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1.
Recent Results Cancer Res ; 214: 71-91, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473849

RESUMO

Bispecific T cell engagers are antibody constructs directed to a tumor-specific target on the one hand and to CD3-positive T cells on the other hand. Blinatumomab is a compound with specificity for the pan-B cell marker CD19. Clinical activity was tested in relapsed and refractory (R/R) non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), R/R acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and ALL patients with minimal residual disease. Trials have already been started in de novo ALL. The most clinically relevant toxicities are neurologic events and cytokine release syndrome as with other T cell-activating therapies. The mechanisms of resistance are not fully understood. Higher leukemia load and later stage disease represent unfavorable factors. Besides, an upregulation of regulatory T cells and inhibitory molecules like PD-1/PD-L1 may have a role as the loss of target by several mechanisms. The future will show whether the use of bispecifics in ALL can change the standard treatment algorithms and whether bispecific T cell engagers will also be successfully used in other malignant entities.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/farmacologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/terapia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Antígenos CD19 , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Neoplasia Residual/terapia
3.
Blood Adv ; 3(20): 3033-3037, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648325

RESUMO

Minimal residual disease (MRD), where leukemic cell levels are lower than the morphologic detection threshold, is the most important prognostic factor for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) relapse during first-line chemotherapy treatment and is standard of care in treatment monitoring and decision making. Limited data are available on the prognostic value of MRD response after relapse. We evaluated the relationship between MRD response and outcomes in blinatumomab-treated adults with relapsed/refractory (R/R) B-cell precursor ALL. Of 90 patients with complete remission (CR) or CR with partial hematologic recovery (CRh), 64 (71.1%) achieved a complete MRD response (no detectable individual rearrangements of immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor genes by polymerase chain reaction [PCR] at a minimum sensitivity level of 10-4). Eleven patients had MRD <10-4. Therefore, overall, 75 (83.3%) experienced an MRD response (no detectable MRD or detectable MRD) measured by PCR within the first 2 treatment cycles. Overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) were significantly longer in patients who achieved CR/CRh and MRD response (median, 20.6 and 9.0 months, respectively) compared with CR/CRh patients without MRD response (median, 12.5 and 2.3 months, respectively). In conclusion, longer durations of OS and RFS associated with MRD response support the value of achieving MRD response and its use as a prognostic factor for blinatumomab treatment in R/R ALL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01466179.

4.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-8, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480965

RESUMO

The GMALL07/2003 protocol introduced pegylated E. coli asparaginase (PEG-ASNase) frontline for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). PEG-ASNase (500 U/m2, 1000 U/m2, or 2000 U/m2) was given once in induction and as part of three HD-MTX/PEG-ASNase cycles with two PEG-ASNase doses every other week in consolidation. PEG-ASNase activities were monitored in 1363 serum samples from 304 ALL patients. The overall rate of silent inactivation was low (5%) and did not differ between induction and consolidation. The successful targeting of PEG-ASNase activities ≥100 U/L depended on protocol and dose. Overall PEG-ASNase activities were higher during consolidation compared to induction. To target PEG-ASNase activities ≥100 U/L for 14 day with a single dose in induction, 2000 U/m2 was more preferable than 1000 U/m2 or 500 U/m2. During consolidation with two administrations every other week, 1000 U/m2 and 2000 U/m2 were similarly effective in sustaining PEG-ASNase ≥100 U/L activities over 14 days.

5.
Cancer ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blinatumomab, a bispecific T-cell-engaging (BiTE®) immuno-oncology therapy, demonstrated superior overall survival versus standard-of-care chemotherapy (SOC) in adults with relapsed/refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (R/R ALL) in the phase 3 TOWER study. Herein, the authors reported clinical features and outcomes for those patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) after treatment with blinatumomab. METHODS: In the TOWER study, adults with R/R ALL were randomized 2:1 to receive blinatumomab or SOC. Study treatment consisted of 2 cycles of induction with blinatumomab or SOC followed by consolidation and maintenance therapy. At any time after the first cycle, patients who were eligible for HSCT could proceed to HSCT. RESULTS: Of the 97 patients who underwent HSCT during the study, baseline characteristics generally were comparable and donor types were similar between the patients treated with blinatumomab (65 patients) and those receiving SOC (32 patients). There was no evidence to suggest that the survival benefit of HSCT differed between the patients treated with blinatumomab and those receiving SOC (P = .68). On the basis of descriptive statistics, a survival benefit of HSCT versus no HSCT was not observed in patients who achieved complete remission with full, partial, or incomplete hematologic recovery with blinatumomab (odds ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.54-2.53). The best outcomes were achieved in patients with no prior salvage therapy and with minimal residual disease response to blinatumomab regardless of on-study HSCT status. CONCLUSIONS: Survival was found to be driven by response to study treatment and by salvage status regardless of on-study HSCT status. These data should be interpreted with caution because the current study was not designed to prospectively assess survival outcomes associated with HSCT after blinatumomab. LAY SUMMARY: Evidence before this study: Blinatumomab is associated with superior morphologic and molecular response rates and superior overall outcome when compared with standard of care chemotherapy in adults with relapsed/refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Added value of this study: The best outcomes with blinatumomab were observed in patients who achieved minimal residual disease remission in first salvage treatment regardless of subsequent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Implications of all the available evidence: Patients achieving CR/CRh/CRi following blinatumomab can have a durable response with or without HSCT.

6.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(9): 1720-1729, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039409

RESUMO

Attaining complete remission of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) correlates with better post-transplant outcomes. Inotuzumab ozogamicin (InO), an anti-CD22 antibody conjugated to calicheamicin, has shown significantly higher rates of remission, minimal residual disease negativity, and HSCT versus standard chemotherapy in treating relapsed/refractory (R/R) ALL. We investigated the role of previous transplant and proceeding directly to HSCT after remission as factors in determining post-transplant survival in the setting of InO treatment for R/R ALL. The analyzed population comprised InO-treated patients who proceeded to allogeneic HSCT in 2 clinical trials (phase 1/2: NCT01363297 and phase 3: NCT01564784). Overall survival (OS) was defined as time from HSCT to death (any cause). Of 236 InO-treated patients, 101 (43%) proceeded to allogeneic HSCT and were included in this analysis. Most received InO as first salvage (62%); 85% had no previous HSCT. Median (95% confidence interval [CI]) post-transplant OS was 9.2 months (5.1, not evaluable) with 2-year survival probability (95% CI) of 41% (32% to 51%). In first-HSCT patients (n = 86), median (95% CI) post-transplant OS was 11.8 months (5.9, not evaluable) with 2-year survival probability (95% CI) of 46% (35% to 56%); some patients relapsed and needed additional treatment before HSCT (n = 28). Those who went directly to first HSCT upon remission with no additional salvage/induction treatment (n = 73) fared best: median post-transplant OS was not reached with a 2-year survival probability (95% CI) of 51% (39% to 62%). In patients with R/R ALL, InO followed by allogeneic HSCT provided an optimal long-term survival benefit among those with no previous HSCT who went directly to transplant after remission.

7.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(8): 1498-1504, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002989

RESUMO

Patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) have a poor prognosis, and alternative therapies are needed for this patient population. Blinatumomab, a bispecific T cell engager immunotherapy, was evaluated in an open-label, single-arm, phase II study of adults with R/R Philadelphia chromosome-negative B cell precursor ALL and resulted in a rate of complete remission (CR) or CR with partial hematologic recovery of peripheral blood counts (CRh) of 43% within 2 treatment cycles. We conducted an exploratory analysis to determine the efficacy and safety of blinatumomab in 64 patients who had relapsed following alloHSCT before enrollment in the phase II study. Forty-five percent of the patients (29 of 64) achieved a CR/CRh within the first 2 cycles of treatment, 22 of whom had a minimal residual disease (MRD) response (including 19 with a complete MRD response). After 1 year and 3 years of follow-up, the median relapse-free survival was 7.4 months for patients who achieved CR/CRh in the first 2 cycles, and the median overall survival was 8.5 months; overall survival rate (Kaplan-Meier estimate) was 36% at 1 year and 18% at 3 years. Grade 3 and 4 adverse events were reported in 20 patients (31%) and 28 patients (44%), respectively, with grade 3 and 4 neurologic events in 8 and 2 patients, respectively, and grade 3 cytokine release syndrome in 2 patients. Eight patients had fatal adverse events, including 5 due to infections. Seven patients had grade ≤ 3 graft-versus-host disease during the study, none of which resulted in the discontinuation of blinatumomab or hospitalization. Our data suggest that blinatumomab is an effective salvage therapy in this patient population.

8.
Leukemia ; 33(8): 1895-1909, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842609

RESUMO

Chromosomal rearrangements and specific aneuploidy patterns are initiating events and define subgroups in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). Here we analyzed 250 BCP-ALL cases and identified a novel subgroup ('PAX5-plus', n = 19) by distinct DNA methylation and gene expression profiles. All patients in this subgroup harbored mutations in the B-lineage transcription factor PAX5, with p.P80R as hotspot. Mutations either affected two independent codons, consistent with compound heterozygosity, or suffered LOH predominantly through chromosome 9p aberrations. These biallelic events resulted in disruption of PAX5 transcriptional programs regulating B-cell differentiation and tumor suppressor functions. Homozygous CDKN2A/B deletions and RAS-activating hotspot mutations were highly enriched as cooperating events in the genomic profile of PAX5-plus ALL. Together, this defined a specific pattern of triple alterations, exclusive to the novel subgroup. PAX5-plus ALL was observed in pediatric and adult patients. Although restricted by the limited sample size, a tendency for more favorable clinical outcome was observed, with 10 of 12 adult PAX5-plus patients achieving long-term survival. PAX5-plus represents the first BCP-ALL subgroup defined by sequence alterations in contrast to gross chromosomal events and exemplifies how deregulated differentiation (PAX5), impaired cell cycle control (CDKN2A/B) and sustained proliferative signaling (RAS) cooperatively drive leukemogenesis.


Assuntos
Mutação , Fator de Transcrição PAX5/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p15/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Metilação de DNA , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade
9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4188, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862934

RESUMO

Recent efforts reclassified B-Cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (BCP-ALL) into more refined subtypes. Nevertheless, outcomes of relapsed BCP-ALL remain unsatisfactory, particularly in adult patients where the molecular basis of relapse is still poorly understood. To elucidate the evolution of relapse in BCP-ALL, we established a comprehensive multi-omics dataset including DNA-sequencing, RNA-sequencing, DNA methylation array and proteome MASS-spec data from matched diagnosis and relapse samples of BCP-ALL patients (n = 50) including the subtypes DUX4, Ph-like and two aneuploid subtypes. Relapse-specific alterations were enriched for chromatin modifiers, nucleotide and steroid metabolism including the novel candidates FPGS, AGBL and ZNF483. The proteome expression analysis unraveled deregulation of metabolic pathways at relapse including the key proteins G6PD, TKT, GPI and PGD. Moreover, we identified a novel relapse-specific gene signature specific for DUX4 BCP-ALL patients highlighting chemotaxis and cytokine environment as a possible driver event at relapse. This study presents novel insights at distinct molecular levels of relapsed BCP-ALL based on a comprehensive multi-omics integrated data set including a valuable proteomics data set. The relapse specific aberrations reveal metabolic signatures on genomic and proteomic levels in BCP-ALL relapse. Furthermore, the chemokine expression signature in DUX4 relapse underscores the distinct status of DUX4-fusion BCP-ALL.

10.
Cancer ; 125(14): 2474-2487, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inotuzumab ozogamicin (InO) is an antibody-drug conjugate used for adults with relapsed/refractory B-cell precursor (BCP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The INotuzumab Ozogamicin trial to inVestigAte Tolerability and Efficacy (INO-VATE) previously reported improved outcomes with InO versus standard-of-care (SoC) chemotherapy. This article reports the final INO-VATE results (≥2 years of follow-up) and additional analyses of patient characteristics associated with improved outcomes. METHODS: Between August 27, 2012, and January 4, 2015, this multicenter, parallel, open-label, phase 3 trial randomized 326 adults with relapsed/refractory ALL to InO (n = 164) or SoC (n = 162); 307 received 1 or more doses of the study drug (164 in the InO arm and 143 in the SoC arm). RESULTS: The complete remission (CR)/complete remission with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi) rate was higher with InO versus SoC (73.8% vs 30.9%; 1-sided P < .0001), with consistent CR/CRi rates across patient subgroups. The median overall survival (OS) was 7.7 months with InO and 6.2 months with SoC, with 2-year OS rates of 22.8% and 10.0%, respectively (overall hazard ratio, 0.75; 97.5% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.99; 1-sided P = .0105). The predictors of OS with InO were the best minimal residual disease status, baseline platelet count, duration of first remission, achievement of CR/CRi, and follow-up hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT; all 2-sided P values < .05). More InO arm patients proceeded directly to HSCT after achieving CR/CRi before any follow-up induction therapy (39.6% [95% CI, 32.1%-47.6%] vs 10.5% [6.2%-16.3%]; 1-sided P < .0001). The most frequent all-grade and grade 3 or higher adverse events in both arms were hematologic. Veno-occlusive disease (VOD)/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) was more frequent with InO (23 of 164 [14.0%] vs 3 of 143 [2.1%]). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with relapsed/refractory BCP ALL in INO-VATE, InO was associated with a greater likelihood of CR/CRi across key patient subgroups, and it served as a bridge to HSCT. Potential VOD/SOS risk factors must be considered when InO treatment decisions are being made.

11.
Hematology ; 24(1): 337-348, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30757960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Detectable minimal residual disease (MRD) after therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the strongest predictor of hematologic relapse. This study evaluated outcomes of patients with B-cell precursor ALL with MRD of ≥10-4 Methods: Study population was from ALL study groups in Europe managed in national study protocols 2000-2014. MRD was measured by polymerase chain reaction or flow cytometry. Patients were age ≥15 years at initial ALL diagnosis. Patients were excluded if exposed to blinatumomab within 18 months of baseline or prior alloHSCT. RESULTS: Of 272 patients in CR1, baseline MRD was ≥10-1, 10-2 to <10-1, 10-3 to <10-2, and 10-4 to <10-3 in 15 (6%), 71 (26%), 109 (40%), and 77 (28%) patients, respectively. Median duration of complete remission (DoR) was 18.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.9-27.2), median relapse-free survival (RFS) was 12.4 months (95% CI, 10.0-19.0) and median overall survival (OS) was 32.5 months (95% CI, 23.6-48.0). Lower baseline MRD level (P ≤ .0003) and white blood cell count <30,000/µL at diagnosis (P ≤ .0053) were strong predictors for better RFS and DoR. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) was associated with longer RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.59; 95% CI, 0.41-0.84) and DoR (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.29-0.64); the association with OS was not significant (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.50-1.05). DISCUSSION: In conclusion, RFS, DoR, and OS are relatively short in patients with MRD-positive ALL, particularly at higher MRD levels. AlloHSCT may improve survival but has limitations. Alternative approaches are needed to improve outcomes in MRD-positive ALL.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cromossomo Filadélfia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/sangue , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/mortalidade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Am J Hematol ; 94(4): 408-416, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623490

RESUMO

Karyotype is frequently used to predict response and outcome in leukemia. This post hoc exploratory analysis evaluated the relationship between baseline cytogenetics and outcome in patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (R/R ALL) treated with inotuzumab ozogamicin (InO), a humanized CD22 antibody conjugated to calicheamicin, in the phase 3, open-label, randomized INO-VATE trial. Data as of March 8, 2016, are presented in this analysis. Of the 326 patients randomized, 284 had screening karyotyping data (144 in the InO arm and 140 in the standard care [SC] arm). With InO, complete remission or complete remission with incomplete hematologic recovery (CR/CRi), minimal residual disease negativity rates, and overall survival (OS) were not significantly different between cytogenetic subgroups. CR/CRi rates favored InO over SC in the diploid with ≥20 metaphases, complex, and "other" cytogenetic subgroups. The OS hazard ratio favored InO over SC in the diploid with ≥20 metaphases, complex, and other cytogenetic subgroups. Generally, InO is effective and provides substantial clinical benefit in patients with R/R ALL who have specific baseline karyotypes.

13.
Ann Hematol ; 98(3): 647-656, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613837

RESUMO

The 2016 revised World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid neoplasms included the category of high-grade B cell lymphomas (HGBLs) with combined MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements (double-hit, DH). However, the clinical features of B cell precursor leukemia (BCP-ALL) that harbor DH genetics remain widely unknown. We performed a retrospective analysis of the German Multicenter Study Group for Adult ALL registry and a literature search for de novo DH-BCP-ALLs. We identified 6 patients in the GMALL registry and 11 patients published in the literature between 1983 and June 2018. Patients of all ages (range, 15-86 years) are affected. There is a high incidence of meningeal disease and other extramedullary disease manifestations. Current treatment approaches are mainly ALL-based and are sufficient to induce first complete remissions, but progression-free survival is only 4.0 months (95% CI, 1.5-6.5 months) and all patients succumb to their disease, once relapsed, with a median survival of 5.0 months (95% CI, 3.1-6.9 months), despite intensive salvage and targeted therapy approaches. Of all patients, only two that attained an initial complete remission were alive at data cutoff. In all cases, the BCL2 gene was rearranged to be in proximity to the IGH locus, whereas MYC had various translocation partners juxtaposed. There was no significant survival difference between IG and non-IG translocation partners (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.33-3.2; p = 0.89). In conclusion, de novo DH-BCP-ALL is an aggressive B cell malignancy with deleterious outcome. Physicians have to be aware of this rare disease subset due to the atypical clinical behavior and especially because latest classification systems do not cover this sub-entity.


Assuntos
Genes bcl-2 , Genes myc , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/classificação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-6/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico do Linfócito B , Humanos , Infiltração Leucêmica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Recidiva , Terapia de Salvação , Translocação Genética , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Hematol Oncol ; 12(1): 8, 2019 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as a novel class of RNA due to its diverse mechanism in cancer development and progression. However, the role and expression pattern of lncRNAs in molecular subtypes of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) have not yet been investigated. Here, we assess to what extent lncRNA expression and DNA methylation is driving the progression of relapsed BCP-ALL subtypes and we determine if the expression and DNA methylation profile of lncRNAs correlates with established BCP-ALL subtypes. METHODS: We performed RNA sequencing and DNA methylation (Illumina Infinium microarray) of 40 diagnosis and 42 relapse samples from 45 BCP-ALL patients in a German cohort and quantified lncRNA expression. Unsupervised clustering was applied to ascertain and confirm that the lncRNA-based classification of the BCP-ALL molecular subtypes is present in both our cohort and an independent validation cohort of 47 patients. A differential expression and differential methylation analysis was applied to determine the subtype-specific, relapse-specific, and differentially methylated lncRNAs. Potential functions of subtype-specific lncRNAs were determined by using co-expression-based analysis on nearby (cis) and distally (trans) located protein-coding genes. RESULTS: Using an integrative Bioinformatics analysis, we developed a comprehensive catalog of 1235 aberrantly dysregulated BCP-ALL subtype-specific and 942 relapse-specific lncRNAs and the methylation profile of three subtypes of BCP-ALL. The 1235 subtype-specific lncRNA signature represented a similar classification of the molecular subtypes of BCP-ALL in the independent validation cohort. We identified a strong correlation between the DUX4-specific lncRNAs and genes involved in the activation of TGF-ß and Hippo signaling pathways. Similarly, Ph-like-specific lncRNAs were correlated with genes involved in the activation of PI3K-AKT, mTOR, and JAK-STAT signaling pathways. Interestingly, the relapse-specific lncRNAs correlated with the activation of metabolic and signaling pathways. Finally, we found 23 promoter methylated lncRNAs epigenetically facilitating their expression levels. CONCLUSION: Here, we describe a set of subtype-specific and relapse-specific lncRNAs from three major BCP-ALL subtypes and define their potential functions and epigenetic regulation. The subtype-specific lncRNAs are reproducible and can effectively stratify BCP-ALL subtypes. Our data uncover the diverse mechanism of action of lncRNAs in BCP-ALL subtypes defining which lncRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of disease and are relevant for the stratification of BCP-ALL subtypes.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385870

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in first complete remission is a standard of care for adult patients with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and high risk of relapse. However, the stratification systems vary among study groups. Inadequate response at the level of minimal residual disease is the most commonly accepted factor indicating the need for alloHSCT. In this consensus paper on behalf of the European Working Group for Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, we summarize available evidence and reflect current clinical practice in major European study groups regarding both indications for HSCT and particular aspects of the procedure including the choice of donor, source of stem cells and conditioning. Finally, we propose recommendations for daily clinical practice as well as for planning of prospective trials.

16.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 143(18): 1311-1317, 2018 09.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199911

RESUMO

The acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogenous rare malignant disease of lymphoblastic precursor cells. The peak of incidence lies in childhood (5.3/100 000), but the incidence rises again from the age of 50 onwards, showing a second peak at patients > 80 years old (2.3/100 000). The ALL is an acute life-threatening disease which untreated leads to death within a short time. The therapeutic objective is cure. By the characterization of subgroups, their targeted therapy and therapy optimization cure rates could be improved (from less than 10 % in the eighties) to more than 50 - 70 % (depending on the subgroup). To this achievement the approach has contributed with risk adapted therapy protocols, with improved supportive therapy and in particular with taking the minimal residual disease (the most important prognostic factor) as a basis for the therapy decision. Recently, with the new immunotherapies there exist further promising options of targeted therapies.

17.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 53(6): 664-672, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795427

RESUMO

Relapse has become the leading cause of treatment failure after stem cell transplantation. Besides cellular therapies and novel agents, immunotherapeutic strategies have entered clinical practice in order to reduce or prevent relapse. Here, we summarize the presentations on checkpoint inhibitors, vaccination strategies, and novel antibody therapies, which were presented and discussed at the third International Workshop on Biology, Prevention, and Treatment of Relapse after Stem Cell Transplantation.

18.
Cancer ; 124(8): 1722-1732, 2018 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inotuzumab ozogamicin (InO) has demonstrated efficacy and tolerability in patients aged 18 to 78 years with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in the INO-VATE trial. This subset analysis compared the efficacy and safety of InO in younger and older patients. METHODS: Intent-to-treat analyses of morphologic responses and overall survival (OS) included 326 randomized patients, and safety assessments included 307 patients receiving 1 or more doses of the study treatment. Of the 326 patients, 164 received InO at a starting dose of 1.8 mg/m2 /cycle (0.8 mg/m2 on day 1 and 0.5 mg/m2 on days 8 and 15 of a 21- to 28-day cycle [≤6 cycles]); 60 patients were aged ≥55 years, and 104 were aged <55 years. RESULTS: For older and younger patients, the median duration of InO therapy and the types and frequencies of adverse events of any grade were generally similar. Although the remission rates, median duration of remission (DOR), and progression-free survival were similar with InO for those aged <55 years and those aged ≥55 years, OS was longer for younger patients (median, 8.6 vs 5.6 months; hazard ratio, 0.610). Among patients proceeding to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after InO treatment (28% of older patients and 58% of younger patients), the incidence of veno-occlusive disease was greater in older patients (41% vs 17%). The study database was not locked at the time of this analysis. CONCLUSIONS: InO was tolerable in older patients with relapsed/refractory ALL. Although OS was longer for younger patients versus older patients, InO demonstrated high response rates with similar DOR in the 2 age groups. Cancer 2018;124:1722-32. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

19.
Blood ; 131(14): 1522-1531, 2018 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29358182

RESUMO

Approximately 30% to 50% of adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in hematologic complete remission after multiagent therapy exhibit minimal residual disease (MRD) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction or flow cytometry. MRD is the strongest predictor of relapse in ALL. In this open-label, single-arm study, adults with B-cell precursor ALL in hematologic complete remission with MRD (≥10-3) received blinatumomab 15 µg/m2 per day by continuous IV infusion for up to 4 cycles. Patients could undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation any time after cycle 1. The primary end point was complete MRD response status after 1 cycle of blinatumomab. One hundred sixteen patients received blinatumomab. Eighty-eight (78%) of 113 evaluable patients achieved a complete MRD response. In the subgroup of 110 patients with Ph-negative ALL in hematologic remission, the Kaplan-Meier estimate of relapse-free survival (RFS) at 18 months was 54%. Median overall survival (OS) was 36.5 months. In landmark analyses, complete MRD responders had longer RFS (23.6 vs 5.7 months; P = .002) and OS (38.9 vs 12.5 months; P = .002) compared with MRD nonresponders. Adverse events were consistent with previous studies of blinatumomab. Twelve (10%) and 3 patients (3%) had grade 3 or 4 neurologic events, respectively. Four patients (3%) had cytokine release syndrome grade 1, n = 2; grade 3, n = 2), all during cycle 1. After treatment with blinatumomab in a population of patients with MRD-positive B-cell precursor ALL, a majority achieved a complete MRD response, which was associated with significantly longer RFS and OS compared with MRD nonresponders. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01207388.

20.
Drugs Aging ; 35(1): 11-26, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29256044

RESUMO

The outcome of adult acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) has improved significantly during the past decade, mainly due to intensive paediatric-based chemotherapy. Less improvement has been observed in older patients. A significantly lower rate of complete remissions, higher early mortality, higher relapse rate and poorer survival is observed in older compared with younger ALL patients. Most importantly, intensive chemotherapy with or without stem-cell transplantation is less well tolerated in older patients. In addition, there is an increasing incidence of poor prognostic factors with increasing age. Progress has been made with the development of age-adapted, moderately intensive chemotherapy protocols for Ph/BCR-ABL-negative ALL and combinations of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with chemotherapy in Ph/BCR-ABL-positive ALL. Future progress can be expected from new targeted therapies, particularly novel immunotherapies, moderately intensified consolidation strategies and reduced intensity stem-cell transplantation. For this purpose, prospective clinical trials for older patients are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Prospectivos , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Resultado do Tratamento
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