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1.
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 7(3): 11-18, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195034

RESUMO

La pandemia COVID-19 ha conllevado un confinamiento que puede haber afectado al bienestar social y emocional en la infancia y adolescencia, como se está estudiando desde diferentes investigaciones. El presente estudio analiza las relaciones entre el estado psicológico general de los menores y los miedos a enfermedades y contagios por virus; además, valora estas relaciones en el trascurso del confinamiento y en función de la edad. Han participado 972 familias con hijos/as entre 3 y 18 años. Los resultados indican que las mayores dificultades psicológicas se centran en los problemas emocionales, los problemas de conducta y la puntuación de dificultades totales. Además, se evidencia una relación positiva entre los miedos asociados a la COVID-19 y la presencia de esos problemas en la población infanto-juvenil. Se destaca que, según avanza el confinamiento, aumenta la presencia de dificultades psicológicas y que estas afectan de manera diferencial en la infancia y en la adolescencia


Evolution of psychological state and fear in childhood and adolescence during COVID-19 lockdown. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a lockdown that may have affected social and emotional well-being in childhood and adolescence, as is being explored from different research. The present study analyses the relations between the general psychological state and the fears of diseases and virus infections. Furthermore, it assesses these relations in the course of lockdown and as a function of age. A total of 972 families with children between 3 and 18 have participated. The results indicate that the highest psychological difficulties are focused on emotional symptoms, the behavioral problems and the total difficulty score. In addition, there is a positive relation between fears associated with COVID-19 and the presence of these problems in the infant population. It should be noted that, as confinement advances, the presence of psychological difficulties increases, and these affect children and adolescents differently


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Medo/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Distância Social , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt B): 1550-1560, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277024

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the association between exposure to chromium and neuropsychological development among children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 393 children aged 6-11 years old randomly selected from State-funded schools in two provinces in Southern Spain (Almeria and Huelva), in 2010 and 2012. Chromium levels in urine and hair samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with an octopole reaction system. Neuropsychological development was evaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and three computerized tests from the Behavioural Assessment and Research System (BARS): Reaction Time Test (RTT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Selective Attention Test (SAT). Multivariable linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders, including heavy metals, were applied to examine the association between chromium levels and neuropsychological outcomes. A 10-fold increase in urine chromium levels was associated with a decrease of 5.99 points on the WISC-IV Full-Scale IQ (95% CI: 11.98 to -0.02). Likewise, a 10-fold increase in urine chromium levels in boys was associated with a decrease of 0.03 points in the percentage of omissions (95% CI: 0.0 to 0.05) in the SAT, with an increase of 68.35 points in latency (95% CI: 6.60 to 130.12) in the RTT, and with an increase in the number of trials with latencies > 1000 ms (ß = 37.92; 95% CI: 2.73 to 73.12) in the RTT. An inverse significant association was detected between chromium levels in hair and latency in the SAT in boys (ß = -50.53; 95% CI: 86.86 to -14.22) and girls (ß = -55.95; 95% CI: 78.93 to -32.97). Excluding trials with latencies >1000 ms in the RTT increased latency scores by 29.36 points in boys (95% CI: 0.17 to 58.57), and 39.91 points in girls (95% CI: 21.25 to 58.59). This study is the first to show the detrimental effects of postnatal chromium exposure on neuropsychological development in school-aged children.


Assuntos
Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromo/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Inteligência/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Cromo/urina , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Distribuição Aleatória , Espanha
3.
An. psicol ; 33(1): 66-73, ene. 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-159589

RESUMO

This research aims to analyse the role of emotional ingelligence and various psychological factors in school environment. This paper compare psychosocial factors from a school in social risk area with a school in normative area, where in 211 Spanish adolescents with an average age of 13 years participated. The Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory: Young Version (EQi:YV) and the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) were used. Differences in behavior problems were found according to school environment and emotional intelligence level. Furthermore, positive correlations between psychological adjustment and all scales from EQi:YV were found. Multiple regression models obtained emphasized the influence of general mood and parents relationship as factors to psychological adjustment and emotional intelligence


El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar el papel de la inteligencia emocional y diferentes aspectos psicológicos en el contexto escolar. Se comparan factores psico-sociales en un centro en zona de riesgo social frente a un centro en zona normativa, en los que 211 adolescentes españoles con una edad media de 13 años. Se empleó el Emotional Intelligence Inventory: Young Version de Bar-On (EQi:YV) y el Autoinforme de Personalidad para adolescentes del sistema de evaluación (BASC). Se encontraron diferencias en la prevalencia de los problemas conductuales según el contexto escolar y según los niveles de inteligencia emocional. Además, se encontraron correlaciones positivas entre el ajuste psicológico y todas las escalas del EQi:YV. Los modelos de regresión múltiple obtenidos destacan la influencia del estado de ánimo y la relación de con los padres como factores para el ajuste psicológico y la inteligencia emocional


Assuntos
Humanos , Inteligência Emocional , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Ajustamento Emocional , Inventário de Personalidade , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Psicometria/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Psicol. conduct ; 24(1): 141-160, ene.-mar. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-151255

RESUMO

El objetivo de este estudio es analizar si existe relación entre sensibilidad a la ansiedad, perfeccionismo (patrón de rigidez vs. flexibilidad) y regulación verbal en niños con patrones disfuncionales de personalidad. La muestra estuvo compuesta de 123 participantes (53% chicas y 47% chicos), con edades entre 12 y 15 años, que en el momento del estudio se encontraban escolarizados. Se encontraron relaciones fuertes y moderadas entre las variables psicológicas medidas y las escalas de personalidad, así como con algunos síndromes clínicos. Específicamente se observa una clara relación entre la sensibilidad a la ansiedad y el perfeccionismo, así como una relación significativa entre la tendencia instruccional de los participantes y la variabilidad en las pruebas de personalidad. También se confirma la variable rigidez, como la que presenta mayor valor predictivo de la variabilidad en las pruebas de personalidad. Estos resultados pueden marcar algunas pautas para la creación de programas de prevención en los problemas de la personalidad disfuncional en población infantojuvenil


The aim of this study is to analyze the correlation between sensibility to the anxiety, perfectionism (rigidity vs. flexibility pattern), and verbal regulation in children with certain dysfunctional personality patterns. The sample consisted of 123 participants (53% girls and 47% boys), aged between 12 and 15 years at the time of the study, who were enrolled in two schools. Strong to moderate relationships between psychological variables and scales measures, as well as with clinical syndromes were found. Specifically a clear relation is observed between sensitivity to anxiety and perfectionism, as well as a significant relation between the instructional tendency of the participants and variability in the tests of personality. The study confirmed that the inflexibility variable presents the highest predictive value in the variability in personality tests. These results point toward some guidelines for the development of programs of prevention for problems of dysfunctional personality in children and youth population


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Personalidade/classificação , Personalidade/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Comportamento Problema/fisiologia , Ansiedade , Comportamento/fisiologia , Adolescente/fisiologia , Criança , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/patologia , Testes de Personalidade , Determinação da Personalidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental
5.
Suma psicol ; 20(2): 175-189, jul.-dic. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-703903

RESUMO

El presente trabajo presenta una revisión, desde una perspectiva contextual funcional, de los estudios dirigidos a delimitar las condiciones necesarias para el desarrollo de comportamientos simbólicos como las relaciones de equivalencia y el razonamiento analógico desde edades tempranas. Centrándonos en los estudios con población infantil, se ofrece una síntesis de las habilidades que se consideran relacionadas con dichos comportamientos simbólicos a distintos niveles y los procedimientos de evaluación y entrenamiento analizados, de cara a desarrollar programas de enseñanza normalizados o planes individuales de tratamiento para aquellos niños que muestren dificultades en su desarrollo.


This paper presents a review, from a functional contextual perspective, of the studies which aim at delimiting the conditions necessary for the development of symbolic behavior as equivalence relations and analogical reasoning. This study focuses on the child population studies and provides a synthesis of skills found to be related to different levels by means of the development of the above mentioned repertory, as well as the evaluation and training procedures analyzed in order to develop standardized curricula or individual treatment plans for children who present with developmental difficulties.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-119254

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze sex and cohort differences in ranking-emphasis on values measured using the Rokeach Value Survey in two groups of 122 adult and 150 young participants. Results indicate differences between cohorts in two-thirds of the final values and half of the instrumental values, and sex differences in seven final values and four instrumental values, showing a change in relevant values mostly in females. The results are discussed from the perspective of socio-cultural change that has taken place in Spain in the last decades and from the perspective of change in values in postmodern western society (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Valores Sociais , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Pós-Modernismo , Distribuição por Sexo , Estudos de Coortes
7.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 24(4): 542-547, oct.-dic. 2012.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-105607

RESUMO

La Teoría de la Mente es una habilidad metacognitiva que en muchos casos se supone deficitaria en el autismo. Se presenta un estudio clínico con un niño diagnosticado de autismo, en el que se comprueba la efectividad de un protocolo de entrenamiento de las pruebas de falsas creencias, que se considera miden la Teoría de la Mente. Básicamente, el protocolo incorpora una serie de ayudas verbales (como enfatizar los elementos de las narraciones que indican cambios situacionales o temporales), se entrenan múltiples ejemplos, se amplían las pruebas incorporando objetos o juegos más cercanos a la vida cotidiana del niño, se aplican consecuencias diferenciales que permitan discriminar lo correcto de lo incorrecto y se proporciona feedback descriptivo. Los resultados reflejan cómo el protocolo de entrenamiento consigue el máximo nivel de correctos en las pruebas y el niño generaliza la habilidad de tomar perspectiva a su contexto natural (AU)


Theory of Mind is a metacognitive skill that, in many cases, is deficient in autism. In this paper, we present a clinical study conducted with a child diagnosed with autism, which verifies the effectiveness of a training protocol testing false beliefs, which has been considered to measure the Theory of Mind. Basically, the protocol incorporates a number of verbal prompts (such as emphasizing the elements of the narratives that indicate situational or temporary changes), trains many examples, extending the tests incorporating some games with more familiar objects from the child’s daily life, applies differential contingencies to discriminate right from wrong in each child’s responses and provides descriptive feedback. The results show that the training protocol achieved the highest level of correct trials and the child generalizes the ability to take the perspective of her natural context (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Psicofisiologia/métodos , /métodos , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Teoria da Mente/classificação , Teoria da Mente , Teoria da Mente/ética
8.
Psicothema ; 24(4): 542-7, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23079349

RESUMO

Theory of Mind is a metacognitive skill that, in many cases, is deficient in autism. In this paper, we present a clinical study conducted with a child diagnosed with autism, which verifies the effectiveness of a training protocol testing false beliefs, which has been considered to measure the Theory of Mind. Basically, the protocol incorporates a number of verbal prompts (such as emphasizing the elements of the narratives that indicate situational or temporary changes), trains many examples, extending the tests incorporating some games with more familiar objects from the child's daily life, applies differential contingencies to discriminate right from wrong in each child's responses and provides descriptive feedback. The results show that the training protocol achieved the highest level of correct trials and the child generalizes the ability to take the perspective of her natural context.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Teoria da Mente , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Psicológicos
9.
Suma psicol ; 19(2): 131-149, jul.-dic. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-675390

RESUMO

Este trabajo pretende resaltar la importancia del estudio de los patrones de personalidad disfuncionales desde sus inicios al final de la infancia y principios de la adolescencia. Se revisará la evidencia empírica sobre los factores de riesgo de futuros estilos disfuncionales de personalidad en la etapa adulta y la posibilidad de que existan estos desórdenes como tal desde etapas muy tempranas. Se expondrá la visión de los trastornos de personalidad desde los manuales diagnósticos actuales, así como algunas particularidades del próximo DSM-V. Así mismo, se presenta un análisis del origen y desarrollo de dichos patrones disfuncionales de personalidad infanto-juveniles desde una visión funcional-contextual que incluirá el papel del lenguaje o la regulación verbal y del yo. Por último, se darán algunas perspectivas a tener en cuenta de cara a futuras investigaciones.


This paper aims to highlight the importance of the study of the dysfunctional patterns of personality from the beginning to the end of childhood and early adolescence. It will review the empirical evidence on the risk factors of future dysfunctional styles of personality in adulthood and the possibility of these disorders as such from very early stages. It will present the vision of personality disorders from current diagnostic manuals and some peculiarities of the future DSM-V. It also, presents an analysis of the origin and development of these dysfunctional patterns of infant-juvenile personality from a functional-contextual view including the role of language or the verbal regulation and the self. Finally, there are some perspectives to be considered for future research.

10.
Rev. latinoam. psicol ; 42(2): 311-322, may.-ago. 2010. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-637076

RESUMO

Esta investigación responde al interés por la dificultad que a veces tienen los sujetos para "cambiar" o "transformar" sus patrones de comportamiento. Investigaciones y teorías recientes desde el campo del análisis experimental del comportamiento y, más concretamente, desde una perspectiva de la Teoría de los Marcos Relacionales (RFT), abordan dicho fenómeno de una manera funcional y contextual. Desde este marco conceptual, el objetivo de este trabajo es establecer una historia experimental necesaria para generar repertorios de respuesta relacional de simetría y equivalencia en el marco de coordinación, y ver cómo son transformadas las funciones a un marco de oposición con base en las consecuencias que reciben los sujetos. Para ello, se diseñó y llevó a cabo un primer estudio cuyos resultados condujeron a variaciones en el procedimiento, lo que supuso la realización de un segundo experimento. La muestra estuvo compuesta de 16 sujetos, 7 en el primer experimento (5 mujeres y 2 hombres) y 9 en el segundo experimento (6 mujeres y 3 hombres) con edades comprendidas entre 20 y 40 años, quienes debían realizar una tarea de igualación a la muestra. Dicha tarea estuvo compuesta por dos fases y una evaluación final de las relaciones derivadas. La variable dependiente se definió como la ejecución del sujeto (número de ensayos) y la variable independiente como la introducción de imágenes aversivas y agradables en pro de la transformación de funciones. Finalmente, se discuten los datos intra e inter sujeto de los experimentos y algunas implicaciones prácticas.


This research is motivated by our interest in the difficulty that individuals show when trying to "change" or "convert" their behavioral patterns. Recent research and theories developed inside the experimental analysis of behavior, specifically from a Relational Framework Theory (RFT), expose that phenomenon from a functional-contextual way. From this conceptual frame, the purpose of this paper is to establish the experimental history needed to develop sets of symmetry relational responses and equivalence in the frames of sameness, and show the way the functions are transformed into a frame of opposition based upon the consequences that individuals receive. In order to achieve this goal, a first study was designed and carried out. The results obtained from this study led to several variations in the procedure and a second experiment was held. The sample was composed by 16 participants, ages between 20 and 40 who had to execute a matching-to-sample task. 7 individuals were used for the first experiment (5 females and 2 males) and 9 for the second (6 females and 3 males). The task was composed by two phases and a final evaluation of the derived relations. The dependent variable was defined as the execution of the individual (number of trials) and the independent variable as the introduction of aversive and pleasant pictures. Finally, the data obtained from both experiments is discussed intra e inter individual and some practical implications are outlined.

11.
Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.) ; 8(1): 73-84, mar. 2008. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-119568

RESUMO

The present paper addresses the phenomenon of bullying from a functional-contextual perspective. School violence is presented as an instance of a disposition to react and to interact with others in an aggressive or violent manner, either in a generalized form, or contextualized just to school settings. Accordingly, the results of an epidemiological study are presented. This study analyses the prevalence of violence-related problems in primary school children (attentional problems and hyperactivity, aggressive behavior, and antisocial behavior), as well as the beliefs and parenting styles which correlate positively or negatively with this kind of problems. The results show that some educational practices (insistent recall of normative rules, frequent use of punishment, or reinforcement contingencies in the form of consent to involve in usually forbidden activities) are risk factors for the emergence of this kind of problems. In contrast, other educational practices (reinforcement with a description of the child’s appropriate behavior, or the systematic application of contingencies) are effective as protection factors. The paper finishes with a series of recommendations forparents and teachers on how to prevent and stop violence-related problems (AU)


Se aborda el fenómeno del bullying desde una perspectiva funcional-contextual. La violencia en la escuela es presentada como una muestra de una tendencia a reaccionar e interaccionar con los otros de manera agresiva y/o violenta, ya sea de forma generalizada o circunscrita al ámbito escolar. En este sentido, se presentan los resultados de un estudio epidemiológico en el que se analiza la prevalencia en niños de primaria de problemas relacionados con la violencia (problemas de atención e hiperactividad, conductas agresivas y delincuentes) y las creencias y estilos educativos de los padres que correlacionan con este tipo de problemas. Se comprueba que algunas prácticas de crianza (repetir las normas insistentemente, castigar frecuentemente o reforzar permitiendo a los niños realizar actividades que normalmente le son prohibidas) son factores de riesgo para la aparición de este tipo de problemas. En cambio, otro tipo de prácticas (reforzar a los hijos señalando lo bien que han hecho algo o ser sistemáticos en la aplicación de contingencias) funcionan como factores de protección. El artículo termina con una serie de recomendaciones dirigidas a padres y educadores acerca de cómo prevenir y atajar los problemas relacionados con la violencia (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Educação não Profissionalizante/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Bullying/psicologia , Violência/prevenção & controle , Agressão/psicologia , Relações Familiares , Avaliação de Resultado de Ações Preventivas
12.
J Exp Anal Behav ; 87(3): 349-65, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17575901

RESUMO

The conditions under which symmetry and equivalence relations develop are still controversial. This paper reports three experiments that attempt to analyze the impact of multiple-exemplar training (MET) in receptive symmetry on the emergence of visual-visual equivalence relations with a very young child, Gloria. At the age of 15 months 24 days (15m24d), Gloria was tested for receptive symmetry and naming and showed no evidence of either repertoire. In the first experiment, MET in immediate and delayed receptive symmetrical responding or listener behavior (from object-sound to immediate and delayed sound-object selection) proceeded for one month with 10 different objects. This was followed, at 16m25d, by a second test conducted with six new objects. Gloria showed generalized receptive symmetry with a 3-hr delay; however no evidence of naming with new objects was found. Experiment 2 began at 17m with the aim of establishing derived visual-visual equivalence relations using a matching-to-sample format with two comparisons. Visual-visual equivalence responding emerged at 19m, although Gloria still had not shown evidence of naming. Experiment 3 (22m to 23m25d) used a three-comparison matching-to-sample procedure to establish visual-visual equivalence. Equivalence responding emerged as in Experiment 2, and naming emerged by the end of Experiment 3. Results are discussed in terms of the history of training in bidirectional relations responsible for the emergence of visual-visual equivalence relations and of their implications for current theories of stimulus equivalence.


Assuntos
Nomes , Ensino/métodos , Comportamento Verbal , Linguagem Infantil , Humanos , Lactente , Percepção da Fala
13.
Salud ment ; 29(6): 5-14, nov.-dic. 2006.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-985980

RESUMO

resumen está disponible en el texto completo


Abstract: The present work completes an exhaustive revisión of the delimitation of the ability of perspective taking from different points of view. First, perspective taking is defined as the ability of an individual to interpret his/hers emotional and mental states and those of others. Additionally, the term has also been used in medical settings to refer to a tactic intended to stop certain limiting feeling and/or thoughts and instead move feelings and thoughts towards a different direction. At the same time, perspective taking is considered to be at the heart of psychological phenomena such as empathy, that is, the capacity to distinguish what individuals know about themselves in a certain situation (how someone thinks, feels and behaves), self-awareness, interpersonal relations, and various social skills deficits. Second, this ability is conceptualized as a metacognition and it is assumed that the object of study is the theory of the mind. Third, from a developmental perspective, data have shown that children four to five years old, without any psychological disabilities, have the ability to take somebody else's perspective. We reviewed different studies regarding the development of the abilities to express and interpret emotions as precursors to perspective taking. Subsequently, we revised and analyzed the tests or strategies most commonly used to evaluate the ability of perspective taking. Typically, the capacity of an individual to have "a theory of the mind" is determined through tests of false beliefs (such as the classic test of Sally-Anne, the "Smarties" test, "M&M's", and the "Maxi's" Test). Múltiple variations of the tests of false beliefs have been conducted with flashcards or photographs, with characters in oral stories, and through the use of games. Additionally, over the last few years the focus of this body of research has evolved towards the elaboration and validation instruments to measure empathy. Among them are the tests of Empathy Quotient (EQ), the Friendship Questionnaire (FQ), and reading the "mind" in the eyes. It is important to note that these efforts have been focused mostly on individuals with Asperger" s Syndrome or those with higher verbal capabilities. From this latter perspective, we propose empirical evidence that points out to differences in the ability of perspective taking between children with or without autism. This is also shown in the results of previous studies, in which different levels of perspective taking skills were seen between children diagnosed with autism, and those diagnosed with Down Syndrome. It is important to note that this was not true when their verbal skills were not considered as a variable. Likewise, other studies showed that children with autism were not the only ones that failed the theory of the mind tests, but that these tests were also failed by those children with deficits in language and cognitive skills. In this article, we present the results of a study that replicates previous findings which show that typical developing children per-form better in perspective taking tests, followed by children diag-nosed with Down Syndrome, and subsequently by children with autism. It was also noted that the typical developing children showed the highest level of verbal discrimination, followed by the children diagnosed with Down Syndrome, and finally the children diagnosed with autism. One important finding in this study is that all children benefited from the use of contextual prompts, which improved the number of correct responses across all the theory of the mind tests. Additionally, the data varied depending on the type of tests utilized to measure perspective taking skills. In this article, we have also reviewed the different explanations for the origins and development of perspective taking, among which the theory of the mind prevails. The ability to take some-one else's perspective is explained by the development or matura-tion of an innate and specialized module of representations and knowledge, and the formation of conceptual structures of a higher order or meta-representations. Additionally, the ability to ignore perceptual information, salient or not, and to combine simultaneously various contexts are considered prerequisites. In other words, perspective taking speaks to the relationship between psychological constructs such as perception and knowledge. Additionally, it has been hypothesized that shared, joint, or independent attention can be a prerequisite for conversation, and may be the basis of a theory of the mind. In any case, the origins of the development of such a theory have been especially ubiquitous in terms of the executive function and possible relations with cerebral lesions or alterations. However, some authors consider that the process of central coherence may be relatively independent of a theory of the mind. The research of Baron-Cohen et al. has concentrated on identifying existing neurological deficits or organic changes such as bilateral lesions or the role of testosterone on the quality of social interactions and the restrictive social interests of individuals with autism. A similar interest exists in researching the difference in perspective taking and empathy abilities exhibited by members of the opposite sex. Continuing with the neurological foundations of the empathy is of full present time the discoveries regarding «mirror neurons¼ and this recent study with monkeys proposes a specific cerebral area for the formation of the meta-representation. These neurons discharge both when the individual performs an action and when the individual observes another person performing the same action. Finally, even in the light of all the above, other sources point toward the social root of perspective taking skills. Additionally, as indicated by the research of Howlin, Baron-Cohen & Hadwin, it is considered perspective taking includes five different levels: a) simple visual perspective taking, b) the knowl-edge that different individuals can have separately the same thoughts, and c) understanding that "seeing leads to learning," followed by d) the ability to predict actions based on valid beliefs, and finally e) the ability to predict false beliefs. In the light of all of the above, once the radical conclusions of these investigations are viewed critically, the theory of the mind is viewed as a disputable theory of the delimitation of the cause and development of such skills. In addition, to the perspective taking tests themselves, the pre-requisite skills of perspective taking need to be extensively ana-lyzed. In fact, it has been shown that, in order to have an adequate performance on these tests of false beliefs, individuals should be able: 1. to remember and adequately retell their own past desires, thoughts, and past actions; 2. to retain an object in their mind, perceive a second object, and form a relationship between the two, as in a "symbolic function"; 3. to demonstrate the ability to pretend; and 4. to identify the role of age and verbal abilities in children as pre-requisites for an accurate performance on tests of false beliefs, and interpretations of the world. Lastly, we propose a pragmatic and complementary analysis the Theory of Mind based in the functional-contextual analysis of behavior. First, it is considered that perspective taking requires or is closely related to other social behaviors (such as taking turns when talking, initiating verbal responses in interpersonal relations, and the capacity for empathy). In the same manner, theory of mind requires an adequate level of simple and complex conditional discriminations, and these should be analyzed in terms of stimulus control and equivalence relations. In other words, this ability to infer thoughts, feeling, and emotions of others exists if the following prerequisites are present: 1. the processes of the classical conditioning of the emotions, 2. a generalized imitation, and 3. the development of functional classes. Without these experiences or the capability to be affected by them, children (i.e. children with generalized autism) do not develop language adequately. Second, perspective taking implies that an observer's previous experiences and observations with certain events determine his/ her reaction to responses emitted by others in similar circumstances. Finally, from a contextual perspective, it is considered that a speaker's relational frames play a role in this process (for the discriminations I/you, here/there, now/later). These relational properties are abstracted through multiple exemplars or multiple learning opportunities to speak from one's own perspective in relation to others.

14.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 12(3): 418-425, ago. 2000. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-14645

RESUMO

En este estudio se analiza, en un análogo del comportamiento de autocontrol, la función de la descripción de contingencias respecto al comportamiento de elección, sin mediación directa de otra persona y en la primera ocasión que tal descripción es incorporada. La situación de elección se define por dos actividades, una considerada monótona porque su ejecución es repetitiva aunque se acompaña de la descripción de consecuencias adicionales (fichas), y otra actividad considerada competitiva en tanto que su ejecución supone ganar contrincantes activos. Participaron 7 sujetos de 9 a 13 años en un diseño intrasujeto ABC. La fase A sirvió para detectar la ejecución de los sujetos en uno u otro juego, seguida de las fases B y C que perseguían cambiar, a través de descripciones, las tendencias mostradas en la fase previa, respectivamente. En la fase A, los sujetos mostraron una ejecución variable o estable en alguna actividad, pero caracterizada por la inmediatez en la obtención de resultados. La fase B introdujo una instrucción describiendo que no habría fichas por mantenerse en la ejecución monótona. Todos los sujetos cambiaron a ejecución competitiva al contactar con las instrucciones y se mantuvieron en tal ejecución obteniendo ganancias respecto al contrincante en el juego competitivo. Tras ello, en la fase C, su ejecución cambió en dirección opuesta al contactar nuevamente con otras instrucciones, o bien se estabilizó en una ejecución puntual (S7). Se analizan los comportamientos de elección y su cambio a través de la función que, en la primera ocasión, generan las descripciones como estímulos que alteran la función motivacional de las condiciones previas (reglas augmentals) (AU)


This study analyzes the function of describing contingencies without the mediation of any person and by the first time that descriptions are implemented as an experimental analogue of selfcontrol. Performance is defined in the context of two competing activities, one labeled monotonous because involves repetitive consequences with additional consequences (tokens). The other activity labeled competitive involving playing with active contrincants. Seven subjects, 9-13 years old, participated in a ABC design. Phase A was designed to select the subjects’s behavior in one or another activity. All subjects showed a variable or stable performance but in all cases immediate results of the behavior were involved. In phase B, subjects changed to competitive performance when they contacted descriptions that specified changes in the contingencies of the monotonous activity. In phase C, the subject’s performance changed in the opposite direction or became stabilized in S7 when descriptions on consequences were introduced. Behaving in these conditions is analyzed through the function of descriptions (the first time they were implemented), as augmental rules or stimuli that alters the function of previous conditions (AU)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Criança , Humanos , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Discriminação Psicológica , Comportamento Competitivo , Comportamento de Escolha , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos
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