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1.
Biomedicines ; 9(3)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808042

RESUMO

Oxygen availability varies throughout the human body in health and disease. Under physiological conditions, oxygen availability drops from the lungs over the blood stream towards the different tissues into the cells and the mitochondrial cavities leading to physiological low oxygen conditions or physiological hypoxia in all organs including primary lymphoid organs. Moreover, immune cells travel throughout the body searching for damaged cells and foreign antigens facing a variety of oxygen levels. Consequently, physiological hypoxia impacts immune cell function finally controlling innate and adaptive immune response mainly by transcriptional regulation via hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Under pathophysiological conditions such as found in inflammation, injury, infection, ischemia and cancer, severe hypoxia can alter immune cells leading to dysfunctional immune response finally leading to tissue damage, cancer progression and autoimmunity. Here we summarize the effects of physiological and pathophysiological hypoxia on innate and adaptive immune activity, we provide an overview on the control of immune response by cellular hypoxia-induced pathways with focus on the role of HIFs and discuss the opportunity to target hypoxia-sensitive pathways for the treatment of cancer and autoimmunity.

2.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534144

RESUMO

After trauma, the formed fracture hematoma within the fracture gap contains all the important components (immune/stem cells, mediators) to initiate bone regeneration immediately. Thus, it is of great importance but also the most susceptible to negative influences. To study the interaction between bone and immune cells within the fracture gap, up-to-date in vitro systems should be capable of recapitulating cellular and humoral interactions and the physicochemical microenvironment (eg, hypoxia). Here, we first developed and characterized scaffold-free bone-like constructs (SFBCs), which were produced from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) using a macroscale mesenchymal condensation approach. SFBCs revealed permeating mineralization characterized by increased bone volume (µCT, histology) and expression of osteogenic markers (RUNX2, SPP1, RANKL). Fracture hematoma (FH) models, consisting of human peripheral blood (immune cells) mixed with MSCs, were co-cultivated with SFBCs under hypoxic conditions. As a result, FH models revealed an increased expression of osteogenic (RUNX2, SPP1), angiogenic (MMP2, VEGF), HIF-related (LDHA, PGK1), and inflammatory (IL6, IL8) markers after 12 and 48 hours co-cultivation. Osteogenic and angiogenic gene expression of the FH indicate the osteoinductive potential and, thus, the biological functionality of the SFBCs. IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, and MIP-1ß were detectable within the supernatant after 24 and 48 hours of co-cultivation. To confirm the responsiveness of our model to modifying substances (eg, therapeutics), we used deferoxamine (DFO), which is well known to induce a cellular hypoxic adaptation response. Indeed, DFO particularly increased hypoxia-adaptive, osteogenic, and angiogenic processes within the FH models but had little effect on the SFBCs, indicating different response dynamics within the co-cultivation system. Therefore, based on our data, we have successfully modeled processes within the initial fracture healing phase in vitro and concluded that the cross-talk between bone and immune cells in the initial fracture healing phase is of particular importance for preclinical studies. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256266

RESUMO

The Janus kinase (JAK) signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway serves as an important downstream mediator for a variety of cytokines, hormones, and growth factors. Emerging evidence suggests JAK/STAT signaling pathway plays an important role in bone development, metabolism, and healing. In this light, pro-inflammatory cytokines are now clearly implicated in these processes as they can perturb normal bone remodeling through their action on osteoclasts and osteoblasts at both intra- and extra-articular skeletal sites. Here, we summarize the role of JAK/STAT pathway on development, homeostasis, and regeneration based on skeletal phenotype of individual JAK and STAT gene knockout models and selective inhibition of components of the JAK/STAT signaling including influences of JAK inhibition in osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374446

RESUMO

Adequate tissue engineered models are required to further understand the (patho)physiological mechanism involved in the destructive processes of cartilage and subchondral bone during rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, we developed a human in vitro 3D osteochondral tissue model (OTM), mimicking cytokine-induced cellular and matrix-related changes leading to cartilage degradation and bone destruction in order to ultimately provide a preclinical drug screening tool. To this end, the OTM was engineered by co-cultivation of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-derived bone and cartilage components in a 3D environment. It was comprehensively characterized on cell, protein, and mRNA level. Stimulating the OTM with pro-inflammatory cytokines, relevant in RA (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, macrophage migration inhibitory factor), caused cell- and matrix-related changes, resulting in a significantly induced gene expression of lactate dehydrogenase A, interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor α in both, cartilage and bone, while the matrix metalloproteases 1 and 3 were only induced in cartilage. Finally, application of target-specific drugs prevented the induction of inflammation and matrix-degradation. Thus, we here provide evidence that our human in vitro 3D OTM mimics cytokine-induced cell- and matrix-related changes-key features of RA-and may serve as a preclinical tool for the evaluation of both new targets and potential drugs in a more translational setup.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113770

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory, and systemic autoimmune disease that affects the connective tissue and primarily the joints. If not treated, RA ultimately leads to progressive cartilage and bone degeneration. The etiology of the pathogenesis of RA is unknown, demonstrating heterogeneity in its clinical presentation, and is associated with autoantibodies directed against modified self-epitopes. Although many models already exist for RA for preclinical research, many current model systems of arthritis have limited predictive value because they are either based on animals of phylogenetically distant origin or suffer from overly simplified in vitro culture conditions. These limitations pose considerable challenges for preclinical research and therefore clinical translation. Thus, a sophisticated experimental human-based in vitro approach mimicking RA is essential to (i) investigate key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of human RA, (ii) identify targets for new therapeutic approaches, (iii) test these approaches, (iv) facilitate the clinical transferability of results, and (v) reduce the use of laboratory animals. Here, we summarize the most commonly used in vitro models of RA and discuss their experimental feasibility and physiological proximity to the pathophysiology of human RA to highlight new human-based avenues in RA research to increase our knowledge on human pathophysiology and develop effective targeted therapies.

7.
ALTEX ; 37(4): 561-578, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521037

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to establish an in vitro fracture hematoma (FH) model that mimics the in vivo situation of the human fracture gap in order to assess drug efficacy and effectiveness for the treatment of fracture healing disorders. Human peripheral blood and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were coagulated to produce in vitro FH models, which were incubated in osteogenic medium under normoxia/hypoxia and analyzed for cell composition, gene expression and cytokine/chemokine secretion. To evaluate the model, we studied the impact of dexamethasone (impairing fracture healing) and deferoxamine (promoting fracture healing). Under hypoxic conditions, MSCs represented the predominant cell population, while the frequencies of leukocyte populations decreased. Marker gene expression of osteogenesis, angiogenesis, inflammation, migration and hypoxic adaptation increased significantly over time and compared to normoxia, while cytokine/chemokine secretion remained unchanged. Dexamethasone favored the frequency of immune cells compared to MSCs, suppressed osteogenic and pro-angiogenic gene expression, and enhanced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Conversely, deferoxamine favored the frequency of MSCs over that of immune cells and enhanced the expression of the osteogenic marker RUNX2 and markers of hypoxic adaptation. In summary, we demonstrate that hypoxia is an important factor for modeling the initial phase of fracture healing in vitro and that both fracture-healing disrupting and promoting substances can influence the in vitro model comparable to the in vivo situation. Therefore, we conclude that our model is able to mimic in part the human FH and could reduce the number of animal experiments in early preclinical studies.

8.
Biofabrication ; 12(4): 045016, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598334

RESUMO

Understanding the pathophysiological processes of cartilage degradation requires adequate model systems to develop therapeutic strategies towards osteoarthritis (OA). Although different in vitro or in vivo models have been described, further comprehensive approaches are needed to study specific disease aspects. This study aimed to combine in vitro and in silico modeling based on a tissue-engineering approach using mesenchymal condensation to mimic cytokine-induced cellular and matrix-related changes during cartilage degradation. Thus, scaffold-free cartilage-like constructs (SFCCs) were produced based on self-organization of mesenchymal stromal cells (mesenchymal condensation) and (i) characterized regarding their cellular and matrix composition or secondly (ii) treated with interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) for 3 weeks to simulate OA-related matrix degradation. In addition, an existing mathematical model based on partial differential equations was optimized and transferred to the underlying settings to simulate the distribution of IL-1ß, type II collagen degradation and cell number reduction. By combining in vitro and in silico methods, we aimed to develop a valid, efficient alternative approach to examine and predict disease progression and effects of new therapeutics.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013232

RESUMO

Both inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and anti-inflammatory treatment of RA with glucocorticoids (GCs) or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) negatively influence bone metabolism and fracture healing. Janus kinase (JAK) inhibition with tofacitinib has been demonstrated to act as a potent anti-inflammatory therapeutic agent in the treatment of RA, but its impact on the fundamental processes of bone regeneration is currently controversially discussed and at least in part elusive. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to examine the effects of tofacitinib on processes of bone healing focusing on recruitment of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) into the inflammatory microenvironment of the fracture gap, chondrogenesis, osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. We performed our analyses under conditions of reduced oxygen availability in order to mimic the in vivo situation of the fracture gap most optimal. We demonstrate that tofacitinib dose-dependently promotes the recruitment of hMSCs under hypoxia but inhibits recruitment of hMSCs under normoxia. With regard to the chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs, we demonstrate that tofacitinib does not inhibit survival at therapeutically relevant doses of 10-100 nM. Moreover, tofacitinib dose-dependently enhances osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs and reduces osteoclast differentiation and activity. We conclude from our data that tofacitinib may influence bone healing by promotion of hMSC recruitment into the hypoxic microenvironment of the fracture gap but does not interfere with the cartilaginous phase of the soft callus phase of fracture healing process. We assume that tofacitinib may promote bone formation and reduce bone resorption, which could in part explain the positive impact of tofacitinib on bone erosions in RA. Thus, we hypothesize that it will be unnecessary to stop this medication in case of fracture and suggest that positive effects on osteoporosis are likely.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Janus Quinases/farmacologia , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Condrogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Humanos , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo
10.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1744, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396235

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids regulate fundamental processes of the human body and control cellular functions such as cell metabolism, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Moreover, endogenous glucocorticoids link the endocrine and immune system and ensure the correct function of inflammatory events during tissue repair, regeneration, and pathogen elimination via genomic and rapid non-genomic pathways. Due to their strong immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects on immune cells, tissues and organs, glucocorticoids significantly improve the quality of life of many patients suffering from diseases caused by a dysregulated immune system. Despite the multitude and seriousness of glucocorticoid-related adverse events including diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis and infections, these agents remain indispensable, representing the most powerful, and cost-effective drugs in the treatment of a wide range of rheumatic diseases. These include rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, and connective tissue diseases, as well as many other pathological conditions of the immune system. Depending on the therapeutically affected cell type, glucocorticoid actions strongly vary among different diseases. While immune responses always represent complex reactions involving different cells and cellular processes, specific immune cell populations with key responsibilities driving the pathological mechanisms can be identified for certain autoimmune diseases. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of action of glucocorticoids on various leukocyte populations, exemplarily portraying different autoimmune diseases as heterogeneous targets of glucocorticoid actions: (i) Abnormalities in the innate immune response play a crucial role in the initiation and perpetuation of giant cell arteritis (GCA). (ii) Specific types of CD4+ T helper (Th) lymphocytes, namely Th1 and Th17 cells, represent important players in the establishment and course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), whereas (iii) B cells have emerged as central players in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (iv) Allergic reactions are mainly triggered by several different cytokines released by activated Th2 lymphocytes. Using these examples, we aim to illustrate the versatile modulating effects of glucocorticoids on the immune system. In contrast, in the treatment of lymphoproliferative disorders the pro-apoptotic action of glucocorticoids prevails, but their mechanisms differ depending on the type of cancer. Therefore, we will also give a brief insight into the current knowledge of the mode of glucocorticoid action in oncological treatment focusing on leukemia.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Arterite de Células Gigantes/imunologia , Glucocorticoides/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Arterite de Células Gigantes/patologia , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Células Th1/patologia , Células Th17/patologia
11.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214276, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947253

RESUMO

Fractures in horses-whether simple fractures with just one clean break, or incomplete greenstick with stress fractures, or complications such as shattered bones can all be either minimal or even catastrophic. Thus, improvement in fracture healing is a hallmark in equine orthopedics. The fracture healing process implements a complex sequence of events including the initial inflammatory phase removing damaged tissue, re-establishment of vessels and mesenchymal stromal cells, a soft and hard callus phase closing the fracture gap as well as the remodeling phase shaping the bone to a scar-free tissue. Detailed knowledge on processes in equine fracture healing in general and on the initial phase in particular is apparently very limited. Therefore, we generated equine in vitro fracture hematoma models (FH models) to study time-dependent changes in cell composition and RNA-expression for the most prominent cells in the FH model (immune cells, mesenchymal stromal cells) under conditions most closely adapted to the in vivo situation (hypoxia) by using flow cytometry and qPCR. In order to analyze the impact of mesenchymal stromal cells in greater detail, we also incubated blood clots without the addition of mesenchymal stromal cells under the same conditions as a control. We observed a superior survival capacity of mesenchymal stromal cells over immune cells within our FH model maintained under hypoxia. Furthermore, we demonstrate an upregulation of relevant angiogenic, osteogenic and hypoxia-induced markers within 48 h, a time well-known to be crucial for proper fracture healing.


Assuntos
Consolidação da Fratura , Fraturas Ósseas/patologia , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Hematoma/terapia , Hipóxia/patologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biópsia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Consolidação da Fratura/efeitos dos fármacos , Hematoma/patologia , Cavalos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxigênio/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Acta Biomater ; 86: 171-184, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616076

RESUMO

Although several biomaterials for bone regeneration have been developed in the last decades, clinical application of bone morphogenetic protein 2 is clinically only approved when applied on an absorbable bovine collagen I scaffold (ACS) (Helistat; ACS-H). In research, another ACS, namely Lyostypt (ACS-L) is frequently used as a scaffold in bone-linked studies. Nevertheless, until today, the influence of ACS alone on bone healing remains unknown. Unexpectedly, in vitro studies using ASC-H revealed a suppression of osteogenic differentiation and a significant reduction of cell vitality when compared to ASC-L. In mice, we observed a significant delay in bone healing when applying ACS-L in the fracture gap during femoral osteotomy. The results of our study show for the first time a negative influence of both ACS-H and ACS-L on bone formation demonstrating a substantial need for more sophisticated delivery systems for local stimulation of bone healing in both clinical application and research. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides evidence-based justification to promote the development and approval of more suitable and sophisticated delivery systems in bone healing research. Additionally, we stimulate researchers of the field to consider that the application of those scaffolds as a delivery system for new substances represents a delayed healing approach rather than a normal bone healing which could greatly impact the outcome of those studies and play a pivotal role in the translation to the clinics. Moreover, we provide impulses on underlying mechanism involving the roles of small-leucine rich proteoglycans (SLRP) for further detailed investigations.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo I/farmacologia , Consolidação da Fratura/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteotomia , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Calo Ósseo/patologia , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem/patologia , Bovinos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno Tipo I/ultraestrutura , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tamanho do Órgão , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Microtomografia por Raio-X
13.
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol ; 342: 95-148, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635095

RESUMO

Adaptive immune responses that occur in infection, cancer, and autoimmune as well as allergic diseases involve the participation of T cells. T cells travel throughout the body searching for antigens, which are recognized via the major histocompatibility complexes. In the healthy organism, these T cells maintain metabolic quiescence until they encounter a potentially cognate antigen. Once activated, e.g., during an infection or tissue damage, T cells switch their metabolic program to gain energy and building blocks to maintain cellular homeostasis and to fulfill their specific immune functions involving clonal expansion and/or differentiation into effector and memory T cells to ultimately ensure host survival. Thus, differences in metabolism in healthy and pathogenic T cells provide an explanation for dysfunctionality of T-cell responses in metabolic disorders, autoimmunity, and cancer. Here, we summarize current knowledge on T-cell metabolism during the maintenance of homeostasis, activation, and differentiation as well as over the course of time that memory is generated in health and in diseased states such as autoimmunity and cancer.


Assuntos
Doença , Saúde , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos
14.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2588, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956322

RESUMO

Macrophages are essential players in the process of fracture healing, acting by remodeling of the extracellular matrix and enabling vascularization. Whilst activated macrophages of M1-like phenotype are present in the initial pro-inflammatory phase of hours to days of fracture healing, an anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophage phenotype is supposed to be crucial for the induction of downstream cascades of healing, especially the initiation of vascularization. In a mouse-osteotomy model, we provide a comprehensive characterization of vessel (CD31+, Emcn+) and macrophage phenotypes (F4/80, CD206, CD80, Mac-2) during the process of fracture healing. To this end, we phenotype the phases of vascular regeneration-the expansion phase (d1-d7 after injury) and the remodeling phase of the endothelial network, until tissue integrity is restored (d14-d21 after injury). Vessels which appear during the bone formation process resemble type H endothelium (CD31hiEmcnhi), and are closely connected to osteoprogenitors (Runx2+, Osx+) and F4/80+ macrophages. M1-like macrophages are present in the initial phase of vascularization until day 3 post osteotomy, but they are rare during later regeneration phases. M2-like macrophages localize mainly extramedullary, and CD206+ macrophages are found to express Mac-2+ during the expansion phase. VEGFA expression is initiated by CD80+ cells, including F4/80+ macrophages, until day 3, while subsequently osteoblasts and chondrocytes are main contributors to VEGFA production at the fracture site. Using Longitudinal Intravital Microendoscopy of the Bone (LIMB) we observe changes in the motility and organization of CX3CR1+ cells, which infiltrate the injury site after an osteotomy. A transient accumulation, resulting in spatial polarization of both, endothelial cells and macrophages, in regions distal to the fracture site, is evident. Immunofluorescence histology followed by histocytometric analysis reveals that F4/80+CX3CR1+ myeloid cells precede vascularization.


Assuntos
Calo Ósseo/irrigação sanguínea , Calo Ósseo/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Animais , Biomarcadores , Regeneração Óssea , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotélio , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Osteoblastos , Osteogênese
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(8)2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087255

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are stem cells of the connective tissue, possess a plastic phenotype, and are able to differentiate into various tissues. Besides their role in tissue regeneration, MSCs perform additional functions as a modulator or inhibitor of immune responses. Due to their pleiotropic function, MSCs have also gained therapeutic importance for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and for improving fracture healing and cartilage regeneration. However, the therapeutic/immunomodulatory mode of action of MSCs is largely unknown. Here, we describe that MSCs express the inhibitory receptor CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4). We show that depending on the environmental conditions, MSCs express different isoforms of CTLA-4 with the secreted isoform (sCTLA-4) being the most abundant under hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the immunosuppressive function of MSCs is mediated mainly by the secretion of CTLA-4. These findings open new ways for treatment when tissue regeneration/fracture healing is difficult.


Assuntos
Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Adipogenia , Antígeno CTLA-4/análise , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Osteogênese
16.
Microvasc Res ; 116: 34-44, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28993199

RESUMO

Hypoxia driven angiogenesis is a prominent feature of tissue regeneration, inflammation and tumor growth and is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 and -2. The distinct functions of HIFs in the hypoxia-induced angiogenesis and metabolic switch of endothelial cells are still unknown and therefore aim of this study. We investigated the role of HIF-1 and -2 in the adaptation of immortalized human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) to hypoxic conditions (1% O2) in terms of angiogenesis, cytokine secretion, gene expression and ATP/ADP-ratio using shRNA-mediated reduction of the oxygen sensitive α-subunits of either HIF-1 or HIF-2 or the combination of both. Reduction of HIF-1α diminished cellular energy, hypoxia-induced glycolytic gene expression, and angiogenesis not altering pro-angiogenic factors. Reduction of HIF-2α diminished hypoxia-induced pro-angiogenic factors, enhanced anti-angiogenic factors and attenuated angiogenesis not altering glycolytic gene expression. Reduction of both HIFs reduced cell survival, gene expression of glycolytic enzymes and pro-angiogenic factors as compared to the corresponding control. Finally, we identified the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) to be redundantly regulated by HIF-1 and HIF-2 and to be essential in the process of hypoxia-driven angiogenesis. Our results demonstrate a major impact of HIF-1 and HIF-2 on hypoxia-induced angiogenesis indicating distinct but also overlapping functions of HIF-1 and HIF-2. These findings open new possibilities for therapeutic approaches by specifically targeting the HIF-1 and HIF-2 or their target MIF.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/metabolismo , Microvasos/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Adaptação Fisiológica , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Hipóxia Celular , Linhagem Celular , Microambiente Celular , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Glicólise , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/genética , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/genética , Microvasos/citologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/genética , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(3)2017 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28282868

RESUMO

Immunologically restricted patients such as those with autoimmune diseases or malignancies often suffer from delayed or insufficient fracture healing. In human fracture hematomas and the surrounding bone marrow obtained from immunologically restricted patients, we analyzed the initial inflammatory phase on cellular and humoral level via flow cytometry and multiplex suspension array. Compared with controls, we demonstrated higher numbers of immune cells like monocytes/macrophages, natural killer T (NKT) cells, and activated T helper cells within the fracture hematomas and/or the surrounding bone marrow. Also, several pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin (IL)-6 and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), chemokines (e.g., Eotaxin and RANTES), pro-angiogenic factors (e.g., IL-8 and Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: MIF), and regulatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10) were found at higher levels within the fracture hematomas and/or the surrounding bone marrow of immunologically restricted patients when compared to controls. We conclude here that the inflammatory activity on cellular and humoral levels at fracture sites of immunologically restricted patients considerably exceeds that of control patients. The initial inflammatory phase profoundly differs between these patient groups and is probably one of the reasons for prolonged or insufficient fracture healing often occurring within immunologically restricted patients.


Assuntos
Consolidação da Fratura/imunologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Inflamação/imunologia , Indutores da Angiogênese/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/imunologia , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/imunologia , Fraturas Ósseas/patologia , Hematoma/imunologia , Hematoma/patologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/imunologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Leucócitos/patologia , Masculino , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Fenótipo
18.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 13(5): 267-279, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28331208

RESUMO

Immune cells constantly patrol the body via the bloodstream and migrate into multiple tissues where they face variable and sometimes demanding environmental conditions. Nutrient and oxygen availability can vary during homeostasis, and especially during the course of an immune response, creating a demand for immune cells that are highly metabolically dynamic. As an evolutionary response, immune cells have developed different metabolic programmes to supply them with cellular energy and biomolecules, enabling them to cope with changing and challenging metabolic conditions. In the past 5 years, it has become clear that cellular metabolism affects immune cell function and differentiation, and that disease-specific metabolic configurations might provide an explanation for the dysfunctional immune responses seen in rheumatic diseases. This Review outlines the metabolic challenges faced by immune cells in states of homeostasis and inflammation, as well as the variety of metabolic configurations utilized by immune cells during differentiation and activation. Changes in cellular metabolism that contribute towards the dysfunctional immune responses seen in rheumatic diseases are also briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Inflamação/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Homeostase , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Redes e Vias Metabólicas
19.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 12: 433-445, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28138240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bioengineered plant-derived Rhamnogalacturonan-Is (RG-Is) from pectins are potential candidates for surface nanocoating of medical devices. It has recently been reported that RG-I nanocoatings may prevent bacterial infection and improve the biocompatibility of implants. The aim of the study was to evaluate in vitro impact of bioengineered RG-I nanocoatings on osteogenic capacity and proinflammatory cytokine response of murine osteoblasts following Porphyromonas gingivalis infection. METHODS: Murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts and isolated primary calvarial osteoblasts from C57BL/6J (B6J osteoblasts) mice were infected with P. gingivalis and incubated on tissue culture polystyrene plates with or without nanocoatings of unmodified RG-Is isolated from potato pulps (PU) or dearabinanated RG-Is (PA). To investigate a behavior of infected osteoblasts cultured on RG-Is cell morphology, proliferation, metabolic activity, mineralization and osteogenic and pro-inflammatory gene expression were examined. RESULTS: Following P. gingivalis infection, PA, but not PU, significantly promoted MC3T3-E1 and BJ6 osteoblasts proliferation, metabolic activity, and calcium deposition. Moreover, Il-1b, Il-6, TNF-α, and Rankl gene expressions were downregulated in cells cultured on PU and to a higher extent on PA as compared to the corresponding control, whereas Runx, Alpl, Col1a1, and Bglap gene expressions were upregulated vice versa. CONCLUSION: Our data clearly showed that pectin RG-Is nanocoating with high content of galactan (PA) reduces the osteoblastic response to P. gingivalis infection in vitro and may, therefore, reduce a risk of inflammation especially in immunocompromised patients with rheumatoid or periodontal disorders.


Assuntos
Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Inflamação/patologia , Nanopartículas/química , Osteoblastos/microbiologia , Osteoblastos/patologia , Pectinas/farmacologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/fisiologia , Solanum tuberosum/química , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
20.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 39: 186-192, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27908413

RESUMO

Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) is a rare inherited disease characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification. Disease onset, severity and symptoms vary between FOP patients, as does the frequency and activity of so-called flare-ups, during which tendons, ligaments, muscle and soft tissue are replaced by bone. Traumata, infections or other stressors are known inducers of flare-ups, and the hormone Activin A may be involved in disease activity; however, reliable biomarkers for FOP activity are missing, and the basal trace element and inflammatory state of patients are unknown. We hypothesized that FOP patients develop characteristic deficiencies in inflammation-related trace elements and display a chronically increased inflammatory cytokine level, collectively aggravating disease course and flare-up risk. Serum samples from 15 FOP patients and 25 relatives were collected under highest quality standards. Concentrations of Cu, Se and Zn were determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence, and 27 cytokines along with Activin A by specific antibody-based techniques. Data were tested for normal distribution and analyzed by parametric or non-parametric tests. Concentrations of Se and Cu were not different between the groups, while Zn levels were slightly higher in FOP as compared to controls (1110±251 vs. 970±176ng/ml, P=0.04). The average concentrations of cytokines and Activin A were not different. When focusing on the two patients with self-reported flare-ups, again no obvious differences were noted. The cytokines Eotaxin, G-CSF, hbFGF and TNF-α were within the upper half of measured concentrations, and may warrant further longitudinal analyses. Our data do not support the hypothesis that FOP patients display a characteristic pattern of trace elements or have a generally increased tone of pro-inflammatory cytokines.


Assuntos
Citocinas/sangue , Miosite Ossificante/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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