo masculino, enfermedad tromboembólica venosa, uso de warfarina genérica, edad menor de 55 años, tiempo menor de un año y menos de cinco visitas. Conclusiones: El tiempo de rango terapéutico TRT es una medición útil para establecer la eficacia de la terapia anticoagulante con warfarina. La meta de 60% en tiempo de rango terapéutico garantiza menos efectos adversos por sangrado o trombosis. Un número bajo de visitas y anticoagulación menor de un año están asociados a bajo TRT. (Acta Med Colomb 2016; 41: 42-48).


In the treatment of warfarin anticoagulation, reduction of thromboembolic events must be evaluated with the risk of bleeding. Time in therapeutic range (TTR) by the method of Rosendaal is a tool that values quality monitoring anticoagulant therapy and correlates with the presence of thromboembolic events or bleeding. In this study time therapeutic range (TTR), factors associated with lower (TTR) and adverse effects presented in the anticoagulation clinic are presented. Methods and Results: A descriptive cross-sectional study from 1° January 2011 and 29th February 2012. 2232 results of INR of 319 patients were assessed. 98550 days follow up. 44% (108) were men, 66% (211) women, average age 60.3 years, seven average visits/year, warfarin weekly dose of 29.8mg. The weekly dose has an inverse relationship with age; in patients under 45 years 37.9 mg., and in patients over 75 years, 22.1 mg. The TTR increased from 48 to 54%, respectively. Indications for anticoagulation: atrial fibrillation (AF) 38% (121), venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) 35% (112), prosthetic valves (PV) 17.5% (56) and emboli or arterial thrombosis (EA) 9.5% (30). 228 patients (71%) had a TTR average of 64%. (40-100), INR greater than 5 in 2.24% and INR less than 1.5 in 10.9%. Minor bleeding: 16 patients (5%), major bleeding occurred in two patients (0.65%) and oneadverse event of embolism (0.32%). The factors associated with low TTR were male gender, venous thromboembolic disease, use of generic warfarin, age less than 55 years, time shorter than one year and less than five visits. Conclusions: TTR is a useful measurement to establish the efficacy of anticoagulant therapy with warfarin. The goal of a 60% TTR ensures fewer adverse effects from bleeding or thrombosis. A low number of visits and anticoagulation less than a year are associated with low TTR. (ActaMed Colomb 2016; 41: 42-48).

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