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3.
Anatol J Cardiol ; 24(6): 350-360, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253127

RESUMO

Mitral paravalvular leaks (PVLs) commonly occur in patients with prosthetic valves. Paravalvular defects may be clinically inconsequential and may aggravate hemolysis or cause heart failure through regurgitation. Accordingly, patients may eventually require intervention such as redo surgery or a transcatheter closure of the defects. The introduction of purpose-specific closure devices and new steerable catheters has opened a new frontier for the transcatheter PVL closure. This mode of treatment is an initial therapy in most centers with experienced structural heart team. However, head-to-head data comparing two treatment modalities (surgery and transcatheter closure) are limited, and the world-wide experience is based on nonrandomized studies. Multimodality imaging, including three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography, facilitates the delineation of mitral PVLs and provides essential data that aids the communication between the members of the structural heart team. In the near future, the success of interventional therapies will most probably increase in patients with mitral PVLs with the introduction of hybrid imaging modalities (echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography, and fluoroscopy). In conclusion, this paper summarizes the etiopathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment of mitral PVLs.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103225

RESUMO

The CHA2DS2-VASc score predicts stroke and mortality risk in several cardiovascular diseases regardless of atrial fibrillation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the ability of CHA2DS2-VASc score to predict in-hospital and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS). The study population included 558 patients undergoing CAS. The patients were stratified into three groups based on their CHA2DS2-VASc scores [low (≤ 2, n = 123), moderate (3-5, n = 355) and high (6-8, n = 80)]. In-hospital and 3-year outcomes were compared between the groups. In-hospital rates of ipsilateral and major strokes and death were significantly different between the groups (1.6% vs. 3.9% vs. 16.2%; 1.6% vs. 4.5% vs. 16.2%; 0.8% vs. 3.1% vs. 13.8%, p < 0.001 for all, respectively). At 3 years of follow-up, rates of ipsilateral and major strokes and death were significantly increased in patients with highscore compared to those with moderate and low scores (1.6% vs. 5.8% vs. 13%, p = 0.005; 0.8% vs. 5.2% vs. 13%, p = 0.001; 1.6% vs. 8.4% vs. 15.9%; p = 0.002, respectively). After adjusting for multi-model Cox regression analysis, CHA2DS2-VASc score persisted as an independent prognostic factor for mortality and major stroke in patients undergoing CAS. Higher CHA2DS2-VASc score predicted increased risk of in-hospital and 3- year stroke and mortality in patients undergoing CAS.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011903

RESUMO

It was previously observed that two dimensional (2D) Doppler derived and real-time three-dimensional (RT-3D) directly measured valve areas were smaller than reported manufacturer sizes. It may be helpful to obtain the ranges of inner diameters (IDs) and the geometric orifice area (GOA) during evaluation of prosthetic mitral valves. In this study, we aimed to provide reference dimensional parameters of bileflet mitral mechanical prosthetic valves. Patients with recent mitral valve replacement were examined by 2D and RT-3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the early postoperative period when the presence of pannus overgrowth was unlikely. Measurements of 2D IDs, 3D hinge to hinge (HHD) and edge to edge diameters (EED) and 3D GOA were obtained and compared with reported manufacturer sizes and areas. This study enrolled 126 patients with mitral prosthetic valves (38 ATS, 42 Carbomedics, 46 St. Jude Medical, all bileaflet). The measured 2D and 3D IDs and GOA were significantly smaller than reported manufacturer sizes in the majority of the valve sizes. This RT-3D TEE-guided study provides ranges of reference values for directly measured IDs and GOA of the three most commonly used mechanical mitral prosthetic valve types for the first time in a relatively large series.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997332

RESUMO

Left atrial appendage (LAA) is a common site of thrombus formation especially in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Complete surgical LAA closure (cSLC) is the surgical aim, however incomplete surgical LAA closure (iSLC) is not rare. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the risk of thromboembolic complications (TEC) in AF patients with iSLC after mitral valve surgery. A total of 101 AF patients (mean age: 61.8 ± 11.8 years; male:32), who underwent surgical suture ligation during mitral valve surgery were enrolled in this retrospective study. All patients underwent transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) at least 3 months after surgery. The primary outcome was the occurrence of TEC including any ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, coronary or peripheral embolism. TEE examination revealed cSLC in 66 (65.3%) and iSLC in 35 patients (34.6%). A total of 12 TECs (11.9%) occurred during a mean follow-up time of 41.1 ± 15.6 months. TECs were found to be significantly higher in the iSLC group (25.7% vs 4.5%, p = 0.002). The prevalence of iSLC was significantly higher in patients with TEC (75 vs. 29.2%, p = 0.002). High CHA2DS2-VASc Score and iSLC were found to be independent predictors of TEC. Long term TEC free survival was found to be significantly decreased in patients with iSLC. The presence of iSLC was associated with a significantly increased risk of TEC in AF patients after mitral valve surgery. Routine intraoperative and postoperative screening for iSLC by TEE and long-term strict anticoagulation therapy are recommended in these patients.

7.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 48(6): 566-575, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT) is a serious complication among patients with prosthetic heart valves. Thrombolytic therapy (TT) is now widely used as first-line treatment for PVT. Endothelial dysfunction has previously been reported in patients with PVT. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in endothelial function soon after TT in PVT patients. METHODS: The study group included 85 patients with PVT [female: 53 (62.3%); age: 48.7±13.9 years] who were evaluated prospectively before and shortly after TT. All of the patients were evaluated using transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography. TT was administered in all cases with a low-dose, ultra-slow infusion regimen. Endothelial function was evaluated using a noninvasive measurement of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery during reactive hyperemia. RESULTS: The study population included 38 (44.7%) obstructive and 47 (55.3%) non-obstructive PVT patients. The obstructive PVT patients had lower baseline FMD values than the non-obstructive PVT group (5.31±0.76% vs. 5.87±0.84%; p=0.003). TT was successful in 79 patients (92.9%). FMD was significantly increased in the successfully thrombolyzed patients after TT (5.65±0.86% vs. 7.13±1.26%; p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the FMD values after TT in patients who were unresponsive to TT (5.07±0.61% vs. 5.38±0.95%; p=0.371). There was a significant increase in FMD values after TT in patients with obstructive PVT (5.31±0.76% vs. 8.22±1.15%; p<0.001). However, this difference was not statistically significant for patients with non-obstructive PVT (5.87±0.84% vs. 6.11±0.95%; p=0.276). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that successful TT may contribute to improvement of impaired endothelial function in patients with obstructive PVT.

8.
Angiology ; : 3319720954084, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911951

RESUMO

Aortic dilatation due to inflammation may lead to an increase in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. We investigated the possible relationship between CRP-to-albumin ratio (CAR) and presence and progression of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). The study included 150 patients previously diagnosed with AAA (diameter 40-54 mm) and 100 normal controls. Clinical and laboratory parameters and maximal cross-sectional AAA diameters (measured by computed tomography angiography) were obtained from all participants at baseline assessment as well as after 1 year for those with an AAA. The patients with AAA had significantly higher serum CAR compared with controls at baseline (P < .001). Increased serum CAR was found to be an independent predictor of the presence of AAA (odds ratio: 3.162, 95% CI: 1.690-5.126, P = .001) after multivariate logistic regression analysis. There was a significant increase in aortic diameter and CAR after 1 year in the patients with AAA (P < .001; P = .003); a significant correlation was found between changes in the diameter of AAAs and CAR (r = 0.414; P = .005). Serum CAR may be useful as an inflammatory biomarker for the presence and progression of AAA.

9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(10): 105155, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is not a widely accepted optimal rate of stent opening in patients underwent carotid artery stenting. In this study we evaluated the effect of carotid stent opening rate (CSOR) without performing post-dilation on in-hospital and long-term outcomes. METHODS: A total of 825 patient patients underwent carotid artery stenting without post-dilation enrolled to the study. The patients divided into two groups according to their final CSOR (50% ≤ Post-stent deployment (SD) <80% and 80% ≤ Post-SD ≤ 100%). In-hospital and 3-year outcomes were compared between the groups. RESULTS: During hospitalization, the rate of ipsilateral stroke, major stroke and transient ischemic attacks were similar between the groups (respectively; 6.2% vs. 4.1, P = 0.190; 1.5% vs. 1.8, P = 0.811; 1.5% vs. 1.9%, P = 0.683). The 3-year Kaplan-Meier overall survival rates for the first and second groups were 87.6% and 84.4%, respectively (log rank test P = 0.426). The 3-year Kaplan-Meier overall cumulative ipsilateral stroke rates for the first and second groups were 88.0% and 88.6%, respectively (log rank test P = 0.409) CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that a CSOR higher than 50% without performing a post-dilation might be an effective therapeutic approach since there was not a significant difference regarding outcomes between the patients with a 50% ≤ Post-SD <80% and 80% ≤ Post-SD ≤ 100%. The need for post-stent balloon dilation might have been eliminated due to subsequent stent self-expansion.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão/instrumentação , Estenose das Carótidas/terapia , Stents , Idoso , Angioplastia com Balão/efeitos adversos , Angioplastia com Balão/mortalidade , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Estenose das Carótidas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 31(7): 445-451, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833803

RESUMO

: We aimed to investigate how prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT) affects brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and how BNP changes following thrombolytic therapy. The study included 70 consecutive patients with left-sided mechanical PVT who received thrombolytic therapy. The patients were divided into two groups, namely obstructive thrombus (n = 42) and nonobstructive thrombus (NOT, n = 28). BNP levels of patients were assessed before and after thrombolytic therapy. BNP levels were higher in obstructive thrombus group than NOT group in whole study population, in patients with mitral PVT and in patients with aortic PVT [325.0 (189.5-496.0) vs. 84.0 (44.5-140.0), P < 0.001, 323.0 (193-449.0) vs. 59.0 (37.0-131.0), P < 0.001 and 321.0 (132.0-525.0) vs. 99.0 (60.5-173.0), P < 0.001]. BNP levels were positively correlated with transmitral and transaortic mean gradients, and negatively correlated with mitral valve area (r: 0.374, P = 0.013; r: 0.432, P = 0.035 and; r: -0.642, P < 0.001, respectively). BNP values above 165 pg/ml may predict the presence of obstructive thrombus with a sensitivity of 88.0%, and a specificity of 79.0% (AUC = 0.928, 95% confidence interval: 0.871-0.986, P < 0.001). Following thrombolytic therapy, BNP levels (pg/ml) significantly decreased from 325.0 (189.5-496.0) to 137.0 (101.7-224.5), P < 0.001, in all patients with obstructive thrombus, from 323.0 (193.0-449.0) to 129.0 (98.0-223.0), P < 0.001, in patients with only mitral obstructive thrombus and from 321.0 (132.0-525.0) to 181.0 (99.0-217.5), P < 0.001, in patients with only aortic obstructive thrombus. BNP levels are significantly higher in prosthetic valve patients with obstructive thrombus than in those with NOT and decrease in patients with obstructive thrombus after thrombolytic therapy. A cut off value of BNP of at least 165.0 pg/ml was found to discriminate obstructive thrombus from NOT.

11.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104932, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation and malnutrition play a critical role in the outcomes of patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS). Prognostic nutritional index (PNI) is commonly utilized to evaluate the peri-operative immune-nutritional status of patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery and is independently associated with survival. We assessed the association between immune-nutritional status, indexed by PNI, and outcomes in CAS patients. METHODS: A total of 615 patients hospitalized for CAS in a tertiary heart center were enrolled in the study. PNI was calculated using the following formula: 10× serum albumin value (g/dL) + 0.005 × total lymphocyte count in the peripheral blood (per mm3). In-hospital and 5-year outcomes (ipsilateral stroke, major stroke, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, and mortality) were compared between the tertiles of PNI. RESULTS: In-hospital outcomes were similar between the groups except the increased mortality in decreasing tertiles of PNI. During a mean follow-up duration of 51.1 months, the lower PNI tertile was related to unfavorable outcomes. After adjusting for multi-model Cox regression analysis, PNI persisted as an independent prognostic factor for mortality and major stroke. CONCLUSION: PNI was independently associated with long-term mortality and major stroke in CAS patients. Malnutrition and inflammation, which can be assessed easily and quickly using PNI, have an important prognostic value in the patients undergoing CAS.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/terapia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Stents , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/complicações , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/mortalidade , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Albumina Sérica Humana/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 48(Suppl 1): 1-87, 2020 05.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406873

RESUMO

In December 2019, in the city of Wuhan, in the Hubei province of China, treatment-resistant cases of pneumonia emerged and spread rapidly for reasons unknown. A new strain of coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 [SARS-CoV-2]) was identified and caused the first pandemic of the 21st century. The virus was officially detected in our country on March 11, 2020, and the number of cases increased rapidly; the virus was isolated in 670 patients within 10 days. The rapid increase in the number of patients has required our physicians to learn to protect both the public and themselves when treating patients with this highly infectious disease. The group most affected by the outbreak and with the highest mortality rate is elderly patients with known cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is necessary for cardiology specialists to take an active role in combating the epidemic. The aim of this article is to make a brief assessment of current information regarding the management of cardiovascular patients affected by COVID-19 and to provide practical suggestions to cardiology specialists about problems and questions they have frequently encountered.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Cardiologia/normas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Consenso , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
13.
Am J Cardiol ; 127: 113-119, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375999

RESUMO

Mechanical prosthetic heart valves (MPHVs) are highly thrombogenic, and a pregnancy-induced procoagulant status increases the risk of MPHV thrombosis. Despite numerous case reports, 2 major registries and meta-analyses/systematic reviews, optimal anticoagulation therapy during pregnancy remains controversial. The goal of this study was to evaluate different anticoagulation regimens in pregnant patients with MPHVs. The outcomes of anticoagulation regimens were assessed retrospectively in pregnant women (110 women; 155 pregnancies) with MPHVs. The study population was divided into 5 groups according to anticoagulation regimens used; high-dose warfarin (>5 mg/d) throughout pregnancy (group 1), low-dose warfarin (≤5 mg/d) throughout pregnancy (group 2), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) throughout pregnancy (group 3), first trimester LMWH, 2nd and 3rd trimester warfarin (group 4), first 2 trimester LMWH, and 3rd trimester warfarin (group 5). Of 155 pregnancies, 55 (35%) resulted in fetal loss; whereas 41 (27%) cases with abortion (miscarriage and therapeutic) and 14 (9%) stillbirths occurred. The comparison of the groups showed that the whole abortion rates including therapeutic abortion were significantly higher in Group 1, and lower in groups 3 and 5 (p <0.001). However, miscarriage rates were similar between the groups. A total of 53 pregnancies (34%) suffered from prosthetic valves thrombosis (PVT) during pregnancy or in the postpartum period. Group 2 had significantly lower rates of PVT than the other groups (p <0.001). In conclusion, the current data suggests that there is no optimal therapy, and that all managements have advantages and disadvantages. Low-dose warfarin (≤5 mg/day) regimen with therapeutic international normalized ratio levels may provide effective maternal protection throughout pregnancy with acceptable fetal outcomes.


Assuntos
Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Registros , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/complicações , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tromboembolia/etiologia
14.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 48(Suppl 1): 1-48, 2020 03.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250347

RESUMO

In December 2019, in the city of Wuhan, in the Hubei province of China, treatment-resistant cases of pneumonia emerged and spread rapidly for reasons unknown. A new strain of coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 [SARS-CoV-2]) was identified and caused the first pandemic of the 21st century. The virus was officially detected in our country on March 11, 2020, and the number of cases increased rapidly; the virus was isolated in 670 patients within 10 days. The rapid increase in the number of patients has required our physicians to learn to protect both the public and themselves when treating patients with this highly infectious disease. The group most affected by the outbreak and with the highest mortality rate is elderly patients with known cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is necessary for cardiology specialists to take an active role in combating the epidemic. The aim of this article is to make a brief assessment of current information regarding the management of cardiovascular patients affected by COVID-19 and to provide practical suggestions to cardiology specialists about problems and questions they have frequently encountered.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Cardiologia/normas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Consenso , Humanos , Pandemias , Sociedades Médicas , Turquia
15.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 48(2): 127-136, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) is defined as dynamic, smoke-like echoes within the cardiac cavities with a characteristic swirling motion seen on echocardiography. Clinical studies have demonstrated that SEC is a risk factor for left atrial thrombus formation and an important indicator for potential systemic embolism. Platelet indices have been associated with the presence of SEC in patients with mitral stenosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between platelet indices and SEC in patients with prosthetic heart valves. METHODS: A total of 89 patients [female: 38 (42.4%); median age: 52 years (range: 36-67 years)] with SEC formation in the left atrium, and 257 control subjects [female: 123 (47.5%); median age: 56 years (range: 45-65 years)] without SEC formation were enrolled. All of the patients were evaluated by using transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography. Laboratory tests including complete blood count and biochemical parameters were analyzed. RESULTS: Patients with SEC formation had more frequent atrial fibrillation, higher left atrial diameter (LAD) and lower left ventriular ejection fraction values. Platelet indices including platelet count, platelet distribution width, mean platelet volume, and plateletcrit did not differ between the groups. Increased LAD was detected as the only independent predictor of SEC development. CONCLUSION: Platelet indices were not found to be associated with the presence of SEC formation in the left atrium among patients with mitral prosthetic valves. Therefore, the use of platelet indices alongside known echocardiographic and clinical risk factors to predict SEC development in patients with a mitral prosthesis is debatable.

16.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 17(3): 209-221, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085683

RESUMO

Introduction: Prosthetic heart valve thrombosis is a life-threatening complication after valve replacement surgery. Although subtherapeutic anticoagulation is the main cause, there are many other conventional and esoteric predisposing factors.Areas covered: The etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of prosthetic heart valve thrombosis with particular focus on conventional and esoteric predisposing factors, diagnosis with multimodality imaging and current therapeutic approaches were covered.Expert opinion: Subtherapeutic anticoagulation remains the key driving force for the development of prosthetic valve thrombosis. However, cardiologists should be cognizant of other frequent or rare conventional and esoteric causes. The diagnosis is now more straightforward with the use of multimodality imaging. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography with or without real-time three-dimensional imaging are the current gold standard modalities. Multidetector computed tomography is now a major complementary tool. The favorable clinical outcomes with recently introduced slow or ultra-slow infusions of alteplase, as compared to relatively poor surgical results, have rendered thrombolytic therapy the first-line treatment option in most eligible patients with prosthetic valve thrombosis. Surgical treatment could be reserved in whom thrombolytic therapy is contraindicated or has already failed. The efficacy and safety of thrombolytic therapy as compared to surgery should be confirmed with large observational cohorts, and ideally randomized trials.


Assuntos
Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/terapia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/terapia , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Terapia Trombolítica , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/etiologia , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico
18.
Int J Artif Organs ; 42(11): 603-610, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269859

RESUMO

The past 65 years have witnessed remarkable progress in the development of safe, hemodynamically favorable mechanical heart valves. Today, there are a large number and variety of prostheses in use and many prostheses have been used for a while and then discontinued. When patients lack reliable information about their heart valve prostheses, identification of valve model becomes difficult even for specialized physicians in this area. A combination of cinefluoroscopy and echocardiography makes it possible to provide accurate and detailed information regarding identification of prosthetic valve models. Fluoroscopic examination is a useful technique to evaluate patients following mechanical heart valve replacement. However, transthoracic echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography have almost replaced cinefluoroscopy in the evaluation of prosthetic heart valves. Especially, real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography provides distinctive images of prosthetic heart valves, particularly for those in the mitral position. A large body of literature has been published to familiarize physicians with the radiological appearance of numerous mechanical prostheses. However, there is a lack of data regarding the identification of prosthetic valve models based on echocardiographic appearance. In this review, we aimed to describe distinctive echocardiographic and cinefluoroscopic markers for identifying the type and brand of several commonly used mechanical prosthetic heart valves.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Fluoroscopia/métodos , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Biomarcadores , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Hemodinâmica , Humanos
20.
Rev Port Cardiol ; 38(4): 269-277, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104927

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stent restenosis remains a clinical challenge for patients with ischemic heart disease, since it is associated with repeated coronary interventions as well as higher hospitalization rates and medical costs. Inflammation plays a significant role. Although an association between stent restenosis, increased C-reactive protein (CRP) and decreased albumin levels has been previously reported, no studies have investigated the ability of the CRP/albumin ratio to predict stent restenosis. METHODS: This retrospective study included 448 patients who had previously undergone primary percutaneous coronary intervention and who were referred for subsequent reintervention due to recurrence of anginal symptoms. The study population was divided into two groups based on whether the patient had developed stent restenosis. They were then stratified into three groups according to their CRP/albumin ratio. RESULTS: Out of 448 patients, stent restenosis was observed in 24.5% (n=110), as determined by coronary angiography. Patients with stent restenosis had a higher CRP/albumin ratio, greater platelet distribution width (PDW), higher CRP levels, and lower levels of both high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and serum albumin. The CRP/albumin ratio (OR: 2.289, 95% CI: 1.056-4.959; p=0.036), stent diameter, PDW and HDL cholesterol levels were found to be independent predictors of stent restenosis. A ROC curve comparison demonstrated that the CRP/albumin ratio was a better predictor of restenosis than either albumin and CRP individually, but it was not better than PDW and HDL cholesterol. CONCLUSION: As a novel inflammation-based risk score, the CRP/albumin ratio may be an easily accessible marker for assessment of stent restenosis risk.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Reestenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/sangue , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Angiografia Coronária , Reestenose Coronária/sangue , Reestenose Coronária/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia
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