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1.
medRxiv ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642698

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta variant quickly rose to dominance in mid-2021, displacing other variants, including Alpha. Studies using data from the United Kingdom and India estimated that Delta was 40-80% more transmissible than Alpha, allowing Delta to become the globally dominant variant. However, it was unclear if the ostensible difference in relative transmissibility was due mostly to innate properties of Delta's infectiousness or differences in the study populations. To investigate, we formed a partnership with SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance programs from all six New England US states. By comparing logistic growth rates, we found that Delta emerged 37-163% faster than Alpha in early 2021 (37% Massachusetts, 75% New Hampshire, 95% Maine, 98% Rhode Island, 151% Connecticut, and 163% Vermont). We next computed variant-specific effective reproductive numbers and estimated that Delta was 58-120% more transmissible than Alpha across New England (58% New Hampshire, 68% Massachusetts, 76% Connecticut, 85% Rhode Island, 98% Maine, and 120% Vermont). Finally, using RT-PCR data, we estimated that Delta infections generate on average ∼6 times more viral RNA copies per mL than Alpha infections. Overall, our evidence indicates that Delta's enhanced transmissibility could be attributed to its innate ability to increase infectiousness, but its epidemiological dynamics may vary depending on the underlying immunity and behavior of distinct populations.

2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(31): 1059-1062, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351882

RESUMO

During July 2021, 469 cases of COVID-19 associated with multiple summer events and large public gatherings in a town in Barnstable County, Massachusetts, were identified among Massachusetts residents; vaccination coverage among eligible Massachusetts residents was 69%. Approximately three quarters (346; 74%) of cases occurred in fully vaccinated persons (those who had completed a 2-dose course of mRNA vaccine [Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna] or had received a single dose of Janssen [Johnson & Johnson] vaccine ≥14 days before exposure). Genomic sequencing of specimens from 133 patients identified the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in 119 (89%) and the Delta AY.3 sublineage in one (1%). Overall, 274 (79%) vaccinated patients with breakthrough infection were symptomatic. Among five COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized, four were fully vaccinated; no deaths were reported. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) cycle threshold (Ct) values in specimens from 127 vaccinated persons with breakthrough cases were similar to those from 84 persons who were unvaccinated, not fully vaccinated, or whose vaccination status was unknown (median = 22.77 and 21.54, respectively). The Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 is highly transmissible (1); vaccination is the most important strategy to prevent severe illness and death. On July 27, CDC recommended that all persons, including those who are fully vaccinated, should wear masks in indoor public settings in areas where COVID-19 transmission is high or substantial.* Findings from this investigation suggest that even jurisdictions without substantial or high COVID-19 transmission might consider expanding prevention strategies, including masking in indoor public settings regardless of vaccination status, given the potential risk of infection during attendance at large public gatherings that include travelers from many areas with differing levels of transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Aglomeração , Surtos de Doenças , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(7): ofab243, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250188

RESUMO

Background: To facilitate deployment of point-of-care testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, we evaluated the Access Bio CareStart COVID-19 Antigen test in a high-throughput, drive-through, free community testing site using anterior nasal (AN) swab reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for clinical testing. Methods: Consenting symptomatic and asymptomatic children (≤18 years) and adults received dual AN swabs. CareStart testing was performed with temperature/humidity monitoring. All tests had 2 independent reads to assess interoperator agreement. Patients with positive CareStart results were called and instructed to isolate pending RT-PCR results. The paired RT-PCR result was the reference for sensitivity and specificity calculations. Results: Of 1603 participants, 1245 adults and 253 children had paired RT-PCR/CareStart results and complete symptom data. Eighty-three percent of adults and 87% of children were asymptomatic. CareStart sensitivity/specificity were 84.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.1-93.7)/97.2% (95% CI, 92.0-99.4) and 85.7% (95% CI, 42.1-99.6)/89.5% (95% CI, 66.9-98.7) in adults and children, respectively, within 5 days of symptoms. Sensitivity/specificity were 50.0% (95% CI, 41.0-59.0)/99.1% (95% CI, 98.3-99.6) in asymptomatic adults and 51.4% (95% CI, 34.4-68.1)/97.8% (95% CI, 94.5-99.4) in asymptomatic children. Sensitivity in all 234 RT-PCR-positive people was 96.3% with cycle threshold (Ct) ≤25, 79.6% with Ct ≤30, and 61.4% with Ct ≤35. All 21 false-positive CareStart tests had faint but normal bands. Interoperator agreement was 99.5%. Operational challenges included identification of faint test bands and inconsistent swab elution volumes. Conclusions: CareStart had high sensitivity in people with Ct ≤25 and moderate sensitivity in symptomatic people overall. Specificity was unexpectedly lower in symptomatic versus asymptomatic people. Excellent interoperator agreement was observed, but operational challenges indicate that operator training is warranted.

5.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255846

RESUMO

Transmission of COVID-19 from people without symptoms confounds societal mitigation strategies. From April to June 2020, we tested nasopharyngeal swabs by RT-qPCR from 15,514 staff and 16,966 residents of nursing homes and assisted living facilities in Massachusetts. Cycle threshold (Ct) distributions were very similar between populations with (N = 739) and without (N = 2179) symptoms at the time of sampling (mean Ct 25.7 versus 26.4, ranges 12-38). However, as local cases waned, those without symptoms shifted towards higher Ct. With such similar viral load distributions, existing testing modalities should perform comparably regardless of symptoms, contingent upon time since infection.

6.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(9): e0112321, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191585

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) testing is one component of a multilayered mitigation strategy to enable safe in-person school attendance for the K-12 school population. However, costs, logistics, and uncertainty about effectiveness are potential barriers to implementation. We assessed early data from the Massachusetts K-12 public school pooled SARS-CoV2 testing program, which incorporates two novel design elements: in-school "pod pooling" for assembling pools of dry anterior nasal swabs from 5 to 10 individuals and positive pool deconvolution using the BinaxNOW antigen rapid diagnostic test (Ag RDT), to assess the operational and analytical feasibility of this approach. Over 3 months, 187,597 individual swabs were tested across 39,297 pools from 738 schools. The pool positivity rate was 0.8%; 98.2% of pools tested negative and 0.2% inconclusive, and 0.8% of pools submitted could not be tested. Of 310 positive pools, 70.6% had an N1 or N2 probe cycle threshold (CT) value of ≤30. In reflex testing (performed on specimens newly collected from members of the positive pool), 92.5% of fully deconvoluted pools with an N1 or N2 target CT of ≤30 identified a positive individual using the BinaxNOW test performed 1 to 3 days later. However, of 124 positive pools with full reflex testing data available for analysis, 32 (25.8%) of BinaxNOW pool deconvolution testing attempts did not identify a positive individual, requiring additional reflex testing. With sufficient staffing support and low pool positivity rates, pooled sample collection and reflex testing were feasible for schools. These early program findings confirm that screening for K-12 students and staff is achievable at scale with a scheme that incorporates in-school pooling, primary testing by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and Ag RDT reflex/deconvolution testing.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , RNA Viral , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas , Manejo de Espécimes
7.
Science ; 373(6552)2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083451

RESUMO

Estimating an epidemic's trajectory is crucial for developing public health responses to infectious diseases, but case data used for such estimation are confounded by variable testing practices. We show that the population distribution of viral loads observed under random or symptom-based surveillance-in the form of cycle threshold (Ct) values obtained from reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction testing-changes during an epidemic. Thus, Ct values from even limited numbers of random samples can provide improved estimates of an epidemic's trajectory. Combining data from multiple such samples improves the precision and robustness of this estimation. We apply our methods to Ct values from surveillance conducted during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic in a variety of settings and offer alternative approaches for real-time estimates of epidemic trajectories for outbreak management and response.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Carga Viral , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias
9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(5): 874-893, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887194

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS), a powerful tool for detecting novel coding and non-coding disease-causing variants, has largely been applied to clinical diagnosis of inherited disorders. Here we leveraged WGS data in up to 62,653 ethnically diverse participants from the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program and assessed statistical association of variants with seven red blood cell (RBC) quantitative traits. We discovered 14 single variant-RBC trait associations at 12 genomic loci, which have not been reported previously. Several of the RBC trait-variant associations (RPN1, ELL2, MIDN, HBB, HBA1, PIEZO1, and G6PD) were replicated in independent GWAS datasets imputed to the TOPMed reference panel. Most of these discovered variants are rare/low frequency, and several are observed disproportionately among non-European Ancestry (African, Hispanic/Latino, or East Asian) populations. We identified a 3 bp indel p.Lys2169del (g.88717175_88717177TCT[4]) (common only in the Ashkenazi Jewish population) of PIEZO1, a gene responsible for the Mendelian red cell disorder hereditary xerocytosis (MIM: 194380), associated with higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). In stepwise conditional analysis and in gene-based rare variant aggregated association analysis, we identified several of the variants in HBB, HBA1, TMPRSS6, and G6PD that represent the carrier state for known coding, promoter, or splice site loss-of-function variants that cause inherited RBC disorders. Finally, we applied base and nuclease editing to demonstrate that the sentinel variant rs112097551 (nearest gene RPN1) acts through a cis-regulatory element that exerts long-range control of the gene RUVBL1 which is essential for hematopoiesis. Together, these results demonstrate the utility of WGS in ethnically diverse population-based samples and gene editing for expanding knowledge of the genetic architecture of quantitative hematologic traits and suggest a continuum between complex trait and Mendelian red cell disorders.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/patologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.)/organização & administração , Fenótipo , Adulto , Idoso , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Variação Genética/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos
11.
Blood ; 137(23): 3212-3217, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720354

RESUMO

Relapsed myeloid disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains largely incurable. We previously demonstrated the potent activity of immune checkpoint blockade in this clinical setting with ipilimumab or nivolumab. To define the molecular and cellular pathways by which CTLA-4 blockade with ipilimumab can reinvigorate an effective graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) response, we integrated transcriptomic analysis of leukemic biopsies with immunophenotypic profiling of matched peripheral blood samples collected from patients treated with ipilimumab following HSCT on the Experimental Therapeutics Clinical Trials Network 9204 trial. Response to ipilimumab was associated with transcriptomic evidence of increased local CD8+ T-cell infiltration and activation. Systemically, ipilimumab decreased naïve and increased memory T-cell populations and increased expression of markers of T-cell activation and costimulation such as PD-1, HLA-DR, and ICOS, irrespective of response. However, responding patients were characterized by higher turnover of T-cell receptor sequences in peripheral blood and showed increased expression of proinflammatory chemokines in plasma that was further amplified by ipilimumab. Altogether, these data highlight the compositional T-cell shifts and inflammatory pathways induced by ipilimumab both locally and systemically that associate with successful GVL outcomes. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01822509.

12.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(5)2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622768

RESUMO

Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for SARS-CoV-2 antigens (Ag) that can be performed at point of care (POC) can supplement molecular testing and help mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. Deployment of an Ag RDT requires an understanding of its operational and performance characteristics under real-world conditions and in relevant subpopulations. We evaluated the Abbott BinaxNOW COVID-19 Ag card in a high-throughput, drive-through, free community testing site in Massachusetts using anterior nasal (AN) swab reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) for clinical testing. Individuals presenting for molecular testing in two of seven lanes were offered the opportunity to also receive BinaxNOW testing. Dual AN swabs were collected from symptomatic and asymptomatic children (≤18 years of age) and adults. BinaxNOW testing was performed in a testing pod with temperature/humidity monitoring. One individual performed testing and official result reporting for each test, but most tests had a second independent reading to assess interoperator agreement. Positive BinaxNOW results were scored as faint, medium, or strong. Positive BinaxNOW results were reported to patients by phone, and they were instructed to isolate pending RT-PCR results. The paired RT-PCR result was the reference for sensitivity and specificity calculations. Of 2,482 participants, 1,380 adults and 928 children had paired RT-PCR/BinaxNOW results and complete symptom data. In this study, 974/1,380 (71%) adults and 829/928 (89%) children were asymptomatic. BinaxNOW had 96.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.0 to 99.3) sensitivity and 100% (95% CI, 98.6 to 100.0) specificity in adults within 7 days of symptoms and 84.6% (95% CI, 65.1 to 95.6) sensitivity and 100% (95% CI, 94.5 to 100.0) specificity in children within 7 days of symptoms. Sensitivity and specificity in asymptomatic adults were 70.2% (95% CI, 56.6 to 81.6) and 99.6% (95% CI, 98.9 to 99.9), respectively, and in asymptomatic children, they were 65.4% (95% CI, 55.6 to 74.4) and 99.0% (95% CI, 98.0 to 99.6), respectively. By cycle threshold (CT ) value cutoff, sensitivity in all subgroups combined (n = 292 RT-PCR-positive individuals) was 99.3% with CT values of ≤25, 95.8% with CT values of ≤30, and 81.2% with CT values of ≤35. Twelve false-positive BinaxNOW results (out of 2,308 tests) were observed; in all 12, the test bands were faint but otherwise normal and were noted by both readers. One invalid BinaxNOW result was identified. Interoperator agreement (positive versus negative BinaxNOW result) was 100% (n = 2,230/2,230 double reads). Each operator was able to process 20 RDTs per hour. In a separate set of 30 specimens (from individuals with symptoms ≤7 days) run at temperatures below the manufacturer's recommended range (46 to 58.5°F), sensitivity was 66.7% and specificity 95.2%. BinaxNOW had very high specificity in both adults and children and very high sensitivity in newly symptomatic adults. Overall, 95.8% sensitivity was observed with CT values of ≤30. These data support public health recommendations for use of the BinaxNOW test in adults with symptoms for ≤7 days without RT-PCR confirmation. Excellent interoperator agreement indicates that an individual can perform and read the BinaxNOW test alone. A skilled laboratorian can perform and read 20 tests per hour. Careful attention to temperature is critical.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/isolamento & purificação , Teste para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pandemias , Testes Imediatos , Adulto , Infecções Assintomáticas , Criança , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Humanos , Massachusetts , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Temperatura
13.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(589)2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619080

RESUMO

Virological testing is central to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) containment, but many settings face severe limitations on testing. Group testing offers a way to increase throughput by testing pools of combined samples; however, most proposed designs have not yet addressed key concerns over sensitivity loss and implementation feasibility. Here, we combined a mathematical model of epidemic spread and empirically derived viral kinetics for SARS-CoV-2 infections to identify pooling designs that are robust to changes in prevalence and to ratify sensitivity losses against the time course of individual infections. We show that prevalence can be accurately estimated across a broad range, from 0.02 to 20%, using only a few dozen pooled tests and using up to 400 times fewer tests than would be needed for individual identification. We then exhaustively evaluated the ability of different pooling designs to maximize the number of detected infections under various resource constraints, finding that simple pooling designs can identify up to 20 times as many true positives as individual testing with a given budget. Crucially, we confirmed that our theoretical results can be translated into practice using pooled human nasopharyngeal specimens by accurately estimating a 1% prevalence among 2304 samples using only 48 tests and through pooled sample identification in a panel of 960 samples. Our results show that accounting for variation in sampled viral loads provides a nuanced picture of how pooling affects sensitivity to detect infections. Using simple, practical group testing designs can vastly increase surveillance capabilities in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Testes Sorológicos , Manejo de Espécimes , Carga Viral
15.
medRxiv ; 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594381

RESUMO

Estimating an epidemic's trajectory is crucial for developing public health responses to infectious diseases, but incidence data used for such estimation are confounded by variable testing practices. We show instead that the population distribution of viral loads observed under random or symptom-based surveillance, in the form of cycle threshold (Ct) values, changes during an epidemic and that Ct values from even limited numbers of random samples can provide improved estimates of an epidemic's trajectory. Combining multiple such samples and the fraction positive improves the precision and robustness of such estimation. We apply our methods to Ct values from surveillance conducted during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in a variety of settings and demonstrate new approaches for real-time estimates of epidemic trajectories for outbreak management and response.

17.
J Palliat Med ; 24(8): 1183-1190, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400605

RESUMO

Background: Primary care clinicians care for most persons with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRDs), yet lack dementia-specific skills in advance care planning (ACP). Objectives: To develop and evaluate a training toolkit for primary care clinicians to improve ACP communication for people with ADRD and their families. Design: Clinical practice outcomes assessment and pre-post-training evaluation. Intervention training toolkit addressed ACP skills by dementia stage: (1) advance directives in early dementia, (2) decision-making capacity in moderate dementia, (3) Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) in late-stage dementia, and (4) hospice and hospitalization in advanced dementia. Setting/Subjects: Nonhospitalized clinical care sites, 51 clinicians in North Carolina, USA. Measurements: Data collection utilized structured chart abstractions and pre- and post-training surveys. Results: Of 51 participants trained, 33 had encounters with patients with ADRD in study period. Most participants were women (n = 42), white (n = 37), and physicians (n = 31). Participants increased documentation of surrogates (22.7% vs. 35.5%, p = 0.03), decision-making capacity (13.5% vs.23.2%, p = 0.04), and POLST completion (9.2% vs. 18.8%, p = 0.03). Training increased ACP documentation (6.4% vs. 14.5%, p = 0.031) and goals of care (GOC) decision-making discussions (17.0% vs. 31.9%, p = 0.005). In pre-post-comparisons, participant confidence increased in determining capacity, exploring dementia prognosis, GOC, eliciting surrogates, and leading family meetings (all p < 0.001). Most participants strongly agreed that the training addressed skills used in practice (n = 34), contained clear language (n = 40), took an appropriate amount of time (n = 32), and was designed effectively (n = 35). Conclusion: This video-based training resource increased the use of dementia-specific ACP communication skills and clinician confidence.


Assuntos
Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados , Demência , Diretivas Antecipadas , Comunicação , Demência/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente
18.
Circulation ; 143(5): 410-423, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Premature menopause is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in women, but mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), the age-related expansion of hematopoietic cells with leukemogenic mutations without detectable malignancy, is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. Whether premature menopause is associated with CHIP is unknown. METHODS: We included postmenopausal women from the UK Biobank (n=11 495) aged 40 to 70 years with whole exome sequences and from the Women's Health Initiative (n=8111) aged 50 to 79 years with whole genome sequences. Premature menopause was defined as natural or surgical menopause occurring before age 40 years. Co-primary outcomes were the presence of any CHIP and CHIP with variant allele frequency >0.1. Logistic regression tested the association of premature menopause with CHIP, adjusted for age, race, the first 10 principal components of ancestry, smoking, diabetes, and hormone therapy use. Secondary analyses considered natural versus surgical premature menopause and gene-specific CHIP subtypes. Multivariable-adjusted Cox models tested the association between CHIP and incident coronary artery disease. RESULTS: The sample included 19 606 women, including 418 (2.1%) with natural premature menopause and 887 (4.5%) with surgical premature menopause. Across cohorts, CHIP prevalence in postmenopausal women with versus without a history of premature menopause was 8.8% versus 5.5% (P<0.001), respectively. After multivariable adjustment, premature menopause was independently associated with CHIP (all CHIP: odds ratio, 1.36 [95% 1.10-1.68]; P=0.004; CHIP with variant allele frequency >0.1: odds ratio, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.10-1.79]; P=0.007). Associations were larger for natural premature menopause (all CHIP: odds ratio, 1.73 [95% CI, 1.23-2.44]; P=0.001; CHIP with variant allele frequency >0.1: odds ratio, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.30-2.80]; P<0.001) but smaller and nonsignificant for surgical premature menopause. In gene-specific analyses, only DNMT3A CHIP was significantly associated with premature menopause. Among postmenopausal middle-aged women, CHIP was independently associated with incident coronary artery disease (hazard ratio associated with all CHIP: 1.36 [95% CI, 1.07-1.73]; P=0.012; hazard ratio associated with CHIP with variant allele frequency >0.1: 1.48 [95% CI, 1.13-1.94]; P=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Premature menopause, especially natural premature menopause, is independently associated with CHIP among postmenopausal women. Natural premature menopause may serve as a risk signal for predilection to develop CHIP and CHIP-associated cardiovascular disease.

19.
medRxiv ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511487

RESUMO

Extensive virological testing is central to SARS-CoV-2 containment, but many settings face severe limitations on testing. Group testing offers a way to increase throughput by testing pools of combined samples; however, most proposed designs have not yet addressed key concerns over sensitivity loss and implementation feasibility. Here, we combine a mathematical model of epidemic spread and empirically derived viral kinetics for SARS-CoV-2 infections to identify pooling designs that are robust to changes in prevalence, and to ratify losses in sensitivity against the time course of individual infections. Using this framework, we show that prevalence can be accurately estimated across four orders of magnitude using only a few dozen pooled tests without the need for individual identification. We then exhaustively evaluate the ability of different pooling designs to maximize the number of detected infections under various resource constraints, finding that simple pooling designs can identify up to 20 times as many positives compared to individual testing with a given budget. We illustrate how pooling affects sensitivity and overall detection capacity during an epidemic and on each day post infection, finding that sensitivity loss is mainly attributed to individuals sampled at the end of infection when detection for public health containment has minimal benefit. Crucially, we confirm that our theoretical results can be accurately translated into practice using pooled human nasopharyngeal specimens. Our results show that accounting for variation in sampled viral loads provides a nuanced picture of how pooling affects sensitivity to detect epidemiologically relevant infections. Using simple, practical group testing designs can vastly increase surveillance capabilities in resource-limited settings.

20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(18): 5049-5061, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323402

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Whole-exome (WES) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) are key components of cancer immunogenomic analyses. To evaluate the consistency of tumor WES and RNA-seq profiling platforms across different centers, the Cancer Immune Monitoring and Analysis Centers (CIMAC) and the Cancer Immunologic Data Commons (CIDC) conducted a systematic harmonization study. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: DNA and RNA were centrally extracted from fresh frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded non-small cell lung carcinoma tumors and distributed to three centers for WES and RNA-seq profiling. In addition, two 10-plex HapMap cell line pools with known mutations were used to evaluate the accuracy of the WES platforms. RESULTS: The WES platforms achieved high precision (> 0.98) and recall (> 0.87) on the HapMap pools when evaluated on loci using > 50× common coverage. Nonsynonymous mutations clustered by tumor sample, achieving an index of specific agreement above 0.67 among replicates, centers, and sample processing. A DV200 > 24% for RNA, as a putative presequencing RNA quality control (QC) metric, was found to be a reliable threshold for generating consistent expression readouts in RNA-seq and NanoString data. MedTIN > 30 was likewise assessed as a reliable RNA-seq QC metric, above which samples from the same tumor across replicates, centers, and sample processing runs could be robustly clustered and HLA typing, immune infiltration, and immune repertoire inference could be performed. CONCLUSIONS: The CIMAC collaborating laboratory platforms effectively generated consistent WES and RNA-seq data and enable robust cross-trial comparisons and meta-analyses of highly complex immuno-oncology biomarker data across the NCI CIMAC-CIDC Network.

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