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1.
Cureus ; 11(7): e5155, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523582

RESUMO

Background Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the common cancers in the United States (U.S.) and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. In spite of the modest improvement in survival, cancer care costs including PC continue to rise and inpatient costs contribute a significant chunk to cancer care, which is often ignored. Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a rare manifestation of PC. This study aims to determine the national trends and associated health care utilization of PC patients hospitalized with AP in the U.S. Methods We used National Inpatient Sample (NIS) to extract data for patients hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of PC in AP in 2016 using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, and Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes. The analysis included disease etiologies, age, race, sex, hospital region, hospital size, institution type, mortality, length of hospital stay (LOS), and commonly associated comorbidities were correlated. Results There were 250 patients with a discharge diagnosis of PC in patients admitted with AP. Most of the patients were whites (76.6%) with the mean age of 39.42 ± 2.51 years, had Medicare (63.26%) as primary insurance, were from Southern region (46%) and had higher Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) (76.00% with CCI > = 3). The mean hospital charges were $48,462.13, and mean LOS was 5.24 days. The LOS was significantly impacted by race, hospital region, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and comorbidities such as dementia, smoking, and seizure. Out of the 250 patients admitted with PC, 245 patients (98%) were discharged alive. Conclusions Our study shows a downward trend in LOS, hospital charges, and in-hospital mortality as compared to other studies despite PC and AP presenting together versus PC with or without other etiologies.

2.
Cureus ; 11(6): e5035, 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501727

RESUMO

Fistula development is an uncommon but well-recognized complication following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The broad spectrum of clinical presentation represents a challenge at the time of diagnosis. We present the case of a patient who developed gastrojejunal fistulization after gastric bypass surgery.

3.
Clin Pract ; 9(2): 1153, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205642

RESUMO

Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is characterized by postprandial vomiting due to mechanical obstruction. Rarely it can occur due to ingestion of a foreign body. Most cases of foreign body ingestion are benign, with passage of the ingested object into the stool with no clinical sequelae. We describe a case of an 80-year-old woman with GOO occurring secondary to ingestion of two coins (American quarters). Rarely will such a small object cause a true gastric outlet obstruction. To our knowledge this makes the second such case reported in the medical literature.

4.
Gastroenterology Res ; 12(3): 135-140, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236154

RESUMO

Background: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a complication that is commonly seen in patients with cirrhosis and an entity that leads to increased mortality in patients who undergo liver transplantation. This study aims to establish a link between an elevated international normalized ratio (INR) and the presence of PVT in a cohort of cirrhotic patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of all patients diagnosed with cirrhosis in SBH Health System from 2013 to 2018. Among these patients we extracted baseline demographic data, laboratory results, co-morbidities and the presence of PVT. Results: In total there were 268 patients who met our inclusion criteria. Twenty-two patients had PVT, while 246 patients did not. Of the 22 patients with PVT there was a statistically significant increase in INR when compared to patients without PVT. There was also a statistically significant increase in total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and platelet count. Conclusions: Elevated INR levels are associated with the presence of PVT in patients with cirrhosis. These findings suggest a hypercoagulable state and could assist clinicians in risk-stratifying patients when making the decision to initiate anti-coagulation therapy.

5.
Cureus ; 11(3): e4313, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183293

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a rarely reported cause of viral hepatitis. Aggressive in nature, most cases of HSV hepatitis rapidly progress to fulminant hepatic failure. Present day, its pathogenesis is yet to be elucidated, but its complications and associated high mortality rate are clear. Clinically, its symptoms mimic those of other causes of acute hepatic failure thus making the diagnosis of HSV hepatitis a precarious task. Although treatment in the form of acyclovir is readily available, most cases have a poor prognosis due to late initiation of therapy. This makes the early identification of HSV essential in improving outcomes and potentially preventing mortality.

6.
Clin Exp Gastroenterol ; 12: 239-253, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239747

RESUMO

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a digestive disorder in children and adults that is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration in the stomach and intestine. The underlying molecular mechanisms predisposing to this disease are unknown, but it seems that hypersensitivity response plays a major role in its pathogenesis, as many patients have a history of seasonal allergies, food sensitivities, asthma, and eczema. Symptoms and clinical presentations vary, depending on the site and layer of the gastrointestinal wall infiltrated by eosinophils. Laboratory results, radiological findings, and endoscopy can provide important diagnostic evidence for EGE; however, the cornerstone of the diagnosis remains the histological examination of gastric and duodenal specimens for evidence of eosinophilic infiltration (>20 eosinophils per high-power field), and finally clinicians make the diagnosis in correlation with and by exclusion of other disorders associated with eosinophilic infiltration. Although spontaneous remission is reported in around 30%-40% of EGE cases, most patients require ongoing treatment. The management options for this disorder include both dietary and pharmacological approaches, with corticosteroids being the mainstay of therapy and highly effective. The subsequent course is quite variable. Some patients have no recurrences, while a few experience recurrent symptoms during or immediately after corticosteroid interruption. An alternative therapeutic armamentarium includes mast-cell stabilizers, leukotriene antagonists, antihistamines, immunomodulators, and biological agents. In this review, we provide a summary of the different diagnostic tools utilized in practice, as well as the different therapeutic approaches available for EGE management.

7.
Case Rep Gastroenterol ; 13(1): 73-77, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043932

RESUMO

A Dieulafoy's lesion is defined as a dilated submucosal vessel that erodes the overlying epithelium without evidence of a primary ulcer or erosion. It is a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding that is difficult to identify and subsequently manage. Most commonly, they occur in the upper gastrointestinal tract, namely the stomach. A Dieulafoy's lesion of the rectum, however, is an exceedingly rare presentation that can lead to life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding. Our case consists of an 84-year-old man, who presented with lower gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to a Dieulafoy's lesion of the rectum.

8.
Cureus ; 11(2): e4066, 2019 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016093

RESUMO

Hepatic herniation through an abdominal incisional hernia is a rare phenomenon that has been seldom reported in the medical literature. When present, this may cause patients significant distress and is associated with complications such as hepatic encephalopathy and Budd-Chiari syndrome. Most cases can be managed conservatively through observation, but many cases require surgical intervention to preserve hepatic function. Our case consists of a 54-year-old man who presented with asymptomatic herniation of the left hepatic lobe through an abdominal incisional hernia.

9.
Korean J Gastroenterol ; 73(2): 105-108, 2019 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845387

RESUMO

Achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus that is characterized by loss of ganglionic neurons within the myenteric plexus of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) resulting in failure of the LES to relax. Clinically this disorder presents with simultaneous dysphagia to solids and liquids, and if left untreated, leads to esophageal dilation, which can give rise to many adverse consequences. Extrinsic compression of respiratory structures is one such consequence, and rarely, cases of tracheal compression secondary to achalasia have been reported. However, cases of extrinsic bronchial compression are yet rarer. Here, we present a case series comprised of two patients with achalasia who presented with extrinsic bronchial compression by a dilated esophagus secondary to achalasia.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Acalasia Esofágica/diagnóstico , Adulto , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/complicações , Asma/patologia , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Epilepsia/patologia , Acalasia Esofágica/etiologia , Esfíncter Esofágico Inferior/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
10.
World J Oncol ; 10(1): 10-27, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834048

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is the seventh leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. However, its toll is higher in more developed countries. Reasons for vast differences in mortality rates of pancreatic cancer are not completely clear yet, but it may be due to lack of appropriate diagnosis, treatment and cataloging of cancer cases. Because patients seldom exhibit symptoms until an advanced stage of the disease, pancreatic cancer remains one of the most lethal malignant neoplasms that caused 432,242 new deaths in 2018 (GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates). Globally, 458,918 new cases of pancreatic cancer have been reported in 2018, and 355,317 new cases are estimated to occur until 2040. Despite advancements in the detection and management of pancreatic cancer, the 5-year survival rate still stands at 9% only. To date, the causes of pancreatic carcinoma are still insufficiently known, although certain risk factors have been identified, such as tobacco smoking, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dietary factors, alcohol abuse, age, ethnicity, family history and genetic factors, Helicobacter pylori infection, non-O blood group and chronic pancreatitis. In general population, screening of large groups is not considered useful to detect the disease at its early stage, although newer techniques and the screening of tightly targeted groups (especially of those with family history), are being evaluated. Primary prevention is considered of utmost importance. Up-to-date statistics on pancreatic cancer occurrence and outcome along with a better understanding of the etiology and identifying the causative risk factors are essential for the primary prevention of this disease.

11.
Case Rep Gastrointest Med ; 2019: 1803036, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733877

RESUMO

Achalasia is an intrinsic disorder of the esophagus that results from loss of ganglion cells in the lower esophageal sphincter. Clinically it is manifested by dysphagia to solids and liquids, weight loss, regurgitation, and chest pain. Pseudoachalasia, in contrast, is a rare entity that causes identical symptoms, but has a divergent underlying pathogenesis. The symptomology in these cases oftentimes occurs secondary to extrinsic compression of the esophagus, mostly attributable to malignancy. Although many cases of extrinsic esophageal compression have been reported in the literature, rarely has this occurred secondary to Burkitt's lymphoma in an adult. Here, we present a case of Burkitt's lymphoma resulting in pseudoachalasia in a 70-year-old female. The concurrence of these two entities in one patient makes this case presentation especially rare.

12.
Oxf Med Case Reports ; 2019(2): omy134, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30800330

RESUMO

Heyde's syndrome is a well-documented entity in the medical literature that can result in life-threatening gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. It is a syndrome that is characterized by the combination of GI angioectasias and aortic stenosis. In most cases, the GI angioectasias resolve entirely with correction of the stenotic valve by way of total aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Rarely will cases recur after TAVR. Our case consists of an 84-year-old woman who presented with three new gastric angioectasias several months after undergoing TAVR. This is an exceedingly rare presentation of Heyde's syndrome. To our knowledge this is the first such case reported in the medical literature.

13.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 54: 113-115, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599304

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Large bowel obstruction (LBO) warrants prompt evaluation and management. Although causes of LBO are most commonly intrinsic to the colon (e.g. malignancy, diverticular stricture, intussusception or volvulus), rare extrinsic etiologies exist. An extremely rare extrinsic etiology of LBO described only once, is compressive splenic hematoma. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 64-year-old female presented to the emergency department complaining of two days of diffuse abdominal pain and distension, watery diarrhea and nausea subsequent to a mechanical fall to her left side. Computed tomography demonstrated a grade 3 splenic hematoma with active extravasation, causing extrinsic compression and obstruction of the colon. Embolization of the splenic artery was performed, and non-operative LBO management resulted in resumption of normal bowel function after six days. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, the only other case of colonic compression by splenic hematoma (a case report in the radiology literature from 1994) describes a 62-year-old male whose symptoms similarly spontaneously resolved. Increasing frequency of non-operative management of splenic trauma may result in increased frequency of splenic hematoma complications. Physicians and surgeons who treat LBO should be aware of this rare etiology and its potential for non-operative management. CONCLUSION: Our case demonstrates the importance of considering splenic hematoma as an etiology of LBO, particularly in the setting of trauma and that management of this entity can be successfully non-operatively.

14.
Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol ; 65(1): 70-76, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417630

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic hemostasis in patients with non-variceal bleeding (NVGIB) with standard therapy has improved outcomes. However, persistent bleeding and re-bleeding continues to drive morbidity and mortality. Use of over-the-scope clips (OTSC) is an emerging treatment modality for managing gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the ability of OTSC to achieve primary hemostasis and re-bleeding rates as primary therapy and rescue endoscopic interventions in patients with NVGIB. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We searched articles in PubMed, Ovid Medline In- Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Embase, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus from inception to July 2017 using keywords such as "OTSC" and "NVGIB." EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: A total of 16 studies which involved 475 patients met the inclusion criteria. 288 patients were treated with OTSC as primary therapy while 187 patients were treated with OTSC as rescue therapy. Primary hemostasis rate achieved with primary endoscopic therapy with OTSC was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.89-0.96). Similarly, primary hemostasis rate achieved with rescue endoscopic therapy with OTSC was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84-0.95). Re-bleeding rates after primary endoscopic therapy with OTSC was 0.21 (95% CI:0.08-0.43) and 0.25 (95% CI:0.17-0.34) with rescue therapy. There was a decreased risk of re-bleeding in patients treated with OTSC as primary therapy versus rescue therapy. RR=0.52 (95% CI: 0.31-0.89). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis demonstrates success on the use of OTSC as primary and rescue therapy in the management of NVGIB. Further trials should clarify the ideal setting for the use of OTSC and assess the cost of these devices as compared to standard therapy.


Assuntos
Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Hemostase Endoscópica/instrumentação , Humanos
15.
Drugs R D ; 18(4): 259-269, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is an immune/antigen-driven inflammation that causes esophageal dysfunction. Budesonide has shown promising effect in the management of EE in multiple studies, and we therefore conducted this systematic review/meta-analysis to assess budesonide efficacy and safety in order to provide more updated and robust evidence. METHODS: In April 2018, we conducted a systematic electronic search through four databases: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science (ISI), and Cochrane Central. All original studies reporting the efficacy of budesonide in the treatment of EE were included in our meta-analysis. The Cochrane Collaboration tool was employed to assess the risk of bias among included randomized controlled trials, while the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used for non-randomized studies. RESULTS: A total of 12 studies including 555 participants were included in our review. Budesonide showed marked efficacy at the level of histological response compared to placebo [risk ratio (RR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) 11.93 (4.82-29.50); p > 0.001]. Analysis of randomized and non-randomized studies revealed considerable reduction in eosinophil count, with a mean difference (MD) (95% CI) of - 69.41 (- 105.31 to - 33.51; p < 0.001) and 46.85 (33.93-59.77; p < 0.001), respectively. Similarly, there was a marked improvement in the clinical symptoms via the analysis of randomized and non-randomized studies, with an RR (95% CI) of 1.72 (1.22-2.41; p = 0.002) and MD (95% CI) of 2.45 (0.76-4.15; p = 0.005), respectively. CONCLUSION: Budesonide showed significant effect at all treatment endpoints. However, since budesonide carries a risk of candidiasis and our inferences are based only on a small number of included studies, more research is warranted to clarify these results.


Assuntos
Budesonida/uso terapêutico , Esofagite Eosinofílica/tratamento farmacológico , Budesonida/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 6: 2324709618803387, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283808

RESUMO

Chilaiditi syndrome is a very rare disorder characterized by abdominal pain due to the entrapment of the colon between the liver and the diaphragm. However, it is rare to have bowel perforation as a complication of this syndrome with only 2 cases reported to date. In this article, we present the case of a 56-year-old woman with medical history of scleroderma who presents with abdominal pain and was found to have colonic perforation from Chilaiditi syndrome. She was also incidentally found to have cecal adenocarcinoma. Sometimes abdominal pain in patients with Chilaiditi syndrome may be more than benign and calls for increased attention from clinicians regarding this.

17.
J Inflamm Res ; 11: 321-328, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30214266

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic multifactorial disease that affects the gastrointestinal tract and results from an aberrant immune response toward luminal antigens in genetically susceptible people. Most of the current therapies for IBD focus on the management of the inflammation by using corticosteroids, immune modulators, and more recently, monoclonal antibodies (biological therapy). Although these therapies provide benefit in most cases, there are still a significant number of patients who do not respond or become refractory over time, suggesting the need for alternative therapeutic options. In the last decade, it has been recognized that "dysbiosis," an imbalanced gut microbiota, is a key element in IBD suggesting microbiome-based therapies as an attractive approach. Recently, fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) has been successfully used for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection, and it is now under investigation for the treatment of IBD. Clinical trials data are still poor but strongly support a future introduction of FMT in therapy to manage IBD microbiome. More studies are needed to assess the optimal route of administration and the frequency of FMT, the best matched donor for each patient as well as the risks associated with FMT in IBD.

18.
Clin Case Rep ; 6(7): 1377-1378, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988618

RESUMO

Gastric mucosal prolapse (GMP) is a rare clinical syndrome that in patients with hiatal hernias and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may present with typical findings of abdominal pain and reflux symptoms but prove resistant to medical therapy. Physicians should therefore be aware and consider GMP as a differential in such patients in order to make an accurate diagnosis and provide timely treatment.

19.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 6: 2324709618777003, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29854857

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM), a plasma cell tumor, is primarily a disease of the bone marrow. Extramedullary plasmacytoma, also a plasma cell tumor, is very rare in the gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas, and only a handful cases have been documented till now. Gastric and pancreatic plasmacytomas are usually seen in elderly patients; however, cases in patients as young as 32 years of age have been reported. Commonly, patients with gastric plasmacytoma present with nonspecific symptoms like epigastric pain, abdominal fullness, anorexia, and weight loss, or serious conditions like massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding and gastric outlet obstruction. Patients with pancreatic plasmacytoma commonly present with obstructive jaundice. In this article, we present the case of a 79-year-old man with a history of MM for 3 years, diagnosed with gastric and pancreatic masses, which turned out to be plasmacytomas. To our knowledge, simultaneous occurrence of gastric and pancreatic plasmacytomas is extremely uncommon with less than 5 cases reported in the literature. We also compiled all the individual cases of gastric and pancreatic MM that have been reported in literature till now.

20.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 11(6): 441-448, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923163

RESUMO

Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is an uncommon but well-established cause of acute pancreatitis (AP) comprising up to 7% of the cases. The clinical course of HTG-induced pancreatitis (HTGP) is highly similar to that of AP of other etiologies with HTG being the only distinguishing clinical feature. However, HTGP is often correlated with higher severity and elevated complication rate. At present, no approved treatment guideline for the management of HTGP is available, although different treatment modalities such as insulin, heparin, fibric acids, and omega 3 fatty acids have been successfully implemented to reduce serum triglycerides (TG). Plasmapheresis has also been used to counteract elevated TG levels in HTGP patients. However, it has been associated with complications. Following the management of acute phase, lifestyle modifications including dietary adjustments and drug therapy are essential in the long-term management of HTGP and the prevention of its relapse. Results from studies of small patient groups describing treatment and prevention of HTGP are not sufficient to draw solid conclusions resulting in no treatment algorithm being available for effective management of HTGP. Therefore, prospective randomized, active-controlled clinical studies are required to find a better treatment regimen for the management of HTGP. Until date, one randomized clinical trial has been performed to compare clinical outcomes of different treatment approaches for HTGP. However, further studies are required to outline a generalized and efficient treatment regimen for the management of HTGP.


Assuntos
Hipertrigliceridemia/complicações , Pancreatite/etiologia , Pancreatite/terapia , Doença Aguda , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Pancreatite/prevenção & controle , Plasmaferese , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia
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