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1.
Eur Spine J ; 25(4): 1153-62, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25900300

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate results of a standalone percutaneous posterior plating of the vertically unstable sacral fractures, to analyze the influencing factors, to discuss encountered complications, and to express the related recommendations. METHODS: Forty two cases were included; all of them had type C vertical sacral fractures; and 16 cases had associated nerve roots injury. Subcutaneous 3.5-mm reconstruction plate was used in all cases, through vertical incisions in 28 cases and transverse incisions in 14 cases. Hannover pelvic outcome scoring system was implemented for results evaluation. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 22.1 ± 7.5 months; the mean operative time was 43.3 ± 7 min; the mean surgical incision length was 4.6 ± 1.1 cm. 14 cases had excellent scores, 16 cases had good scores, 6 cases had fair scores, and 6 cases had poor scores. Younger age groups had significantly better outcome (P = 0.015), whereas the comminuted sacrum had significantly worse score (P = 0.041). Final residual posterior displacements significantly improved (P = 0.001) in comparison to the initial displacement. The nerve roots injury had final significant recovery (P = 0.012). Transverse skin incisions had subjectively significant satisfaction (P = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous 3.5-mm reconstruction plate is a good alternative to percutaneous iliosacral screws in vertically unstable sacral fractures; especially in the presence of contraindication to the latter. It is simple procedure with minimal incisions; short operative time; less radiological exposure; good mechanical stability; and less iatrogenic injuries.


Assuntos
Placas Ósseas , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Sacro/lesões , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/complicações , Sacro/cirurgia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/complicações , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/lesões , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
Int Orthop ; 40(3): 519-24, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26133290

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Anterior shoulder dislocation can be associated with many lesions such as Bankart lesions, rotator cuff tears (RCT), Hill-Sachs lesions or greater tuberosity fractures. It has been documented that early management of the associated injury affords better recovery of shoulder function. The aim of this study was to highlight the incidence of associated injuries after anterior shoulder dislocation. METHODS: A total of 240 patients with traumatic anterior glenohumeral dislocations were subjected to complete history taking, neurovascular assessment and pre-reduction plain X-ray. An X-ray was taken immediately after reduction. Ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were done within one week after reduction in all patients. Nerve conduction studies were ordered for any patient with suspected nerve injury. RESULTS: Associated lesions were reported in 144 (60%) patients. RCT was the most common injury (67 cases). It was isolated in 34 patients (14.15%), while it was combined with other lesions in 33 cases (13.75%). Axillary nerve injury was encountered in 38 patients, of them 8 (3.33%) were isolated and 30 (12.5%) were combined. Greater tuberosity fracture was found in 37 patients, of them 15 (6.25%) were combined with axillary nerve injury, and in the other 22 patients (9.17%) the fracture was isolated. All cases with Hill-Sachs and Bankart lesion were combined lesions with no isolated cases. There was a significant relation between the incidence of associated injuries and age, mechanism of injury and the affected side. CONCLUSIONS: Lesions associated with traumatic anterior glenohumeral dislocations are more frequent than expected. Thorough clinical examination and detailed imaging including US and MRI are mandatory to avoid a missed diagnosis.


Assuntos
Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/epidemiologia , Luxação do Ombro/complicações , Articulação do Ombro/lesões , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Exame Físico , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Lesões do Manguito Rotador , Luxação do Ombro/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Ombro/fisiopatologia
3.
Urol Int ; 93(4): 406-10, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25139453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the predictive value of 6 ultrasonographic (USG) parameters for early detection of children at risk of recurrent obstruction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective nonrandomized study included all patients who underwent pyeloplasty between 2010 and 2012. All of the patients had completed at least 6 months of follow-up and preoperative and postoperative USG imaging data were available. The primary outcome was the correlation between USG and diuretic scintigraphic parameters. The secondary outcome was the predictive ability of the pelvicalyceal system parameters, measured by USG, of parenchymal growth after surgery. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients were evaluated. The mean age was 3.6 years (range 0.1-12). The mean (± standard deviation) differential renal function improved from 37.4 ± 11 ml/min to 37.7 ± 14 ml/min, which was a difference of no statistical significance. On the other hand, the mean (± SD) half-time (T1/2) significantly improved. After constructing a linear regression model of the 4 USG parameters and the parenchymal growth, the model explained 57.2% of the variance in parenchymal growth after pyeloplasty. The calyx-to-parenchyma ratio change was the largest unique contribution for explaining the variance in parenchymal growth, followed by anteroposterior diameter and calyceal dilatation. CONCLUSION: We proved that calyx-to-parenchyma ratio, anteroposterior diameter and calyceal dilatation are independent predictors of early success after pyeloplasty.


Assuntos
Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução Ureteral/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/métodos , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diurese , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Rim/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Stents , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia , Obstrução Ureteral/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução Ureteral/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/instrumentação
4.
BJU Int ; 114(2): 202-9, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24128168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term effects of the direct refluxing-type ureteroileal anastomosis technique with those of an antireflux technique on individual renal units, using diuretic scintigraphy in a prospectively randomized study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2002 and 2006, a prospective randomized study was conducted on 102 patients undergoing radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. In every patient, both ureters were randomized to be implanted using a direct refluxing technique or an antireflux, serous-lined extramural tunnel (SLET) technique. Renal function (RF) was evaluated using (99m)Tc-MAG-3 diuretic scintigraphy. The serial changes in corrected glomerular filtration rate (cGFR) for each technique and for each side were compared. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 6 years, the patients in both the direct refluxing and the SLET technique groups were found to have a significant reduction in mean (SD) cGFR between baseline and last follow-up: cGFR decreased from 59.4 (12.4) to 45.6 (15.3) mL/min (P < 0.001) and from 54.3 (11.2) to 46.3 (12.8) mL/min (P = 0.002), respectively. Five patients (4.9%) in the SLET group developed obstruction (four left-sided and one right-sided) compared with one (0.9%) in the direct refluxing group (right-sided). The onset of obstruction was noted 1-7 months after radical cystectomy. There was no significant difference between the groups in reductions in cGFR across the timepoints. Comparison of the two techniques according to the side of ureter implantation showed that the direct refluxing technique trended towards better functional outcomes on the left side. CONCLUSIONS: There was no observed difference in the RF of individual renal units between the SLET and the direct refluxing groups in the long term. The need to incorporate an antireflux technique should be questioned and tailored according to the surgeon's experience and confidence.


Assuntos
Cistectomia , Diuréticos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária/métodos , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Íleo/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Cintilografia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureter/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Derivação Urinária/efeitos adversos , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/etiologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/prevenção & controle
5.
J Orthop Sci ; 18(1): 93-100, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23096949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neglected femoral neck fracture in young adults is an intriguing problem. This retrospective study tried to solve that challenge through open reduction, cannulated screw internal fixation, autogenous iliac bone and bone marrow grafting. METHODS: Thirty-six cases were studied; they were classified according to Sandhu et al.'s classification. Twenty cases were type I and 16 cases were type II fractures; the mean age was 26.8 years; fracture neglect averaged 44.6 days. Twenty cases had posterior comminution and 16 cases had anterior comminution. All cases had open reduction, cannulated screw internal fixation, autogenous iliac bone and bone marrow grafting. The Harris hip score and Matta et al. grading system were applied for functional and radiological evaluation, respectively. RESULTS: The average postoperative follow-up was 25.3 months; 94.4 % of the cases had solid union in a mean of 19.6 weeks. Functionally, the Harris hip score averaged 87.8 points. Nonunion, avascular necrosis and coxa vara complicated two, two and four cases, respectively. Fair and poor radiological results were related to coxa vara and avascular necrosis, respectively. Nonunion was significantly related to posterior comminution, type II neglected fracture, and a neglect of more than 45 days. Age groups more than 30 years old and postoperative neck-shaft angles <140° were significantly associated with late-onset radiological healing and nonunion. CONCLUSIONS: Cannulated screw osteosynthesis augmented by autogenous bone and bone marrow grafting is a simple, easy-to-perform surgical procedure with encouraging clinical outcomes for selected patients complaining of that difficult problem.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Colo Femoral/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Consolidação da Fratura , Doenças Negligenciadas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Egito/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Urology ; 71(3): 408-12, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18342174

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the functional and morphological effects of postpercutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) superselective renal angiographic embolization. METHODS: Between January 1995 and March 2006, superselective renal angiography was needed to control severe bleeding after 41 of 4095 PCNL procedures (1%). We evaluated the short-term effects of embolization after 3 months with renal ultrasonography (RUS), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan, and estimation of serum creatinine. We evaluated long-term morphological and functional effects with RUS, DMSA renal scan, and excretory urography (IVU). RESULTS: Bleeding was controllable with superselective embolization in 38 patients (93%). Six of them developed early postembolization complications, in the form of perinephric hematoma in 4 and urinary leakage in 2 patients. At 3 months, serum creatinine levels increased in 3 of 9 patients with a solitary kidney, but none required renal replacement therapy. Long-term follow-up was completed for 30 patients for a mean period of 3.9 +/- 2.3 years. We performed IVU for 27 patients. Among them, 2 renal units (7%) showed no dye excretion. DMSA scans showed homogeneous distribution of radiotracer with no evidence of photopenic areas in 6 renal units (20%). The mean percentage of DMSA uptake by the corresponding kidney improved from 25 +/- 9% at the 3-month scans to 34 +/- 11% at the last follow-up scans (P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The short-term deleterious effects of superselective renal embolization for post-PCNL renal vascular injuries were more pronounced in patients with a solitary kidney. However, the long-term follow-up showed functional and morphological improvements.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Nefrostomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
J Urol ; 179(3): 964-8; discussion 968-9, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18207167

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We clarified the long-term effects of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on renal function and blood pressure, and its relation to body mass index and type of lithotriptor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 patients with a single radiopaque renal stone 2 cm or less in length were followed for 18 to 57 months (mean 43.6 +/- 13.8) after being stone-free by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy monotherapy using 2 lithotriptors. Mean patient age was 47.9 +/- 9.1 years (range 23 to 66). Nuclear scintigraphy using (99m)technetium-mercaptoacetyltriglycine was done for all patients before extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, as well as at the last followup visit to estimate glomerular filtration rate, clearance and split renal function. Blood pressure measurements were recorded at admission and at each followup visit. RESULTS: Before extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treated side mean (99m)technetium-mercaptoacetyltriglycine clearance, glomerular filtration rate and split function were 146.22 +/- 59.48, 52.66 +/- 13.69 and 49.7 +/- 7.31, respectively. At the last followup visit they were 145.1 +/- 58.82 (p = 0.842), 54.85 +/- 15.75 (p = 0.114) and 49.96 +/- 8.68 (p = 0.577), respectively. Of 100 patients 18 were hypertensive before extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and 21 were hypertensive at the last followup visit. Mean diastolic blood pressure before extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy was 80.2 +/- 6.2 vs 80.6 +/- 7.8 mm Hg (p = 0.674) at the end of followup. Mean systolic blood pressure before extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy was 121.2 +/- 9 vs 121.55 +/- 10.2 mm Hg by the end of the study (p = 0.748). There were no statistically significant differences among body mass index groups or lithotriptor groups. CONCLUSIONS: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is a safe procedure and has no significant long-term effects on renal function or blood pressure regardless of the type of machine used or body mass index.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Cálculos Renais/terapia , Rim/fisiologia , Litotripsia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Cintilografia
8.
BJU Int ; 99(3): 641-5, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17407519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the ability of comprehensive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to replace multiple imaging methods in the evaluation of patients with pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between May 2003 and November 2005, 46 consecutive patients (22 male and 24 females; mean age 31.6 years) with symptomatic primary PUJO were included. All had comprehensive MRI, including MR urography (MRU), dynamic MRI and MR angiography (MRA). Morphological results of MRU were compared with that of renal ultrasonography or intravenous urography, while the anatomical results of MRA were compared with the operative findings. A correlation between MR clearance and radioisotope clearance was done using linear regression analysis. RESULTS: MRU showed the morphology of the collecting system in all patients, and the ureter below the PUJ in 31 of 46 (67%), but renal stones were missed in three of 10 patients. MRA showed crossing vessels in 22 patients (48%). There was a strong correlation between MR clearance and radioisotope clearance (r = 0.823, P < 0.001). From the MRI results, 35 patients (19 with crossing vessels and 16 with marked hydronephrosis) had pyeloplasty and 11 had an endopyelotomy. Findings during pyeloplasty showed one false-negative and one false-positive result of the preoperative MRI. Therefore, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRA were 95%, 94% and 94%, respectively. The outcome was successful in 44 (96%) patients. One failure after pyeloplasty was managed with endopyelotomy and the other was treated with pyeloplasty after endopyelotomy. CONCLUSION: Comprehensive MRI is a valuable and accurate single-imaging method for evaluating patients with PUJO.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico , Pelve Renal/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Obstrução Ureteral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
BJU Int ; 97(5): 1057-62, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16643492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the benefit of an antireflux system in patients with orthotopic ileal neobladders, as there is controversy about whether reflux prevention offers any advantages. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a randomized prospective study between January 2002 and March 2004, on 60 patients (53 men and seven women) with a mean (sd) age of 52.7 (7.3) years, who were candidates for orthotopic neobladders. Patients with comorbidities were excluded. Preoperative evaluation included intravenous urography (IVU), cystoscopic biopsy and radioisotope renography to evaluate the differential glomerular filtration rates (GFRs). Cases with normal kidneys and ureters, and with similar GFRs, were enrolled. Surgery comprised a standard radical cystectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy. The ureters were randomized to either a direct anastomosis into a 5-cm ileal chimney on one side, or to be implanted using the antireflux serous-lined extramural tunnel on the contralateral side in the same patient. Regular follow-up included IVU and renography every 6 months in cancer-free patients. RESULTS: The mean (sd) follow-up was 23 (9.6) months. There was prolonged urinary leak from a refluxing ureter in one patient that was treated with a temporary percutaneous nephrostomy. Symptomatic pelvic collections required tube drainage in six cases. Six ureters developed early anastomotic strictures (one direct and five antirefluxing), and were treated with endoscopic ureterotomy in three and open revision in three. Serum creatinine levels were normal in all patients throughout the observation period. GFRs were similar in the two groups. The mean GFRs before surgery and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after cystectomy were: 55.1, 50.7, 49.4, 52.2 and 53.9 mL/min for the direct side; and 56.1, 53, 52.4, 53.2 and 50.4 mL/min for renal units with antirefluxing implantation. There was a significant deterioration of the GFRs due to anastomotic strictures, from 48.6 (6.7) mL/min before surgery to 31.8 (15.9) mL/min after the revision (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The antireflux procedures were associated with a higher incidence of anastomotic strictures than the direct methods and there was a significant deterioration of renal function after obstruction. The long-term follow-up data are awaited.


Assuntos
Uretra/cirurgia , Coletores de Urina , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Cistectomia/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Falha de Prótese , Radiografia , Técnicas de Sutura , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 37(2): 403-8, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16142576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cockcroft-Gault formula overestimates creatinine clearance (Ccr) in obese or edematous patients. This limitation urged us to develop a new formula that can overcome the limitation of Cockcroft-Gault formula. METHODS: We developed a new formula suitable for rapid bedside estimation of creatinine clearance in healthy adults and elderly persons and patients with chronic renal disease considering the surface area as a reliable factor for estimation of creatinine clearance. This cross sectional study included 182 individuals (healthy persons and patients with chronic kidney disease). Ccr was estimated by different methods including 24 hours urine collection, Cockcroft-Gault equation, and our new formula, and 99mTc-DTPA isotope clearance which was considered as a standard method for comparison between the other methods. RESULTS: Our new formula had a statistically significant higher correlation coefficient with the standard 99mTc-DTPA isotope clearance for all groups included in this study (r=0.97) than either Cockcroft-Gault formula (r=0.90) or 24 hours urine collection method (r=0.88). CONCLUSION: Our formula is a step forward for a better bedside assessment of kidney function in both healthy individuals and patients with chronic kidney disease.


Assuntos
Creatinina/metabolismo , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Urológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
BJU Int ; 96(1): 111-6, 2005 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15963132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gadolinium-enhanced dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the sole method for the anatomical and functional assessment of potential live-kidney donors. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study included 50 consecutive kidney donors; in addition to routine donor evaluation, the kidney was imaged with Gd-enhanced dynamic MRI, which was also used for selectively determining the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of each kidney. All donors had a m99Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) renal scan as the reference standard to measure GFR. The anatomical results of MRI were compared with the findings at donor nephrectomy, and the GFR estimated from MRI compared with that from MAG3 scintigraphy. RESULTS: MR angiography had 100% sensitivity, 94% specificity and 96% overall accuracy for detecting the number of renal arteries, and 100% sensitivity, 98% specificity and 98% overall accuracy for the number of renal veins. There was a close correlation (r = 0.54, P < 0.01) between the GFR of each kidney estimated by MRI or MAG3. For the right and left kidneys the mean isotope clearance was not significantly different from that of mean MRI clearance. MR urography allowed visualization of the urinary tract and the detection of any abnormality. CONCLUSION: Gd-enhanced dynamic MRI can provide accurate information about the anatomy of the urinary tract and vasculature of the kidney, and can be used to accurately estimate the selective GFR of each kidney. Therefore, we recommend MRI as a single imaging diagnostic method for assessing potential live kidney donors.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Rim , Doadores Vivos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Gadolínio , Humanos , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Rim/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Tecnécio Tc 99m Mertiatida
12.
J Urol ; 172(3): 985-8, 2004 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15311018

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated contrast enhanced spiral computerized tomography (CT) as a single session for the anatomical and functional assessment of patients with chronic obstructive uropathy and normal serum creatinine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 65 patients with unilateral or bilateral chronic renal obstruction and normal serum creatinine. Five patients had bilateral obstruction and the remaining 60 had unilateral obstruction and a normal contralateral kidney. Therefore, the total number of renal units was 130, that is 70 obstructed and 60 normal. All patients underwent contrast enhanced spiral CT together with excretory urography (IVP) and Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine renal scan. CT was used to identify the cause of obstruction and selectively determine the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the 2 kidneys. The diagnostic accuracy of CT for identifying the cause of hydronephrosis was compared with that of IVP. Moreover, a correlation was made between CT GFR and isotope GFR. RESULTS: Obstruction was caused by ureteropelvic junction narrowing in 25 cases, ureteral stones in 21, ureteral stricture in 20 and extrinsic ureteral obstruction in 4. Contrast enhanced spiral CT identified the cause of hydronephrosis in all obstructed kidneys (100% sensitivity), while IVP identified the cause in 52 (74% sensitivity), which was a significant difference (p <0.05). CT and IVP excluded obstruction in all normal kidneys (100% specificity). A comparison between the isotope GFR of obstructed kidneys with the corresponding CT GFR showed a perfect correlation (r = 0.78, p <0.0001). Moreover, a similar comparison between isotope GFR and CT GFR of normal kidneys showed an excellent correlation (r = 0.73, p <0.0001). In obstructed and normal kidneys mean isotope clearance was not significantly different from that of mean CT clearance. CONCLUSIONS: Contrast enhanced spiral CT is more sensitive than IVP for identifying the cause of chronic obstructive uropathy. Moreover, it is as accurate as radioisotope renal scan for calculating the total and separate kidney function. We recommend spiral CT with contrast medium as a single radiological diagnostic modality for the assessment of patients with chronic renal obstruction and normal serum creatinine.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste , Creatinina/sangue , Hidronefrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Iopamidol , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral , Obstrução Ureteral/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Hidronefrose/sangue , Hidronefrose/etiologia , Hidronefrose/fisiopatologia , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Renografia por Radioisótopo , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tecnécio Tc 99m Mertiatida , Ureter/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálculos Ureterais/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução Ureteral/sangue , Obstrução Ureteral/etiologia , Obstrução Ureteral/fisiopatologia
13.
J Urol ; 171(1): 31-4, 2004 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14665837

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated contrast enhanced spiral computerized tomography (CT) as a single session for anatomical and functional assessment of potential live kidney donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 80 consecutive kidney donors. In addition to routine donor evaluation, radiological imaging of the kidneys was performed with spiral CT, which was also used for selective determination of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of each kidney. All donors underwent 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine renal scan as a gold standard for GFR determination. Anatomical results of spiral CT were compared to operative findings at donor nephrectomy. Moreover, the results of CT GFR were compared with those of standard 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine GFR. RESULTS: Spiral CT detected major renal abnormalities that might be potentially significant for safe renal donation in 4 of the 80 donors (5%). Spiral CT had 100% sensitivity, 85.7% specificity and 97.2% overall accuracy for detecting the number of renal arteries. To identify the number of renal veins spiral CT had 100% sensitivity, 92.3% specificity and 98.6% overall accuracy. A comparison between the isotope GFR of each kidney with the corresponding CT GFR showed a perfect correlation (r = 0.54, p <0.001). For the right and left kidneys mean isotope clearance was not significantly different from that of mean CT clearance. CONCLUSIONS: Multidetector row spiral CT with contrast medium can provide accurate information regarding the anatomy of the urinary tract and vasculature of the kidney. Moreover, it can detect renal and vascular abnormalities that might be potentially significant for safe renal donation. In addition, it can accurately demonstrate selective GFR of each kidney. Therefore, we recommend spiral CT with contrast material as a single radiological diagnostic modality for the assessment of potential live kidney donors.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste , Transplante de Rim , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Rim/fisiologia , Doadores Vivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
14.
Urology ; 61(6): 1102-6; discussion 1106, 2003 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12809870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of transient post-shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) obstruction on renal function after SWL application for treatment of renal stones in nonobstructed kidneys. METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients with unilateral renal stones were treated by SWL monotherapy. They had a normal laboratory profile and no or controlled urinary tract infection. The urinary tract was radiologically normal. Technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine and Doppler ultrasonography were performed for all cases a few days before and 1 week and 3 months after SWL. Renal uptake, time to peak clearance, split renal function, effective renal plasma flow, and resistive index were obtained. Patients were stratified into two groups. Group 1 consisted of patients with normal kidneys before SWL and unobstructed kidneys after SWL (n = 84). Group 2 consisted of patients with normal kidneys before SWL that were obstructed 1 week after SWL (n = 16). RESULTS: In group 1, there was a gradual increase in the effective renal plasma flow that became significant after 3 months, up to 114% of the pretreatment levels (P = 0.008). The glomerular filtration rate was stable 1 week after SWL and had increased significantly after 3 months, up to 110% of the pretreatment levels (P = 0.006). In group 2, there was marked deterioration of the effective renal plasma flow and glomerular flow rate to 50.5% (P = 0.002) and 45.8% (P = 0.001), respectively, of the pretreatment levels. These levels returned to the basal levels after 3 months. No significant changes occurred in the resistive index in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has no deleterious effects on the renal function. Post-SWL obstruction, although transient, has a major effect on the renal function on the treated side and must be managed urgently.


Assuntos
Rim/fisiopatologia , Litotripsia/efeitos adversos , Litotripsia/métodos , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Cálculos Renais/química , Cálculos Renais/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/fisiopatologia
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