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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 715, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women are under-represented in many mid-career infectious diseases research fellowships, including a TDR fellowship for low- and middle-income country (LMIC) researchers. TDR solicited creative ideas as part of a challenge contest to increase the number of women fellowship applicants. The purpose of this study is to examine themes from submitted ideas and the impact of implementing the top three ideas on the number of women applicants. METHODS: We solicited ideas for modifying the TDR fellowship using a crowdsourcing challenge. Then we used a mixed methods approach to evaluate texts submitted in response to the challenge. The qualitative analysis identified themes from eligible submissions. The quantitative analysis examined the mean score (1-10 scale) assigned to submitted ideas and also the number of eligible women applicants before (2014-7) and after (2018) implementing the top three ideas. RESULTS: We received 311 ideas on improving women's participation in this fellowship from 63 countries. Among all ideas, 282 (91%) were from women and 286 (92%) were from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thirty-three (17%) ideas received an overall mean score of 7.0 or greater. The top three ideas included enhanced social media communication targeting women, improving career mentorship, and creating a nomination system to nudge women applicants. These ideas were implemented as part of the 2018 fellowship application cycle. The number of eligible women applicants increased from 11 in 2016 to 48 in 2018. The number of eligible men applicants increased from 55 in 2016 to 114 in 2018. Women represent 44% (8/18) of the 2018 cohort. CONCLUSION: This suggests that the challenge contest resulted in strong participation from women in LMICs. The three top ideas likely contributed to a greater number of women applicants to this mid-career fellowship. Further ways of enhancing women's participation in global health training are needed.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Crowdsourcing/métodos , Bolsas de Estudo , Pesquisadores , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Comunicação , Feminino , Saúde Global , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Pesquisa Qualitativa
2.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 19(2): 135-146, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780677

RESUMO

Since 2012, PMTCT Option B+ has been recommended by the World Health Organization to reduce vertical transmission but numerous adherence challenges remain. We conducted a qualitative study at baseline using six focus group discussions and 14 in-depth interviews to explore knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and challenges towards the Option B+ strategy for PMTCT among HIV-infected pregnant and post-partum women and health workers engaged in Uganda's national Option B+ PMTCT programme. Data were analysed using a thematic approach to capture latent and manifest content with the social ecological model as a theoretic foundation in order to make contextual sense of key stakeholders' needs for an effective Option B+ intervention. Overall, among all study participants, we found multi-level barriers to adhering to Option B+ cutting across all levels of the social ecological model. In line with the model, our study revealed barriers at personal, relational, organizational and societal levels. Some personal beliefs such as that the baby's health is more important that the mother's, organizational (negative attitudes and behaviour of health workers), structural such as poverty, work conflicts, fear and lack of disclosure related to community stigma were all critical obstacles to women adhering to the Option B+ programme. We found that both health workers and participants in the programme have a relatively clear understanding of the benefits of adhering to their treatment; though a more nuanced understanding and thus emphasis in counselling on side effects, is critical to helping patients adhere.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Rural , Participação dos Interessados , Uganda/epidemiologia , População Urbana
4.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 14(2): 130-9, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24239324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primaquine is the only available drug that clears mature Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in infected human hosts, thereby preventing transmission of malaria to mosquitoes. However, concerns about dose-dependent haemolysis in people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiencies have limited its use. We assessed the dose-response association of single-dose primaquine for gametocyte clearance and for safety in P falciparum malaria. METHODS: We undertook this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with four parallel groups in Jinja district, eastern Uganda. We randomly allocated Ugandan children aged 1-10 years with uncomplicated falciparum malaria and normal G6PD enzyme function to receive artemether-lumefantrine, combined with either placebo or with 0.1 mg/kg, 0.4 mg/kg, or 0.75 mg/kg (WHO reference dose) primaquine base. Randomisation was done with computer-generated four-digit treatment assignment codes allocated to random dose groups in block sizes of 16. Study staff who provided care or assessed outcomes and the participants remained masked to the intervention group after assignment. The primary efficacy endpoint was the non-inferiority of the mean duration of gametocyte carriage in the test doses compared with the reference group of 0.75 mg primaquine per kg, with a non-inferiority margin of 2.5 days. The primary safety endpoint was the superiority of the arithmetic mean maximum decrease in haemoglobin concentration from enrolment to day 28 of follow-up in the primaquine treatment groups compared with placebo, with use of significance testing of pairwise comparisons with a cutoff of p=0.05. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01365598. FINDINGS: We randomly allocated 468 participants to receive artemether-lumefantrine combined with placebo (119 children) or with 0.1 mg/kg (116), 0.4 mg/kg (116), or 0.75 mg/kg (117) primaquine base. The mean duration of gametocyte carriage was 6.6 days (95% CI 5.3-7.8) in the 0.75 mg/kg reference group, 6.3 days (5.1-7.5) in the 0.4 mg/kg primaquine group (p=0.74), 8.0 days (6.6-9.4) in the 0.1 mg/kg primaquine group (p=0.14), and 12.4 days (9.9-15.0) in the placebo group (p<0.0001). No children showed evidence of treatment-related haemolysis, and the mean maximum decrease in haemoglobin concentration was not associated with the dose of primaquine received-it did not differ significantly compared with placebo (10.7 g/L, SD 11.1) in the 0.1 mg/kg (11.4 g/L, 9.4; p=0.61), 0.4 mg/kg (11.3 g/L, 10.0; p=0.67), or 0.75 mg/kg (12.7 g/L, 8.2; p=0.11) primaquine groups. INTERPRETATION: We conclude that 0.4 mg/kg primaquine has similar gametocytocidal efficacy to the reference 0.75 mg/kg primaquine dose, but a dose of 0.1 mg/kg was inconclusive for non-inferiority. Our findings call for the prioritisation of further trials into the efficacy and safety of doses of primaquine between 0.1 mg/kg and 0.4 mg/kg (including the dose of 0.25 mg/kg recently recommended by WHO), in view of the potential for widespread use of the drug to block malaria transmission. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Primaquina/uso terapêutico , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Etanolaminas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Carga Parasitária , Curva ROC , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda
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