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1.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394016

RESUMO

Although pork producers typically aim to optimize growth rates, occasionally it is necessary to slow growth, such as when harvest facility capacity is limited. In finishing pigs, numerous dietary strategies can be used to slow growth so pigs are at optimal slaughter body weights when harvest facility capacity and/or access is restored. However, the impact of these diets on pork carcass quality is largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of dietary strategies to slow growth in late finishing pigs and evaluate their effects on carcass composition and pork quality. Mixed-sex pigs (n = 897; 125 ± 2 kg BW) were randomly allotted across 48 pens and assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments (n = 8 pens/treatment): (1) Control diet representative of a typical finisher diet (CON); (2) diet containing 3% calcium chloride (CaCl2); (3) diet containing 97% corn and no soybean meal (Corn); (4) diet deficient in isoleucine (LowIle); (5) diet containing 15% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from soybean hulls (15% NDF); and (6) diet containing 20% NDF from soybean hulls (20% NDF). Over 42 d, pen body weights and feed disappearance were collected. Pigs were harvested in 3 groups (14, 28, and 42 d on feed) and carcass data collected. From the harvest group, 1 loin was collected from 120 randomly selected carcasses (20 loins/treatment) to evaluate pork quality traits. Overall, ADG was reduced in CaCl2, Corn, and 20% NDF pigs compared with CON pigs (P < 0.001). However, ADFI was only reduced in CaCl2 and 20% NDF pigs compared with CON (P < 0.001). Feed efficiency was reduced in CaCl2 and Corn pigs compared with CON (P < 0.001). Hot carcass weights were reduced in CaCl2 pigs at all harvest dates (P < 0.001) and were reduced in Corn and 20% NDF pigs at days 28 and 42 compared with CON pigs (P < 0.001). In general, CaCl2 and 20% NDF diets resulted in leaner carcasses, whereas the Corn diet increased backfat by 42 d on test (P < 0.05). Loin pH was reduced and star probe increased in CaCl2 pigs compared with CON pigs (P < 0.05); no treatments differed from CON pigs regarding drip loss, cook loss, color, firmness, or marbling (P ≥ 0.117). Overall, these data indicate that several dietary strategies can slow finishing pig growth without evidence of behavioral vices. However, changes to carcass composition and quality were also observed, indicating quality should be taken into consideration when choosing diets to slow growth.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Carne de Porco , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Composição Corporal , Dieta/veterinária
2.
Virology ; 552: 43-51, 2021 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059319

RESUMO

This study focused on intestinal restitution including phenotype switching of absorptive enterocytes and the abundance of different enterocyte subtypes in weaned pigs after porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection. At 10 days post-PEDV-inoculation, the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in both jejunum and ileum had restored, and the PEDV antigen was not detectable. However, enterocytes at the villus tips revealed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the jejunum in which E-cadherin expression decreased while expression of N-cadherin, vimentin, and Snail increased. Additionally, there was reduced expression of actin in microvilli and Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in tight junctions. Moreover, the protein concentration of transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFß1), which mediates EMT and cytoskeleton alteration, was increased. We also found a decreased number of Peyer's patch M cells in the ileum. These results reveal incomplete restitution of enterocytes in the jejunum and potentially impaired immune surveillance in the ileum after PEDV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Enterócitos/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/patologia , Nódulos Linfáticos Agregados/patologia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/patogenicidade , Animais , Caderinas/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/imunologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/virologia , Íleo/imunologia , Íleo/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Jejuno/imunologia , Jejuno/patologia , Microvilosidades/patologia , Suínos , Junções Íntimas/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Desmame
3.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(11)2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142960

RESUMO

Multidrug-resistant (MDR; resistance to >3 antimicrobial classes) Salmonella enterica serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- strains were linked to a 2015 foodborne outbreak from pork. Strain USDA15WA-1, associated with the outbreak, harbors an MDR module and the metal tolerance element Salmonella Genomic Island 4 (SGI-4). Characterization of SGI-4 revealed that conjugational transfer of SGI-4 resulted in the mobile genetic element (MGE) replicating as a plasmid or integrating into the chromosome. Tolerance to copper, arsenic, and antimony compounds was increased in Salmonella strains containing SGI-4 compared to strains lacking the MGE. Following Salmonella exposure to copper, RNA-seq transcriptional analysis demonstrated significant differential expression of diverse genes and pathways, including induction of at least 38 metal tolerance genes (copper, arsenic, silver, and mercury). Evaluation of swine administered elevated concentrations of zinc oxide (2000 mg/kg) and copper sulfate (200 mg/kg) as an antimicrobial feed additive (Zn+Cu) in their diet for four weeks prior to and three weeks post-inoculation with serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- indicated that Salmonella shedding levels declined at a slower rate in pigs receiving in-feed Zn+Cu compared to control pigs (no Zn+Cu). The presence of metal tolerance genes in MDR Salmonella serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- may provide benefits for environmental survival or swine colonization in metal-containing settings.

4.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 587926, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195620

RESUMO

Swine dysentery (SD) induced by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae manifests as mucohemorrhagic diarrhea in pigs, but little is known about the changes that occur to the gastrointestinal tract during this disease. It is thought that dietary fibers alter disease pathogenesis, although the mechanisms of action are unclear. Thus, the objectives of this study were to characterize intestinal integrity, metabolism, and function in pigs during SD and determine if replacing insoluble fiber with fermentable fibers mitigates disease. Thirty-six B. hyodysenteriae-negative gilts [24.3 ± 3.6 kg body weight (BW)] were assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) B. hyodysenteriae negative, control diet (NC); (2) B. hyodysenteriae challenged, control diet (PC); and (3) B. hyodysenteriae challenged, highly fermentable fiber diet (RS). The NC and PC pigs were fed the same control diet, containing 20% corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The RS pigs were fed a diet formulated with 5% sugar beet pulp and 5% resistant potato starch. On days post inoculation (dpi) 0 and 1, pigs were inoculated with B. hyodysenteriae or sham. Pigs were euthanized for sample collection after onset of SD. The challenge had high morbidity, with 100% of PC and 75% of RS pigs developing clinical SD. The timing of onset of clinical SD differed due to treatment, with RS pigs having a delayed onset (dpi 9) of clinical SD compared with dpi 7 for PC pigs. Colon transepithelial resistance was increased and macromolecule permeability was reduced in PC pigs compared with NC pigs (P < 0.01). Minimal changes in ileal permeability, mitochondrial function, or volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were observed. Total VFA concentrations were lower in the colon and cecum in both PC and RS pigs compared to NC pigs (both P < 0.05), but iso-acids were higher (both P < 0.05). Total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), and gross energy (GE) was lower in PC pigs compared with both NC and RS pigs (both P < 0.001). These data indicate that SD reduces digestive function but does not reduce ex vivo intestinal integrity. Further, replacement of insoluble fiber with highly fermentable fibers mitigated and delayed the onset of SD.

5.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1139, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612605

RESUMO

T cells resident within the intestinal epithelium play a central role in barrier integrity and provide a first line of immune defense. Intraepithelial T cells (IETs) are among the earliest immune cells to populate and protect intestinal tissues, thereby giving them an important role in shaping gut health early in life. In pigs, IETs are poorly defined, and their maturation in young pigs has not been well-studied. Given the importance of IETs in contributing to early life and long-term intestinal health through interactions with epithelial cells, the microbiota, and additional environmental factors, a deeper characterization of IETs in pigs is warranted. The objective of this study was to analyze age- and intestinal location-dependent changes in IETs across multiple sites of the small and large intestine in pigs between 4- and 8-weeks of age. IETs increased in abundance over time and belonged to both γδ and αß T cell lineages. Similar compositions of IETs were identified across intestinal sites in 4-week-old pigs, but compositions diverged between intestinal sites as pigs aged. CD2+CD8α+ γδ T cells and CD4-CD8α+ αß T cells comprised >78% of total IETs at all intestinal locations and ages examined. Greater percentages of γδ IETs were present in large intestine compared to small intestine in older pigs. Small intestinal tissues had greater percentages of CD2+CD8α- γδ IETs, while CD2+CD8α+ γδ IET percentages were greater in the large intestine. Percentages of CD4-CD8α+ αß IETs increased over time across all intestinal sites. Moreover, percentages of CD27+ cells decreased in ileum and large intestine over time, indicating increased IET activation as pigs aged. Percentages of CD27+ cells were also higher in small intestine compared to large intestine at later timepoints. Results herein emphasize 4- to 8-weeks of age as a critical window of IET maturation and suggest strong associations between intestinal location and age with IET heterogeneity in pigs.

6.
Transl Anim Sci ; 4(2): txaa045, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705042

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of lactose (LA) and a prototype Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product (FP) on growth performance, diet digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and intestinal function of weaned pigs. Twenty-eight newly weaned pigs [approximately 21 d of age; initial body weight (BW) = 5.20 ± 0.15 kg] were housed in metabolism crates and assigned to one of four treatments (n = seven pigs per treatment) corresponding to a 2 × 2 factorial design: with (LA+; 15% inclusion) or without (LA-) LA and with (FP+) or without (FP-) the prototype FP (1 g of FP per kilogram of diet; Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA). Feed and water were provided ad libitum. At day 5, pigs were orally given lactulose and mannitol to assess small intestinal permeability. Fecal samples were collected on days 5-9 to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), and N. Total urine output and fecal samples were collected on days 10-13 to determine N retention. On day 15, all pigs were euthanized to collect intestinal lumen and tissue samples. Data were analyzed for the main effects of LA and FP and their interaction using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Lactose improved average daily feed intake (ADFI; P = 0.017), the ATTD of DM (P = 0.014), the ATTD of GE (P = 0.028), and N retention (P = 0.043) and tended to increase the butyric acid concentration in the colon (P = 0.062). The FP tended to increase the digestibility of N (P = 0.090). Neither LA nor the FP affected intestinal barrier function or inflammation markers. The interaction between LA and FP affected intestinal morphology: in the jejunum, pigs fed LA+FP- had increased villus height compared with those fed LA+FP+ and LA-FP-, whereas LA+FP+ was intermediate (interaction P = 0.034). At the terminal ileum, pigs fed LA-FP+ and LA+FP- had increased villus height and villus: crypt compared with those fed LA-FP-, whereas LA+FP+ was intermediate (interaction P = 0.007 and P = 0.007, respectively). In conclusion, the addition of LA brings important nutritional attributes to nursery diets by improving feed intake, digestibility of DM and GE, and the N retention of weaned pigs; however, the functional capacity of LA to improve markers of intestinal function is limited. On the other hand, the FP showed only a mild increase in the digestibility of N but a limited capacity to improve markers of intestinal function.

7.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536908

RESUMO

Post-weaning diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) causes significant economic losses for pig producers. This study was to test the hypotheses that an ETEC challenge disrupts intestinal microbial homeostasis and the inclusion of dietary soluble (10% sugar beet pulp) or insoluble fiber (15% corn distillers dried grains with solubles) with or without exogenous carbohydrases will protect or restore the gut microbial homeostasis in weaned pigs. Sixty crossbred piglets (6.9 ± 0.1 kg) were blocked by body weight and randomly assigned to one of six treatments (n = 10), including a non-challenged control (NC), ETEC F18-challenged positive control (PC), ETEC-challenged soluble fiber without (SF-) or with carbohydrases (SF+), and ETEC-challenged insoluble fiber without (IF-) or with carbohydrases (IF+). Pigs were housed individually and orally received either ETEC inoculum or PBS-sham inoculum on day 7 post-weaning. Intestinal contents were collected on day 14 or 15. The V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA was amplified and sequenced. High-quality reads (total 6,671,739) were selected and clustered into 3,330 OTUs. No differences were observed in α-diversity among treatments. The ileal microbiota in NC and PC had modest separation in the weighted PCoA plot; the microbial structures were slightly altered by SF+ and IF- compared with PC. The PC increased ileal Escherichia-Shigella (P < 0.01) and numerically decreased Lactobacillus compared to NC. Predicted functional pathways enriched in the ileal microbiota of PC pigs indicated enhanced activity of Gram-negative bacteria, in agreement with increased Escherichia-Shigella. The SF+ tended to decrease (P < 0.10) ileal Escherichia-Shigella compared to PC. Greater abundance of ileal Streptococcus, Turicibacter, and Roseburia and colonic Prevotella were observed in SF- and SF+ than PC (P < 0.05). Pigs fed IF + had greater Lactobacillus and Roseburia than PC pigs (P < 0.05). The ETEC challenge reduced total volatile fatty acid (VFA) compared with NC (P < 0.05). The SF+ tended to increase (P < 0.10) and SF- significantly increased (P < 0.05) colonic total VFA compared with PC. Collectively, ETEC challenge disrupted gut microbial homeostasis and impaired microbial fermentation capacity. Soluble fiber improved VFA production. Dietary fiber and carbohydrases altered microbiota composition to maintain or restore microbial homeostasis.

8.
J Anim Sci ; 98(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175579

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) compromises pig performance. However, increasing standardized ileal digestible Lys per Mcal metabolizable energy (SID Lys:ME) above requirement has been shown to mitigate reduced performance seen during a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing the dietary SID Lys:ME from 100% National Research Council (NRC) requirement to 120% of the requirement in vaccinated (vac+; modified live vaccine Ingelvac PRRS) and non-vaccinated (vac-; no PRRS vaccine) grower pigs subjected to a PRRSV challenge. In addition, the dietary formulation approach to achieve the 120% ratio by increasing Lys relative to energy (HL) or diluting energy in relation to Lys (LE) was evaluated. This allowed us to test the hypothesis that pigs undergoing a health challenge would have the ability to eat to their energy needs. Within vaccine status, 195 mixed-sex pigs, vac+ (35.2 ± 0.60 kg body weight [BW]) and vac- (35.2 ± 0.65 kg BW) were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments (2.67, 3.23, or 3.22 g SID Lys:ME) for a 42-d PRRS virus challenge study representing 100%, 120%, and 120% of NRC requirement, respectively. Pigs were randomly allotted across two barns, each containing 24 pens with 7 to 10 pigs per pen (8 pens per diet per vaccine status). On day post-inoculation 0, both barns were inoculated with PRRSV and started on experimental diets. Within vaccine status, weekly and overall challenge period pig performance were assessed. In both vac+ (P < 0.05) and vac- (P < 0.05) pigs, the HL and LE diets increased end BW and overall average daily gain (ADG) ADG compared with pigs fed the control diet (P < 0.05). Overall, average daily feed intake (ADFI) during the challenge period was greater (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the LE diet compared with pigs fed control and HL treatments, regardless of vaccine status (20% and 17% higher ADFI than the control in vac+ and vac- pigs, respectively). The HL vac+ pigs had the greatest gain to feed (G:F) compared with the control and LE pigs (0.438 vs. 0.394 and 0.391 kg/kg, respectively; P < 0.01). Feed efficiency was not impacted (P > 0.10) by treatment in the vac- pigs. In summary, PRRSV-challenged grower pigs consumed feed to meet their energy needs as indicated by the increase in ADFI when energy was diluted in the (LE) diet, compared with control pigs. In both PRRS vac+ and vac- pigs subsequently challenged with PRRSV, regardless of formulation approach, fed 120% SID Lys:ME diets resulted in enhanced overall growth performance.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Lisina/farmacologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Íleo/metabolismo , Lisina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Suínos , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227265, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910236

RESUMO

Pathogen challenges are often accompanied by reductions in feed intake, making it difficult to differentiate impacts of reduced feed intake from impacts of pathogen on various response parameters. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the impact of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) and feed intake on parameters of jejunal function and integrity in growing pigs. Twenty-four pigs (11.34 ± 1.54 kg BW) were randomly selected and allotted to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 8 pigs/treatment): 1) PRRSV naïve, ad libitum fed (Ad), 2) PRRSV-inoculated, ad libitum fed (PRRS+), and 3) PRRSV naïve, pair-fed to the PRRS+ pigs' daily feed intake (PF). At 17 days post inoculation, all pigs were euthanized and the jejunum was collected for analysis. At days post inoculation 17, PRRS+ and PF pigs had decreased (P < 0.05) transepithelial resistance compared with Ad pigs; whereas fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4 kDa permeability was not different among treatments. Active glucose transport was increased (P < 0.05) in PRRS+ and PF pigs compared with Ad pigs. Brush border carbohydrase activity was reduced in PRRS+ pigs compared with PF pigs for lactase (55%; P = 0.015), sucrase (37%; P = 0.002), and maltase (30%; P = 0.015). For all three carbohydrases, Ad pigs had activities intermediate that of PRRS+ and PF pigs. The mRNA abundance of the tight junction proteins claudin 2, claudin 3, claudin 4, occludin, and zonula occludens-1 were reduced in PRRS+ pigs compared with Ad pigs; however, neither the total protein abundance nor the cellular compartmentalization of these tight junction proteins differed among treatments. Taken together, this study demonstrates that the changes that occur to intestinal epithelium structure, function, and integrity during a systemic PRRSV challenge can be partially explained by reductions in feed intake. Further, long term adaptation to PRRSV challenge and caloric restriction does reduce intestinal transepithelial resistance but does not appear to reduce the integrity of tight junction protein complexes.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Jejuno/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/fisiopatologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/patogenicidade , Animais , Restrição Calórica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Jejuno/citologia , Jejuno/metabolismo , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/isolamento & purificação , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
10.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 728, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether improving feed efficiency by selection for low residual feed intake (RFI) compromises pigs' immunocompetence. Here, we aimed at investigating whether pig lines divergently selected for RFI had different inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure, regarding to clinical presentations and transcriptomic changes in peripheral blood cells. RESULTS: LPS injection induced acute systemic inflammation in both the low-RFI and high-RFI line (n = 8 per line). At 4 h post injection (hpi), the low-RFI line had a significantly lower (p = 0.0075) mean rectal temperature compared to the high-RFI line. However, no significant differences in complete blood count or levels of several plasma cytokines were detected between the two lines. Profiling blood transcriptomes at 0, 2, 6, and 24 hpi by RNA-sequencing revealed that LPS induced dramatic transcriptional changes, with 6296 genes differentially expressed at at least one time point post injection relative to baseline in at least one line (n = 4 per line) (|log2(fold change)| ≥ log2(1.2); q < 0.05). Furthermore, applying the same cutoffs, we detected 334 genes differentially expressed between the two lines at at least one time point, including 33 genes differentially expressed between the two lines at baseline. But no significant line-by-time interaction effects were detected. Genes involved in protein translation, defense response, immune response, and signaling were enriched in different co-expression clusters of genes responsive to LPS stimulation. The two lines were largely similar in their peripheral blood transcriptomic responses to LPS stimulation at the pathway level, although the low-RFI line had a slightly lower level of inflammatory response than the high-RFI line from 2 to 6 hpi and a slightly higher level of inflammatory response than the high-RFI line at 24 hpi. CONCLUSIONS: The pig lines divergently selected for RFI had a largely similar response to LPS stimulation. However, the low-RFI line had a relatively lower-level, but longer-lasting, inflammatory response compared to the high-RFI line. Our results suggest selection for feed efficient pigs does not significantly compromise a pig's acute systemic inflammatory response to LPS, although slight differences in intensity and duration may occur.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/genética , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/sangue , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/induzido quimicamente
11.
J Anim Sci ; 97(12): 4710-4720, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634906

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the influence of a dual respiratory and enteric pathogen challenge on growth performance, carcass composition, and pork quality of high and low feed efficient pigs. Pigs divergently selected for low and high residual feed intake (RFI, ~68 kg) from the 11th generation of Iowa State University RFI project were used to represent high and low feed efficiency. To elicit a dual pathogen challenge, half of the pigs (n = 12/line) were inoculated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) and Lawsonia intracellularis (MhLI) on days post-inoculation (dpi) 0. Pigs in a separate room of the barn were not inoculated and used as controls (n = 12/RFI line). Pigs were weighed and feed intake was recorded to calculate ADG, ADFI, and G:F for the acclimation period (period 1: dpi -21 to 0), during peak infection (period 2: dpi 0 to 42), and during the remaining growth period to reach market weight (period 3: dpi 42 to harvest). At ~125 kg, pigs were harvested using standard commercial procedures. Carcasses were evaluated for composition (weight, fat free lean, loin eye area, 10th rib fat depth) and meat quality (pH decline, temperature decline, Hunter L, a, and b, subjective color and marbling, star probe, drip loss, cook loss, proximate composition, and desmin degradation). Challenged pigs had lesser ADFI than controls during period 2 (P < 0.05), but had greater ADG and G:F during period 3 (P < 0.05). Selection for feed efficiency did not result in a differential response to MhLI (P > 0.05). Loin chops from the less feed efficient, high RFI pigs, had greater drip loss, greater cook loss, lesser moisture content, greater Hunter L values, and greater Hunter b values (P < 0.05) than loin chops from low RFI pigs. Infection status did not significantly affect carcass composition or pork quality traits (P > 0.05). These results indicate that a MhLI challenge early in growth did not significantly affect ultimate carcass composition or meat quality traits. Selection for greater feed efficiency in pigs did not affect their response to pathogenic challenge.


Assuntos
Infecções por Desulfovibrionaceae/veterinária , Lawsonia (Bactéria) , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/microbiologia , Carne de Porco/normas , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal , Coinfecção/veterinária , Infecções por Desulfovibrionaceae/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/patologia , Suínos
12.
J Anim Sci ; 97(9): 3617-3625, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298271

RESUMO

Supplemental arginine (Arg) during gestation purportedly benefits fetal development. However, the benefits of a gestational Arg dietary strategy in commercial production are unclear. Therefore, the objectives of this study examined Arg supplementation during different gestational stages and the effects on gilt reproductive performance. Pubertal gilts (n = 548) were allocated into 4 treatment groups: Control (n = 143; 0% supplemental Arg) or 1 of 3 supplemental Arg (1% as fed) treatments: from 15 to 45 d of gestation (n = 138; Early-Arg); from 15 d of gestation until farrowing (n = 139; Full-Arg); or from 85 d of gestation until farrowing (n = 128; Late-Arg). At farrowing, the number of total born (TB), born alive (BA), stillborn piglets (SB), mummified fetuses (MM), and individual piglet birth weights (BiWt) were recorded. The wean-to-estrus interval (WEI) and subsequent sow reproductive performance (to third parity) were also monitored. No significant effect of supplemental Arg during any part of P0 gestation was observed for TB, BA, SB, or MM (P ≥ 0.29). Offspring BiWt and variation among individual piglet birth weights did not differ (P = 0.42 and 0.89, respectively) among treatment groups. Following weaning, the WEI was similar among treatments (average of 8.0 ± 0.8 d; P = 0.88). Litter performance over 3 parities revealed a decrease (P = 0.02) in BA for Early-Arg fed gilts compared with all other treatments, whereas TB and WEI were similar among treatments over 3 parities (P > 0.05). There was an increased proportion of sows with average size litters (12 to 16 TB) from the Full-Arg treatment sows (76.8% ± 3.7%) when compared with Control (58.7% ± 4.2%; P = 0.01); however, the proportion of sows with high (>16 TB) and low (<12 TB) litters was not different among treatments (P = 0.20). These results suggest that gestational Arg supplementation had a minimal impact on reproductive performance in first parity sows. These data underscore the complexity of AA supplementation and the need for continued research into understanding how and when utilizing a gestational dietary Arg strategy can optimize fetal development and sow performance.


Assuntos
Arginina/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Reprodução , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Estro/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/efeitos dos fármacos , Paridade/efeitos dos fármacos , Parto/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Desmame
13.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1381, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275319

RESUMO

Interactions between diet, the microbiota, and the host set the ecological conditions in the gut and have broad implications for health. Prebiotics are dietary compounds that may shift conditions toward health by promoting the growth of beneficial microbes that produce metabolites capable of modulating host cells. This study's objective was to assess how a dietary prebiotic could impact host tissues via modulation of the intestinal microbiota. Pigs fed a diet amended with 5% resistant potato starch (RPS) exhibited alterations associated with gut health relative to swine fed an unamended control diet (CON). RPS intake increased abundances of anaerobic Clostridia in feces and several tissues, as well as intestinal concentrations of butyrate. Functional gene amplicons suggested bacteria similar to Anaerostipes hadrus were stimulated by RPS intake. The CON treatment exhibited increased abundances of several genera of Proteobacteria (which utilize respiratory metabolisms) in several intestinal locations. RPS intake increased the abundance of regulatory T cells in the cecum, but not periphery, and cecal immune status alterations were indicative of enhanced mucosal defenses. A network analysis of host and microbial changes in the cecum revealed that regulatory T cells positively correlated with butyrate concentration, luminal IgA concentration, expression of IL-6 and DEF1B, and several mucosa-associated bacterial taxa. Thus, the administration of RPS modulated the microbiota and host immune status, altering markers of cecal barrier function and immunological tolerance, and suggesting a reduced niche for bacterial respiration.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Imunomodulação , Metaboloma , Solanum tuberosum , Amido , Animais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Imunofenotipagem , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Metabolômica/métodos , Metagenoma , Metagenômica/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Fenótipo , Solanum tuberosum/química , Amido/química , Suínos
14.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(4): 537-545, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170897

RESUMO

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is commonly fed to pigs at pharmacologic concentrations (2,000-3,000 ppm) for the first 3 wk post-weaning to increase growth and reduce enteric bacterial disease. The safety of this high-dose treatment is assumed based upon lower bioavailability of ZnO compared to other common forms of Zn in feed; however, limited data are available regarding the specific serum and tissue concentrations of Zn expected in animals experiencing overload following feeding of excessive ZnO. Fifty-five 3-wk-old pigs were divided into 5 groups receiving various concentrations of ZnO (0-6,000 ppm) for 3 wk. Pigs receiving 6,000 ppm ZnO had higher mean pancreatic Zn concentrations (p < 0.001) compared to other treatments, and higher pancreatic Zn concentrations were associated with pancreatic acinar cell apoptosis (p < 0.0001). Hepatic Zn concentrations were highest for pigs receiving 6,000 ppm ZnO (mean ± SEM; 729 ± 264 ppm) and significantly higher than all other groups (p < 0.0001), with controls having concentrations <60 ppm. Similarly, serum Zn was highest in pigs receiving 6,000 ppm ZnO (4.81 ± 2.31 ppm) and significantly higher than all groups (controls, <1 ppm). Additionally, as pigs became overloaded with Zn, there were significant reductions in serum Cu and both serum and hepatic Se. Hepatic and serum Zn concentrations >500 ppm and >2 ppm, respectively, are indicative of Zn overload, and dietary trace mineral analysis is warranted if expected inclusion rates are ≤3,000 ppm ZnO.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Suínos/induzido quimicamente , Óxido de Zinco/administração & dosagem , Zinco/sangue , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Óxido de Zinco/química
15.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3213-3227, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212312

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus is one of the most economically significant pig pathogens worldwide. However, the metabolic explanation for reductions in tissue accretion observed in growing pigs remains poorly defined. Additionally, PRRS virus challenge is often accompanied by reduced feed intake, making it difficult to discern which effects are virus vs. feed intake driven. To account for this, a pair-fed model was employed to examine the effects of PRRS challenge and nutrient restriction on skeletal muscle and liver metabolism. Forty-eight pigs were randomly selected (13.1 ± 1.97 kg BW) and allotted to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 16 pigs/treatment): 1) PRRS naïve, ad libitum fed (Ad), 2) PRRS-inoculated, ad libitum fed (PRRS+), and 3) PRRS naïve, pair-fed to the PRRS-inoculated pigs' daily feed intake (PF). At days postinoculation (dpi) 10 and 17, 8 pigs per treatment were euthanized and tissues collected. Tissues were assayed for markers of proteolysis (LM only), protein synthesis (LM only), oxidative stress (LM only), gluconeogenesis (liver), and glycogen concentrations (LM and liver). Growth performance, feed intake, and feed efficiency were all reduced in both PRRS+ and PF pigs compared with Ad pigs (P < 0.001). Furthermore, growth performance and feed efficiency were additionally reduced in PRRS+ pigs compared with PF pigs (P < 0.05). Activity of most markers of LM proteolysis (µ-calpain, 20S proteasome, and caspase 3/7) was not increased (P > 0.10) in PRRS+ pigs compared with Ad pigs, although activity of m-calpain was increased in PRRS+ pigs compared with Ad pigs (P = 0.025) at dpi 17. Muscle reactive oxygen species production was not increased (P > 0.10) in PRRS+ pigs compared with Ad pigs. However, phosphorylation of protein synthesis markers was decreased in PRRS+ pigs compared with both Ad (P < 0.05) and PF (P < 0.05) pigs. Liver gluconeogenesis was not increased as a result of PRRS; however, liver glycogen was decreased (P < 0.01) in PRRS+ pigs compared with Ad and PF pigs at both time points. Taken together, this work demonstrates the differential impact a viral challenge and nutrient restriction have on metabolism of growing pigs. Although markers of skeletal muscle proteolysis showed limited evidence of increase, markers of skeletal muscle synthesis were reduced during PRRS viral challenge. Furthermore, liver glycogenolysis seems to provide PRRS+ pigs with glucose needed to fuel the immune response during viral challenge.


Assuntos
Gluconeogênese , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/metabolismo , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/fisiologia , Proteólise , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Calpaína/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos
16.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0216070, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026263

RESUMO

Antibiotics have been used for over 60 years by the swine industry to improve growth performance and feed efficiency. With rising concerns over antimicrobial resistance and government restrictions such as the Veterinary Feed Directive on usage of in-feed antibiotics, alternatives to feeding antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) to nursery pigs are needed. However, the mechanism of action by which AGPs work is poorly understood. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of action by which AGPs increase nursery pig performance. Over two replicates, 24 weaned pigs (6.75 ± 0.75 kg body weight) were randomly allotted to either control (CON, n = 12) or sub-therapeutic antibiotic (sCTC, n = 12) treatments and housed individually. A 2-phase corn-soybean-based nursery diet was fed, with the sCTC diets containing 40 ppm feed-grade chlortetracycline. Individual pig average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain to feed ratio (G:F) were calculated weekly for 5 weeks. Thereafter, all pigs were euthanized and necropsied for tissue collection. The overall performance data indicated that sCTC pigs had increased ADG (0.43 vs. 0.32 kg/d, P = 0.001) and ADFI (0.51 vs. 0.37 kg/d, P = 0.002) compared with CON pigs; however, G:F was not different as a result of dietary treatment (0.85 vs. 0.88, P = 0.617). Intestinal barrier permeability, ileal active nutrient transport, and cecal short chain fatty acid concentrations did not differ (P > 0.10) due to dietary treatment, however changes in several ileum mRNA transcripts suggest that inflammation may be reduced in sCTC pigs. Further, the changes observed in the proteomes of the ileum, colon, skeletal muscle, and liver suggest that the sub-therapeutic mode of action of AGPs may include post-absorptive changes and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/fisiologia , Permeabilidade , Proteoma/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
J Anim Sci ; 97(6): 2376-2384, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980078

RESUMO

Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) are 2 globally distributed pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality in grow-finish pigs. However, mechanisms that reduce growth and feed efficiency during LI and Mh infection are poorly defined. We hypothesized that reductions in performance are partially due to declines in intestinal function and integrity; thus, this study aimed to evaluate intestinal function and integrity of pigs during a 21-d Mh and LI dual challenge (MhLI). Littermate pairs of barrows (48.1 ± 6.7 kg BW) were selected; 1 pig from each pair was assigned to either MhLI challenge or nonchallenge treatments (n = 12). Pigs were individually housed, fed a corn-soybean diet, and allowed to acclimate for 21 d prior to inoculation. On days postinoculation (dpi) 0, MhLI pigs were dual inoculated with LI and Mh. On dpi 21, all pigs were euthanized for ileal and colon tissue collection. Formalin-fixed tissues were clinically scored and morphology analyzed, frozen tissues assayed for digestive enzyme activities, and fresh tissues mounted into modified Ussing Chambers to assess active nutrient transport, barrier integrity, and bacterial translocation. Data were analyzed using the Mixed Procedure of SAS with treatment as a fixed effect, age and start BW as covariates, and litter as a random effect. Compared with controls, MhLI pigs had decreased ADG (38%, P < 0.001), ADFI (25%, P < 0.001), and G:F (19%, P = 0.012). The MhLI dual challenge did not alter ileum morphology or transepithelial resistance (P > 0.10); however, ex vivo mucosal to serosal translocation of S. Typhimurium in the colon was increased (60%, P = 0.003) in MhLI pigs compared with controls. Additionally, MhLI pigs had increased ileal glucose transport (30%, P = 0.05) and decreased sucrase activity (30%, P = 0.049) compared with controls. This MhLI challenge antagonized intestinal function and integrity, and this may be a contributing factor to reduced pig performance.


Assuntos
Infecções por Desulfovibrionaceae/veterinária , Lawsonia (Bactéria)/fisiologia , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/fisiologia , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Suínos/microbiologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Infecções por Desulfovibrionaceae/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Inflamação/veterinária , Intestinos/fisiologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Soja , Estresse Fisiológico , Suínos/fisiologia , Zea mays
18.
J Anim Sci ; 97(5): 2139-2153, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888017

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a source of dietary soluble (SF) and insoluble fiber (IF) without or with exogenous carbohydrases (xylanase, ß-glucanase, and pectinase) on diarrhea incidence, selected immune responses, and growth performance in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-challenged pigs. Sixty weaned pigs (6.9 ± 0.1 kg BW, ~23 d of age) were blocked by initial BW and placed in individual pens. Pens were randomly assigned to one of six treatments (n = 10 per treatment), including a nonchallenged control (NC), a positive challenge control (PC), the PC + a soluble fiber diet (10% sugar beet pulp) without (SF-) or with carbohydrases (SF+), and PC + an IF diet (15% corn distillers dried grains with solubles) without (IF-) or with carbohydrases (IF+). The control diet was primarily based on corn and soybean meal with 13.5% whey powder. The two sources of fiber were added at the expense of cornstarch in the control diet. Pigs were orally inoculated with 6 mL hemolytic F18 ETEC (~3.5 × 109 cfu/mL) or sham infected with 6 mL phosphate-buffered saline on day 7 (0 d postinoculation, dpi) postweaning. All ETEC challenged pigs were confirmed to be genetically susceptible to F18 ETEC. Pigs had free access to feed and water throughout the 14-d trial. Pig BW and feed intake were recorded on dpi -7, 0, and 7 or 8. Fecal swabs were collected on dpi -7, 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 or 8 to evaluate hemolytic E. coli shedding. Fecal score was visually ranked daily postchallenge to evaluate diarrhea incidence. Blood samples were collected on dpi -1, 3, and 7 or 8 at necropsy and intestinal tissues were collected at necropsy. Pigs on PC had lower dpi 1 to 7 ADG and ADFI than those on NC (P < 0.05). Compared with PC pigs, SF+ pigs had greater ADG during both pre- and postchallenge period (P < 0.05). The IF- increased postchallenge diarrhea incidence compared with PC (P < 0.05). Pigs on SF- had lower ileal E. coli attachment than PC (P < 0.05). The SF+ reduced haptoglobin and IF+ reduced C-reactive protein on dpi 3 compared with PC (P < 0.05). Compared with PC pigs, SF+ pigs tended to have lower ileal tumor necrosis factor alpha and greater ileal occludin (OCLN) mRNA (P < 0.10) and had greater (P < 0.05) colonic OCLN mRNA levels. Collectively, IF- increased incidence of diarrhea and fecal E. coli shedding compared with PC. The SF+ pigs had improved growth compared with PC pigs, likely due in part to a reduction in inflammatory intermediates.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Diarreia/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/fisiologia , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Animais , Diarreia/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Fermentação , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Íleo/metabolismo , Intestinos/microbiologia , Soja , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame , Zea mays
19.
Transl Anim Sci ; 3(1): 393-407, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704810

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) reduces grower pig performance. The amino acid (AA) requirements and lysine:metabolizable energy ratio (Lys:ME) of health-challenged pigs for optimum performance are poorly understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys:ME (g SID Lys per Mcal ME) on growth performance during a PRRSV challenge. In Exp. 1, a total of 379 barrows (51.3 ± 0.3 kg body weight [BW]) were allotted to one of six diets (1.87 to 3.41 Lys:ME) for a 35-d growth study. In Exp. 2, a total of 389 barrows (29.2 ± 0.23 kg BW) were allotted to one of six diets (2.39 to 3.91 Lys:ME) for a 49-d growth study. These isocaloric diets represented 80% to 130% of National Research Council (NRC) SID Lys requirement. For each experiment, pigs were randomly allotted across two barns of 24 pens each with seven to nine pigs per pen (four pens per diet per health status). On day 0, one barn was inoculated with live PRRSV, one barn sham inoculated (control), and all pigs were started on experimental diets. Pen growth performance and feed intake were recorded weekly and gain-to-feed ratio (G:F) was calculated. Breakpoint analysis was used to determine the Lys:ME that maximized average daily gain (ADG) and G:F over the 35 or 49-d test periods for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. In Exp. 1, increasing Lys:ME increased ADG (quadratic P = 0.01) and G:F (linear and quadratic P = 0.04) in control pigs over 35 d. In PRRSV-infected pigs, ADG and G:F increased linearly with increasing Lys:ME (P < 0.01). The Lys:ME for optimum ADG and G:F during PRRSV challenge was 2.83 and 3.17, respectively, compared to 2.24 and 2.83, respectively, in control pigs using a one-slope broken-line model. In Exp. 2, pigs in the control barn became naturally infected after 21 days post inoculation. Before infection, ADG and G:F increased with increasing Lys:ME in control and PRRSV-infected pigs (linear and quadratic P < 0.05), and optimum ADG and G:F were achieved at 3.02 and 2.92 Lys:ME, respectively, in PRRSV-infected pigs compared to 2.82 and 3.22 Lys:ME, respectively, in control pigs. Over the 49-d period, increasing Lys:ME improved ADG (P < 0.01, linear and quadratic) and G:F (linear P < 0.01) in naturally infected pigs. The response was similar in experimental infection for ADG (P < 0.01, linear and quadratic) and G:F (linear P = 0.01). The optimum ratio for ADG (2.86 vs. 3.12 Lys:ME) and G:F (3.18 vs. 3.08 Lys:ME) were similar between natural and experimental infection. In summary, increasing Lys:ME by 10% to 20% above NRC requirements improved performance and feed efficiency during an experimental and natural PRRSV challenge.

20.
Transl Anim Sci ; 3(2): 842-854, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704850

RESUMO

Heat stress (HS) is a major environmental stressor primarily affecting swine performance through negative effects on intestinal health. Zinc and butyric acid supplementation help maintain intestinal integrity and barrier function, and has been shown to be beneficial to swine during stress conditions. We tested a novel formulation of zinc butyrate (ZnB) to study whether it has protective effects toward swine using pig intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) and in a grower swine HS trial. IPEC-J2 cells were grown either under an inflammatory challenge (Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide) or HS (41.5 °C for 48 h) using Transwell plates. The tight junction integrity of the cells under various treatments, including ZnB, zinc sulfate, and calcium butyrate, was followed over a period of 36 to 48 h by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). During inflammatory challenge, ZnB-treated cells had the greatest TER (P < 0.05) at 36 h. When the cells were exposed to HS at 41.5 °C, ZnB-treated cells had similar TER to the cells incubated at 37.0 °C, indicating significant protection against HS. In the swine trial (two dietary treatments, control and an encapsulated form of 40% zinc butyrate [E-ZnB] in hydrogenated palm oil pearls, 12 pigs per treatment), grower gilts (35 ± 1 kg) were supplemented with E-ZnB for 24 d before being subjected to biphasic HS for 7 d, 30 to 32 °C for 8 h and 28 °C for 16 h, for a total duration of 56 h of HS. At the end of the HS phase, half the pigs were euthanized from each treatment (n = 6 per treatment), and growth performance was calculated. During the HS phase, average daily gain (ADG; 0.53 vs. 0.79 kg) and gain-to-feed ratio (G:F; 0.33 vs. 0.43) were greater in the E-ZnB group (P < 0.05). Although in vivo intestinal permeability increased during the HS phase (P < 0.05), no differences were observed in the present study for the intestinal health parameters measured including TER, villus height:crypt depth ratio, and in vivo and ex vivo intestinal permeability between the two treatment groups. In conclusion, results presented here demonstrate that E-ZnB supplementation during HS improves ADG and G:F in grower pigs. Although we could not measure any differences, the mode of action of butyric acid and zinc suggests that the performance improvements are related to improved intestinal health.

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