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2.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(2): e855, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139079

RESUMO

RESUMEN Los drusen de nervio óptico fueron descritos por primera vez por Liebreich en el año 1868. Otros términos para designar esta entidad incluyen cuerpos hialinos y cuerpos coloides del disco óptico. Tienen una prevalencia de 1 por 500 y el 60 por ciento de los casos se encuentran profundos en la cabeza del nervio óptico. La patogenia primaria de los drusen puede ser una displasia hereditaria del canal óptico del disco óptico y su vasculatura, lo que predispone a la formación de estos. La evolución natural de los drusen es un proceso dinámico que transcurre durante toda la vida. Entre las complicaciones asociadas se presentan defectos de campo visual, pérdida de visión central (rara pero bien documentada), neuropatía óptica isquémica, oclusiones vasculares retinales, pérdidas transitorias de la visión, neovascularización subretinal peripapilar, corioretinopatia serosa central peripapilar y hemorragias pre y peripapilares. Se presenta una paciente de 64 años de edad con antecedente de haber sido operada de desprendimiento de retina del ojo izquierdo, y en el ojo derecho presentaba una hemorragia peripapilar subretinal profunda asociada a drusen(AU)


ABSTRACT Optic nerve drusens were first described by Liebreich in the year 1868. Other terms to designate this condition are optic disc hyaline bodies and colloid bodies. They have a prevalence of 1 per 500 and 60 percent of the cases occur deep in the optic nerve head. The primary pathogenesis of drusens may be an inherited dysplasia of the optic canal of the disc and its vasculature, which leads to their formation. The natural evolution of drusens is a lifelong dynamic process. Associated complications include visual field defects, central vision loss (rare but well documented), ischemic optic neuropathy, retinal vascular occlusion, transient sight loss, peripapillary subretinal neovascularization, central serous peripapillary chorioretinopathy, and pre- and peripapillary bleeding. A case is reported of a 64-year-old female patient with a history of surgery for retinal detachment of the left eye. In the right eye the patient presented deep peripapillary subretinal bleeding associated to drusen(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Descolamento Retiniano/etiologia , Patogênese Homeopática/epidemiologia , Neuropatia Óptica Isquêmica/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Nervo Óptico/epidemiologia
3.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717836

RESUMO

Spiders rely on venom to catch prey and few species are even capable of capturing vertebrates. The majority of spiders are generalist predators, possessing complex venom, in which different toxins seem to target different types of prey. In this study, we focused on the trophic ecology and venom toxicity of Phoneutria boliviensis F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897, a Central American spider of medical importance. We tested the hypothesis that its venom is adapted to catch vertebrate prey by studying its trophic ecology and venom toxicity against selected vertebrate and invertebrate prey. We compared both trophic ecology (based on acceptance experiments) and toxicity (based on bioassays) among sexes of this species. We found that P. boliviensis accepted geckos, spiders, and cockroaches as prey, but rejected frogs. There was no difference in acceptance between males and females. The venom of P. boliviensis was far more efficient against vertebrate (geckos) than invertebrate (spiders) prey in both immobilization time and LD50. Surprisingly, venom of males was more efficient than that of females. Our results suggest that P. boliviensis has adapted its venom to catch vertebrates, which may explain its toxicity to humans.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Comportamento Predatório , Venenos de Aranha/toxicidade , Aranhas/parasitologia , Vertebrados/parasitologia , Animais , América Central , Feminino , Masculino
4.
Salud Publica Mex ; 61(5): 648-656, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661742

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To know the characteristics of medical education and identify its strengths and weaknesses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A transversal and quantitative study of the characteristics of medical education in 29 medical schools in Mexico was carried out, between April and September 2017. Questionnaire with Likert scale was applied to explore context, regulation, structure, process, results and impact of medical education. Bivariate analysis was performed with a Chi square test and the significance level was equal to or less than 0.05. RESULTS: The political context obtained 64%, economical context 10% and mechanisms of regulation 31%. The educational structure was 61% and the social impact was 93%. CONCLUSIONS: Public policies, regulatory mechanisms and public investment must be strengthened to improve the quality of medical education.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/normas , Setor Privado/normas , Setor Público/normas , Faculdades de Medicina/normas , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos Transversais , Currículo , Educação Médica/economia , Educação Médica/legislação & jurisprudência , Educação Médica/organização & administração , México , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Médicos/provisão & distribução , Setor Privado/economia , Setor Privado/organização & administração , Probabilidade , Política Pública , Setor Público/economia , Setor Público/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(5): 648-656, sep.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127328

RESUMO

Resumen: Objetivo: Conocer las características de la educación médica e identificar sus fortalezas y debilidades. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal y cuantitativo para conocer las características de la educación médica en 29 escuelas de medicina en México, entre abril y septiembre de 2017. Se utilizó un cuestionario con escala tipo Likert para explorar el contexto, la regulación, la estructura, el proceso, los resultados y el impacto de la educación médica. Se realizó un análisis bivariado con ji cuadrada y una significancia estadística depigual o menor a 0.05. Resultados: El contexto político obtuvo 64%, el contexto económico 10%, los mecanismos de regulación 31%, la estructura educativa 61% y el impacto social 93%. Conclusiones: Se requiere fortalecer las políticas públicas, la regulación y la inversión pública, para mejorar la calidad de la educación médica.


Abstract: Objective: To know the characteristics of medical education and identify its strengths and weaknesses. Materials and methods: A transversal and quantitative study of the characteristics of medical education in 29 medical schools in Mexico was carried out, between April and September 2017. Questionnaire with Likert scale was applied to explore context, regulation, structure, process, results and impact of medical education. Bivariate analysis was performed with a Chi square test and the significance level was equal to or less than 0.05. Results: The political context obtained 64%, economical context 10% and mechanisms of regulation 31%. The educational structure was 61% and the social impact was 93%. Conclusions: Public policies, regulatory mechanisms and public investment must be strengthened to improve the quality of medical education.

6.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(5): 648-656, sep.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127339

RESUMO

Resumen: Objetivo: Conocer las características de la educación médica e identificar sus fortalezas y debilidades. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal y cuantitativo para conocer las características de la educación médica en 29 escuelas de medicina en México, entre abril y septiembre de 2017. Se utilizó un cuestionario con escala tipo Likert para explorar el contexto, la regulación, la estructura, el proceso, los resultados y el impacto de la educación médica. Se realizó un análisis bivariado con ji cuadrada y una significancia estadística depigual o menor a 0.05. Resultados: El contexto político obtuvo 64%, el contexto económico 10%, los mecanismos de regulación 31%, la estructura educativa 61% y el impacto social 93%. Conclusiones: Se requiere fortalecer las políticas públicas, la regulación y la inversión pública, para mejorar la calidad de la educación médica.


Abstract: Objective: To know the characteristics of medical education and identify its strengths and weaknesses. Materials and methods: A transversal and quantitative study of the characteristics of medical education in 29 medical schools in Mexico was carried out, between April and September 2017. Questionnaire with Likert scale was applied to explore context, regulation, structure, process, results and impact of medical education. Bivariate analysis was performed with a Chi square test and the significance level was equal to or less than 0.05. Results: The political context obtained 64%, economical context 10% and mechanisms of regulation 31%. The educational structure was 61% and the social impact was 93%. Conclusions: Public policies, regulatory mechanisms and public investment must be strengthened to improve the quality of medical education.

7.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 150, 2018 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29467028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Data from our laboratory suggest that recovery from a traumatic brain injury depends on the time of day at which it occurred. In this study, we examined whether traumatic brain injury -induced damage is related to circadian variation in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression in rat cortex. RESULTS: We confirmed that traumatic brain injury recovery depended on the time of day at which the damage occurred. We also found that motor cortex N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 expression exhibited diurnal variation in both control and traumatic brain injury-subjected rats. However, this rhythm is more pronounced in traumatic brain injury-subjected rats, with minimum expression in those injured during nighttime hours. These findings suggest that traumatic brain injury occurrence times should be considered in future clinical studies and when designing neuroprotective strategies for patients.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/metabolismo , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/lesões , Córtex Motor/metabolismo , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Tempo
8.
In. Rio Torres, Marcelino; Fernández Argones, Liamet; Hernández Silva, Juan Raúl; Ramos López, Meisy. Oftalmología. Diagnóstico y tratamiento. 2da edición. La Habana, Editorial Ciencias Médicas, 2 ed; 2018. , graf.
Monografia em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-71406
9.
In. Rio Torres, Marcelino; Fernández Argones, Liamet; Hernández Silva, Juan Raúl; Ramos López, Meisy. Oftalmología. Diagnóstico y tratamiento. 2da edición. La Habana, Editorial Ciencias Médicas, 2 ed; 2018. , graf.
Monografia em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-71405
10.
In. Rio Torres, Marcelino; Fernández Argones, Liamet; Hernández Silva, Juan Raúl; Ramos López, Meisy. Oftalmología. Diagnóstico y tratamiento. 2da edición. La Habana, Editorial Ciencias Médicas, 2 ed; 2018. , graf.
Monografia em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-71404
11.
In. Rio Torres, Marcelino; Fernández Argones, Liamet; Hernández Silva, Juan Raúl; Ramos López, Meisy. Oftalmología. Diagnóstico y tratamiento. 2da edición. La Habana, Editorial Ciencias Médicas, 2 ed; 2018. , graf.
Monografia em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-71403

Assuntos
Humanos , Papiledema
12.
In. Rio Torres, Marcelino; Fernández Argones, Liamet; Hernández Silva, Juan Raúl; Ramos López, Meisy. Oftalmología. Diagnóstico y tratamiento. 2da edición. La Habana, Editorial Ciencias Médicas, 2 ed; 2018. , graf.
Monografia em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-71402
13.
In. Rio Torres, Marcelino; Fernández Argones, Liamet; Hernández Silva, Juan Raúl; Ramos López, Meisy. Oftalmología. Diagnóstico y tratamiento. 2da edición. La Habana, Editorial Ciencias Médicas, 2 ed; 2018. , graf.
Monografia em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-71401
14.
In. Rio Torres, Marcelino; Fernández Argones, Liamet; Hernández Silva, Juan Raúl; Ramos López, Meisy. Oftalmología. Diagnóstico y tratamiento. 2da edición. La Habana, Editorial Ciencias Médicas, 2 ed; 2018. , graf.
Monografia em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-71399
15.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 30(3): 1-6, jul.-set. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-901383

RESUMO

La atrofia gyrata de coroides y retina fue descrita por vez primera por Fuchs en el año 1896 como una entidad clínicamente definida. La deficiencia de la enzima ornitina delta aminotransferasa se hereda de forma autosómica recesiva; resulta en incremento plasmático de las concentraciones de ornitina y se asocia con atrofia gyrata de coroides y retina. Se presenta una paciente de 6 años de edad que es llevada a consulta, ya que en la escuela la maestra notaba mala visión de lejos. En un examen inicial del fondo de ojo el oftalmólogo observó cambios sugestivos de distrofia retiniana. En la oftalmoscopia binocular indirecta se encontraron extensas zonas confluentes de atrofia coroidea por fuera de las arcadas vasculares que respetaban el polo posterior; la mácula impresionaba normal. Se realizó un estudio de tomografía de coherencia óptica en dominio espectral en tomógrafo Spectralis que demostró la presencia de edema macular cistoide en ambos ojos. La determinación de niveles de ornitina en sangre arrojaron niveles muy elevados de este aminoácido (975 µmol/mL). Con todos estos hallazgos se llegó al diagnóstico de hiperornitinemia y atrofia gyrata de coroides y retina. Se indicó tratamiento dietético y vitamina B6 oral a pesar de que no se ha obtenido hasta el momento reducción significativa de los niveles de ornitina en plasma(AU)


Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and the retina was first described by Fuchs as a clinically defined condition in 1896. Human hereditary deficiency of ornithine aminotransferase activity is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and results in increased level of plasma ornithine and is associated with gyrate atrophy of the choroid and the retina. A 6-year-old girl was taken to the ophthalmologist’s because of her far poor vision detected by her teacher at the school. In the initial eye fundus examination the ophthalmologist observed some changes indicating retinal dystrophy. The indirect binocular funduscopy revealed extensive areas of choroidal atrophy outside the vascular archades respected the posterior pole whereas the macula impressed as normal. Cystoid macular edema was evident in both eyes according to the results of the optic coherence tomography performed with Spectralis tomograph. The aminoacid analysis revealed high serum ornithine level (975 µmol/mL). The clinical diagnosis of the patient was consistent with hyper-ornithinemia and gyrate atrophy of the choroid and the retina. She was treated with vitamin B6 and dietary supplementation but no significant reduction on her serum ornithine level was observed(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Doenças da Coroide , Atrofia Girata/diagnóstico , Hiperamonemia/fisiopatologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/efeitos adversos
16.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 30(3): 1-6, jul.-set. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-73264

RESUMO

La atrofia gyrata de coroides y retina fue descrita por vez primera por Fuchs en el año 1896 como una entidad clínicamente definida. La deficiencia de la enzima ornitina delta aminotransferasa se hereda de forma autosómica recesiva; resulta en incremento plasmático de las concentraciones de ornitina y se asocia con atrofia gyrata de coroides y retina. Se presenta una paciente de 6 años de edad que es llevada a consulta, ya que en la escuela la maestra notaba mala visión de lejos. En un examen inicial del fondo de ojo el oftalmólogo observó cambios sugestivos de distrofia retiniana. En la oftalmoscopia binocular indirecta se encontraron extensas zonas confluentes de atrofia coroidea por fuera de las arcadas vasculares que respetaban el polo posterior; la mácula impresionaba normal. Se realizó un estudio de tomografía de coherencia óptica en dominio espectral en tomógrafo Spectralis que demostró la presencia de edema macular cistoide en ambos ojos. La determinación de niveles de ornitina en sangre arrojaron niveles muy elevados de este aminoácido (975 µmol/mL). Con todos estos hallazgos se llegó al diagnóstico de hiperornitinemia y atrofia gyrata de coroides y retina. Se indicó tratamiento dietético y vitamina B6 oral a pesar de que no se ha obtenido hasta el momento reducción significativa de los niveles de ornitina en plasma(AU)


Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and the retina was first described by Fuchs as a clinically defined condition in 1896. Human hereditary deficiency of ornithine aminotransferase activity is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and results in increased level of plasma ornithine and is associated with gyrate atrophy of the choroid and the retina. A 6-year-old girl was taken to the ophthalmologist's because of her far poor vision detected by her teacher at the school. In the initial eye fundus examination the ophthalmologist observed some changes indicating retinal dystrophy. The indirect binocular funduscopy revealed extensive areas of choroidal atrophy outside the vascular archades respected the posterior pole whereas the macula impressed as normal. Cystoid macular edema was evident in both eyes according to the results of the optic coherence tomography performed with Spectralis tomograph. The aminoacid analysis revealed high serum ornithine level (975 µmol/mL). The clinical diagnosis of the patient was consistent with hyper-ornithinemia and gyrate atrophy of the choroid and the retina. She was treated with vitamin B6 and dietary supplementation but no significant reduction on her serum ornithine level was observed(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Doenças da Coroide , Atrofia Girata/diagnóstico , Hiperamonemia/fisiopatologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/efeitos adversos
17.
Zootaxa ; 4244(4): 568-582, 2017 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28610102

RESUMO

We describe a new scorpion species in the troglomorphic genus Troglotayosicus Lourenço, 1981 from Colombia. Troglotayosicus meijdeni sp. nov. inhabits the forest leaf litter at Rivera municipality, on the western slope of the Eastern Andes. The male of the new species remains unknown; however, this species can be distinguished from other species in the genus by the female (and juvenile) morphology. The type locality of T. meijdeni sp. nov. represents the northernmost known record for a population of Troglotayosicus, further extending the known limits of distribution of this genus, and shedding more light on the distributional range of this group of scorpions in northwestern South America. With this description, the number of known species of Troglotayosicus is raised to four; three of them are endogean species living in forested areas in the Andean region of Colombia, whereas one is a hypogean species from a cave in Ecuadorian Amazonia.


Assuntos
Escorpiões , Animais , Colômbia , Feminino , Florestas , Masculino , América do Sul
18.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 30(2): 1-8, abr.-jun. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-901370

RESUMO

Desde el primer reporte de pliegues coroideos, en el año 1884, el conocimiento sobre su etiología, el mecanismo de producción y su manejo se ha incrementado notablemente. Las causas de los pliegues coroideos abarcan un extenso número de condiciones muy variadas; entre ellas se encuentran los idiopáticos, la hipertensión intracraneana, algunas drogas como el topiramato, las infiltraciones difusas de la coroides por linfomas e hiperplasia linfoide, la hipotonía por contracción de tejido fibrovascular, los tumores coroideos y orbitarios (intraconales y extraconales), entre otras. Se presenta una paciente femenina de 57 años de edad quien acudió por vez primera a la Consulta de Oftalmología en el año 2008 por disminución lenta y progresiva de la agudeza visual de ambos ojos. El examen de fondo de ojo mostró discos ópticos con bordes definidos, buena coloración y presencia de pliegues coroideos radiales al disco en polo posterior de ambos ojos. La refracción arrojó una hipermetropía que fue en aumento en las consultas de seguimiento hasta el presente sin variar el aspecto del fondo de ojo. Se concluye que el caso presenta síndrome de hipermetropía adquirida con pliegues coroideos(AU)


Since the first reported case of choroidal folds in 1884, the understanding of their mechanisms, aetiologies, and management has expanded signally. With ophthalmoscopy, choroidal folds can be appreciated by the light and dark bands observed deep to the retina. While choroidal folds are visible on ophthalmoscopic examination, they are more easily identified using fluorescein angiography. A-scan ultrasound may reveal a shortened axial length. Common B-scan ultrasonographic findings include thickening of the choroid or flattening of the posterior aspect of the globe. Causes of choroidal folds are many, among them are idiophatic, increased intracranial pressure, diffusely infiltrative conditions (lymphomas and benign lymphoid hiperplasia), hypotony, drug induced (an unusual complication of certain medications such as Topiramate), contraction of fibrovascular tissue, choroidal neoplasms and orbital mass lesions (intraconal and extraconal tumours). We report a 57 years old woman who came to ophthalmogy consultation first in 2008 complaning of slowly progressive loss of vision. Fundoscopy showed well defined optic disc with radial choroidal folds of the posterior pole in both eyes. Manifest refraction showed hyperopia that increased in the following visits until the present. Fundoscopy showed not changes. Definitive diagnosis was syndrome of acquired hyperopia with choroidal folds(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plexo Corióideo/lesões , Hiperopia/diagnóstico , Oftalmoscopia/métodos
19.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 30(2): 1-8, abr.-jun. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-73247

RESUMO

Desde el primer reporte de pliegues coroideos, en el año 1884, el conocimiento sobre su etiología, el mecanismo de producción y su manejo se ha incrementado notablemente. Las causas de los pliegues coroideos abarcan un extenso número de condiciones muy variadas; entre ellas se encuentran los idiopáticos, la hipertensión intracraneana, algunas drogas como el topiramato, las infiltraciones difusas de la coroides por linfomas e hiperplasia linfoide, la hipotonía por contracción de tejido fibrovascular, los tumores coroideos y orbitarios (intraconales y extraconales), entre otras. Se presenta una paciente femenina de 57 años de edad quien acudió por vez primera a la Consulta de Oftalmología en el año 2008 por disminución lenta y progresiva de la agudeza visual de ambos ojos. El examen de fondo de ojo mostró discos ópticos con bordes definidos, buena coloración y presencia de pliegues coroideos radiales al disco en polo posterior de ambos ojos. La refracción arrojó una hipermetropía que fue en aumento en las consultas de seguimiento hasta el presente sin variar el aspecto del fondo de ojo. Se concluye que el caso presenta síndrome de hipermetropía adquirida con pliegues coroideos(AU)


Since the first reported case of choroidal folds in 1884, the understanding of their mechanisms, aetiologies, and management has expanded signally. With ophthalmoscopy, choroidal folds can be appreciated by the light and dark bands observed deep to the retina. While choroidal folds are visible on ophthalmoscopic examination, they are more easily identified using fluorescein angiography. A-scan ultrasound may reveal a shortened axial length. Common B-scan ultrasonographic findings include thickening of the choroid or flattening of the posterior aspect of the globe. Causes of choroidal folds are many, among them are idiophatic, increased intracranial pressure, diffusely infiltrative conditions (lymphomas and benign lymphoid hiperplasia), hypotony, drug induced (an unusual complication of certain medications such as Topiramate), contraction of fibrovascular tissue, choroidal neoplasms and orbital mass lesions (intraconal and extraconal tumours). We report a 57 years old woman who came to ophthalmogy consultation first in 2008 complaning of slowly progressive loss of vision. Fundoscopy showed well defined optic disc with radial choroidal folds of the posterior pole in both eyes. Manifest refraction showed hyperopia that increased in the following visits until the present. Fundoscopy showed not changes. Definitive diagnosis was syndrome of acquired hyperopia with choroidal folds(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plexo Corióideo/lesões , Hiperopia/diagnóstico , Oftalmoscopia/métodos
20.
Appl Opt ; 56(10): 2771-2782, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28375240

RESUMO

NOMAD is a spectrometer suite on board the ESA/Roscosmos ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter, which launched in March 2016. NOMAD consists of two infrared channels and one ultraviolet and visible channel, allowing the instrument to perform observations quasi-constantly, by taking nadir measurements at the day- and night-side, and during solar occultations. Here, in part 2 of a linked study, we describe the design, manufacturing, and testing of the ultraviolet and visible spectrometer channel called UVIS. We focus upon the optical design and working principle where two telescopes are coupled to a single grating spectrometer using a selector mechanism.

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