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1.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(9): 1924-1928, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465694

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated 8, 12, or 24 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in patients with hepatitis C virus and end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis. METHODS: Primary efficacy end point was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment. Primary safety end point was treatment discontinuation because of adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: Ninety-four percent (89/95) achieved sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment. Six patients died during treatment (n = 4) or before study completion (n = 2); no deaths were related to treatment. No patients discontinued treatment because of AEs. Thirteen percent had serious AEs; none were related to treatment. DISCUSSION: Treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir was safe and effective in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Fluorenos/administração & dosagem , Hepatite C/complicações , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sofosbuvir/administração & dosagem , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251552, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) improves patient outcomes in preventing mother-to-child transmission (pMTCT) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) in mothers with chronic HBV and high viral loads. Given the lack of data for tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) in pMTCT, rates of early viral suppression with TAF and TDF were evaluated in women of childbearing potential (WOCBP) participating in 2 randomized, double-blind, Phase 3 studies in chronic HBV. METHODS: In a patient subset meeting WOCBP criteria and with baseline HBV DNA >200,000 IU/mL, rates of viral suppression with TAF or TDF in achieving the target of HBV DNA <200,000 IU/mL at weeks 12 and 24 were assessed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors predictive of failure to suppress HBV DNA to the target level. RESULTS: In 275 of 1298 (21%) patients meeting WOCBP criteria with high viral load, 93% and 96% had HBV DNA <200,000 IU/mL at weeks 12 and 24, respectively. Results for TAF (n = 194) vs TDF (n = 81) treatment were similar at weeks 12 and 24 (94% vs. 90% and 97% vs. 93%), respectively. High baseline HBV DNA level, genotype D infection, and prior interferon (week 24 only) were predictive of failure to achieve the target level. Both treatments were well tolerated with TAF showing less impact on renal and bone parameters. CONCLUSIONS: In WOCBP with high VL, no differences were found between TAF and TDF in reducing HBV DNA to levels associated with lower transmission risk. These data support ongoing studies of TAF for pMTCT.

3.
J Viral Hepat ; 28(8): 1160-1168, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002910

RESUMO

More systematic analysis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome diversity, linked with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) treatment and HBeAg seroconversion, are needed. GS-US-174-0115 was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase 3, 192-week clinical trial that evaluated TDF in adolescents with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). HBV full-genome deep sequencing was performed using Illumina MiSeq at baseline (BL; n = 85), Week 8 (W8; n = 80), Week 72 (W72; PBO only, n = 42), and treatment-free follow-up (TDF only, n = 25). The viral diversity was calculated using Shannon entropy and population nucleotide diversity with a 2% variant cutoff. Our data showed (i) a higher viral diversity in the X region at baseline than the core/polymerase/surface regions, (ii) higher core/surface viral diversity at baseline for patients with seroconversion, (iii) an expected reduction in viral diversity after 8 weeks of TDF treatment, and (iv) a drop in viral diversity at W72 for patients receiving placebo with a seroconversion (n = 7). The higher viral diversity in X was associated with higher baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (p < .001). Patients with greater reduction of diversity at W8 of TDF treatment had higher baseline ALT levels. For placebo patients who seroconverted, the drop in viral diversity at W72 (p = .04) coincided with reduction of serum HBV DNA (average change from baseline = -4.10 log10 copies/ml) and unique combinations of variants were enriched in a patient's viral population post seroconversion. The basal core promoter (BCP) variants, A1762T and G1764A, and the pC variant, G1896A, were most often enriched at or after seroconversion.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica , Adolescente , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral/genética , Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
4.
Hepatology ; 74(4): 1737-1749, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection, activation of toll-like receptor 8 may induce antiviral immunity and drive functional cure. Selgantolimod, a toll-like receptor 8 agonist, was evaluated in patients with CHB who were virally suppressed on oral antiviral treatment or viremic and not on oral antiviral treatment. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In this phase 1b study, patients were randomized 4:1 to receive either selgantolimod or placebo once weekly. Virally suppressed patients received either 1.5 mg (for 2 weeks) or 3 mg (for 2 weeks or 4 weeks). Viremic patients received 3 mg for 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was safety, as assessed by adverse events (AEs), laboratory abnormalities, and vital sign examination. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters were assessed by plasma analysis. A total of 38 patients (28 virally suppressed, 10 viremic) were enrolled from six sites in Australia, New Zealand, and South Korea. Twenty patients (53%) experienced an AE and 32 (84%) had laboratory abnormalities, all of which were mild or moderate in severity. The most common AEs were headache (32%), nausea (24%), and dizziness (13%). With a half-life of 5 hours, no accumulation of selgantolimod was observed with multiple dosing. Selgantolimod induced transient dose-dependent increases in serum cytokines, including IL-12p40 and IL-1RA, which are important for the expansion and activity of multiple T- cell subsets and innate immunity. CONCLUSION: Selgantolimod was safe and well-tolerated in virally suppressed and viremic patients with CHB and elicited cytokine responses consistent with target engagement. Further studies with longer durations of selgantolimod treatment are required to evaluate efficacy.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Achieving sustained virologic response (SVR) among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) leads to patient reported outcome (PRO) improvement. We aimed to assess the long-term post-SVR PRO trends in HCV patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Patients with HCV and cirrhosis treated in clinical trials with direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) who achieved SVR-12 were prospectively enrolled in a long-term registry (clinicaltrials.gov #NCT02292706). PROs were collected every 24 weeks using the Short Form-36v2 (SF-36), CLDQ-HCV, and WPAI-HCV. RESULTS: Pre-treatment baseline data were available for 854 cirrhotic patients who achieved SVR after DAAs. Of these, 730 had compensated (CC) and 124 had decompensated cirrhosis (DCC) before treatment- patients with DCC reported severe impairment in their PROs in comparison to CC patients (by mean -5% to -16% of a PRO range size; p < .05 for 16 out of 20 studied PROs]. After achieving SVR and registry enrollment, significant PRO improvements were noted from pre-treatment levels in 11/20 domains for those with DCC (+4% to +21%) and 19/20 PRO domains in patients with CC (+3% to +17%). Patients with baseline DCC had higher rates of hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality (P < .05). In patients with CC, the PRO gains persisted up to 168 weeks (3.5 years) of registry follow-up. In patients with DCC, the improvements lasted for at least 96 weeks but a declining trend after year 2. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HCV cirrhosis experience severe PRO impairment at baseline with sustainable improvement after SVR. Though those with DCC experience improvement, there is a decline after 2 years.

6.
Hepatology ; 73(5): 1652-1670, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We conducted haplotype analysis of complete hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes following deep sequencing from 368 patients across multiple phases of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection from four major genotypes (A-D), analyzing 4,110 haplotypes to identify viral variants associated with treatment outcome and disease progression. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Between 18.2% and 41.8% of nucleotides and between 5.9% and 34.3% of amino acids were 100% conserved in all genotypes and phases examined, depending on the region analyzed. Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) loss by week 192 was associated with different haplotype populations at baseline. Haplotype populations differed across the HBV genome and CHB history, this being most pronounced in the precore/core gene. Mean number of haplotypes (frequency) per patient was higher in immune-active, HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis phase 2 (11.8) and HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis phase 4 (16.2) compared to subjects in the "immune-tolerant," HBeAg-positive chronic infection phase 1 (4.3, P< 0.0001). Haplotype frequency was lowest in genotype B (6.2, P< 0.0001) compared to the other genotypes (A = 11.8, C = 11.8, D = 13.6). Haplotype genetic diversity increased over the course of CHB history, being lowest in phase 1, increasing in phase 2, and highest in phase 4 in all genotypes except genotype C. HBeAg loss by week 192 of tenofovir therapy was associated with different haplotype populations at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a degree of HBV haplotype diversity and heterogeneity across the phases of CHB natural history, highly conserved sequences in key genes and regulatory regions were identified in multiple HBV genotypes that should be further investigated as targets for antiviral therapies and predictors of treatment response.

7.
Arab J Gastroenterol ; 21(4): 267-272, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the leading causes of end-stage liver diseases. This study aimed to determine the association between polymorphisms in interleukin 28B (IL28B), PNPLA3, toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) and retinoic inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and HCV genotype and clinical presentation in an Indian population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 500 patients with chronic HCV were enrolled in 19 centres across India. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for IL28B, PNPLA3, TLR7, NOD2 and RIG-I genes were genotyped by real-time PCR using a TaqManSNP genotyping assay. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 45 + 13 years, and the most common genotype observed was HCV genotype 3 (54%), followed by genotype 1 (24%). Although the allelic frequencies of TLR7, NOD2 and RIG-I were in significant disequilibrium in HCV patients compared with those in controls, the PNPLA3 polymorphism correlated significantly with higher viral load and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in genotype 3 patients. Patients with PNPLA3 CG/GG genotypes, along with IL28B genotype CC, had higher levels of ALT than those with other genotypes. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that PNPLA3 polymorphisms are associated with higher ALT levels in HCV genotype 3 patients in India and can help in identifying people who are at greater risk of developing HCV-associated liver diseases.

8.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 52(8): 1399-1406, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend liver biopsy to rule out significant inflammatory activity in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with elevated hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA but without other indications for treatment. AIM: To study rates and determinants of clinically significant liver inflammation. METHODS: We selected patients with HBV DNA > 2000 IU/mL from the SONIC-B database. The presence of significant inflammation (METAVIR ≥ A2 or HAI ≥ 9) was assessed by liver biopsy and correlated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (according to AASLD upper limits of normal [ULN]) and stratified by the presence of significant liver fibrosis (Ishak ≥ 3 or METAVIR ≥ F2). RESULTS: The cohort included 2991 patients; 1672 were HBeAg-positive. ALT was < ULN in 270 (9%), 1-2 times ULN in 852 (29%) and > 2 times ULN in 1869 (63%). Significant fibrosis was found in 1419 (47%) and significant inflammatory activity in 630 (21%). Significant inflammatory activity was found in 34% of patients with liver fibrosis, compared to 9.5% of those without (P < 0.001). Among patients without fibrosis, significant inflammatory activity was detected in 3.6% of those with normal ALT, 5.0% of those with ALT 1-2 times ULN and in 13% of those with ALT > 2 times ULN (P < 0.001). ALT < 2 times ULN had a negative predictive value of 95% for ruling out significant inflammatory activity among patients without liver fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients without significant fibrosis, an ALT level < 2 times ULN is associated with < 5% probability of significant inflammatory activity. If fibrosis can be ruled out using non-invasive methods, liver biopsy solely to assess inflammatory activity should be discouraged.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite/diagnóstico , Hepatite/etiologia , Adulto , Biópsia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hepatite/sangue , Hepatite/epidemiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Inflamação/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probabilidade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15574, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968103

RESUMO

Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is one of the nucleotide analogs capable of inhibiting the reverse transcriptase (RT) activity of HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV). There is no known HBV resistance to TDF. However, detectable variation in duration of HBV persistence in patients on TDF therapy suggests the existence of genetic mechanisms of on-drug persistence that reduce TDF efficacy for some HBV strains without affording actual resistance. Here, the whole genome of intra-host HBV variants (N = 1,288) was sequenced from patients with rapid (RR, N = 5) and slow response (SR, N = 5) to TDF. Association of HBV genomic and protein polymorphic sites to RR and SR was assessed using phylogenetic analysis and Bayesian network methods. We show that, in difference to resistance to nucleotide analogs, which is mainly associated with few specific mutations in RT, the HBV on-TDF persistence is defined by genetic variations across the entire HBV genome. Analysis of the inferred 3D-structures indicates no difference in affinity of TDF binding by RT encoded by intra-host HBV variants that rapidly decline or persist in presence of TDF. This finding suggests that effectiveness of TDF recognition and binding does not contribute significantly to on-drug persistence. Differences in patterns of genetic associations to TDF response between HBV genotypes B and C and lack of a single pattern of mutations among intra-host variants sensitive to TDF indicate a complex genetic encoding of the trait. We hypothesize that there are many genetic mechanisms of on-drug persistence, which are differentially available to HBV strains. These pervasive mechanisms are insufficient to prevent viral inhibition completely but may contribute significantly to robustness of actual resistance. On-drug persistence may reduce the overall effectiveness of therapy and should be considered for development of more potent drugs.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Humanos , Lamivudina/efeitos adversos , Lamivudina/farmacologia , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por RNA/genética , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Tenofovir/farmacologia
10.
Lancet Microbe ; 1(5): e200-e208, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939459

RESUMO

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing among pregnant women because of the opioid epidemic, yet there are no interventions to reduce perinatal HCV transmission or to treat HCV during pregnancy. Physiological changes in pregnancy alter the pharmacokinetics of some medications; thus, our aim was to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of ledipasvir 90 mg plus sofosbuvir 400 mg during pregnancy with non-pregnant women. Methods: This was an open-label, phase 1 study of pregnant women with genotype 1 HCV infection and their infants. A reference group of women who had participated in pharmacokinetic studies of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir during phase 2 and 3 trials was used. Participants were enrolled at Magee-Womens Hospital (Pittsburgh, PA, USA) between 23 and 24 weeks' gestation and had a 12-week course of oral ledipasvir-sofosbuvir (daily 90 mg ledipasvir plus 400 mg sofosbuvir). Three 12-h intensive pharmacokinetic visits were done at 25-26, 29-30, and 33-34 weeks' gestation and individual pharmacokinetics were summarised by geometric mean across the three visits. The primary outcome, analysed in all participants without suspected dosing errors, was the ledipasvir-sofosbuvir area under the concentration-time curve of the dosing interval (AUCtau) during pregnancy compared with the reference group by geometric mean ratio. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02683005. Findings: From Oct 1, 2016, to Sept 30, 2018, 29 pregnant women were screened and nine (31%) were enrolled. Eight (89%) women were included in the primary analysis. Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir exposures were similar in the pregnant women versus the non-pregnant reference group (geometric mean ratio of AUCtau ledipasvir 89·3% [90% CI 68·7-116·1]; sofosbuvir 91·1% [78·0-106·3]). Interpretation: Ledipasvir-sofosbuvir was safe and effective without clinically meaningful differences in drug exposure among pregnant versus non-pregnant women. Funding: National Institutes of Health/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institutes of Health/Office of Research on Women's Health, and Gilead Sciences.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several chronic diseases have been shown to accelerate biological aging. We investigated age acceleration and the association between peripheral blood DNAm and immune cell markers in patients chronically infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) or the hepatitis C virus (HCV) with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection. METHODS: Age acceleration was measured as the difference between epigenetic age (Horvath clock) and chronological age. The immune marker model of age acceleration was developed using Elastic Net regression to select both the immune markers and their associated weights in the final linear model. RESULTS: Patients with chronic HBV (n=51) had a significantly higher median epigenetic age compared to chronological age (age accelerated) (p < 0.001). In patients with chronic HCV infection (n=63), age acceleration was associated with liver fibrosis as assessed by histology (p < 0.05), or presence of HIV co-infection (p < 0.05), but not HCV mono-infection. Age acceleration defined by immune markers was concordant with age acceleration by DNA methylation (correlation coefficient=0.59 in HBV; p=0.0025). One-year treatment of HBV patients with nucleoside therapy was associated with a modest reduction in age acceleration as measured using the immune marker model (-0.65 years, p=0.018). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that patients with chronic viral hepatitis have accelerated epigenetic aging and that immune markers defines biological age and has the potential to assess the effects of therapeutic intervention on age acceleration.

12.
JAMA ; 324(11): 1048-1057, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821939

RESUMO

Importance: Remdesivir demonstrated clinical benefit in a placebo-controlled trial in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but its effect in patients with moderate disease is unknown. Objective: To determine the efficacy of 5 or 10 days of remdesivir treatment compared with standard care on clinical status on day 11 after initiation of treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, open-label trial of hospitalized patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and moderate COVID-19 pneumonia (pulmonary infiltrates and room-air oxygen saturation >94%) enrolled from March 15 through April 18, 2020, at 105 hospitals in the United States, Europe, and Asia. The date of final follow-up was May 20, 2020. Interventions: Patients were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive a 10-day course of remdesivir (n = 197), a 5-day course of remdesivir (n = 199), or standard care (n = 200). Remdesivir was dosed intravenously at 200 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg/d. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was clinical status on day 11 on a 7-point ordinal scale ranging from death (category 1) to discharged (category 7). Differences between remdesivir treatment groups and standard care were calculated using proportional odds models and expressed as odds ratios. An odds ratio greater than 1 indicates difference in clinical status distribution toward category 7 for the remdesivir group vs the standard care group. Results: Among 596 patients who were randomized, 584 began the study and received remdesivir or continued standard care (median age, 57 [interquartile range, 46-66] years; 227 [39%] women; 56% had cardiovascular disease, 42% hypertension, and 40% diabetes), and 533 (91%) completed the trial. Median length of treatment was 5 days for patients in the 5-day remdesivir group and 6 days for patients in the 10-day remdesivir group. On day 11, patients in the 5-day remdesivir group had statistically significantly higher odds of a better clinical status distribution than those receiving standard care (odds ratio, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.09-2.48; P = .02). The clinical status distribution on day 11 between the 10-day remdesivir and standard care groups was not significantly different (P = .18 by Wilcoxon rank sum test). By day 28, 9 patients had died: 2 (1%) in the 5-day remdesivir group, 3 (2%) in the 10-day remdesivir group, and 4 (2%) in the standard care group. Nausea (10% vs 3%), hypokalemia (6% vs 2%), and headache (5% vs 3%) were more frequent among remdesivir-treated patients compared with standard care. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with moderate COVID-19, those randomized to a 10-day course of remdesivir did not have a statistically significant difference in clinical status compared with standard care at 11 days after initiation of treatment. Patients randomized to a 5-day course of remdesivir had a statistically significant difference in clinical status compared with standard care, but the difference was of uncertain clinical importance. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04292730.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Monofosfato de Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Alanina/administração & dosagem , Alanina/efeitos adversos , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Gravidade do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Antivir Ther ; 25(3): 171-180, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selgantolimod is a novel oral, selective Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) agonist in development for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). TLR8 is an endosomal innate immune receptor and a target for treatment of viral infections. This first-in-human study investigated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of selgantolimod in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Of 71 subjects enrolled, 59 received a single dose of selgantolimod (0.5, 1.5, 3 or 5 mg) or placebo, and 12 were evaluated for food effect. Safety, PK and PD activity by induction of cytokines, chemokines and acute phase proteins were assessed. PK/PD analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Single doses of 0.5-5 mg were generally safe. No serious adverse events (AEs) or AEs leading to discontinuation were reported, and most were Grade 1 in severity. Selgantolimod displayed rapid absorption and dose-proportional PK and PD activity. Food had minimal effect on PK but resulted in diminished PD activity. In PK/PD analyses, near-saturation of induction for most evaluated biomarkers occurred at the 5-mg dose. CONCLUSIONS: Single doses of up to 5 mg selgantolimod were safe and induced dose-dependent PD responses. These data support evaluation of selgantolimod in combination with other agents in future clinical studies of CHB. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registration: ACTRN12616001646437.

14.
J Hepatol ; 73(6): 1368-1378, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of death in patients with chronic hepatitis. In this international collaboration, we sought to develop a global universal HCC risk score to predict the HCC development for patients with chronic hepatitis. METHODS: A total of 17,374 patients, comprising 10,578 treated Asian patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 2,510 treated Caucasian patients with CHB, 3,566 treated patients with hepatitis C virus (including 2,489 patients with cirrhosis achieving a sustained virological response) and 720 patients with non-viral hepatitis (NVH) from 11 international prospective observational cohorts or randomised controlled trials, were divided into a training cohort (3,688 Asian patients with CHB) and 9 validation cohorts with different aetiologies and ethnicities (n = 13,686). RESULTS: We developed an HCC risk score, called the aMAP score (ranging from 0 to 100), that involves only age, male, albumin-bilirubin and platelets. This metric performed excellently in assessing HCC risk not only in patients with hepatitis of different aetiologies, but also in those with different ethnicities (C-index: 0.82-0.87). Cut-off values of 50 and 60 were best for discriminating HCC risk. The 3- or 5-year cumulative incidences of HCC were 0-0.8%, 1.5-4.8%, and 8.1-19.9% in the low- (n = 7,413, 43.6%), medium- (n = 6,529, 38.4%), and high-risk (n = 3,044, 17.9%) groups, respectively. The cut-off value of 50 was associated with a sensitivity of 85.7-100% and a negative predictive value of 99.3-100%. The cut-off value of 60 resulted in a specificity of 56.6-95.8% and a positive predictive value of 6.6-15.7%. CONCLUSIONS: This objective, simple, reliable risk score based on 5 common parameters accurately predicted HCC development, regardless of aetiology and ethnicity, which could help to establish a risk score-guided HCC surveillance strategy worldwide. LAY SUMMARY: In this international collaboration, we developed and externally validated a simple, objective and accurate prognostic tool (called the aMAP score), that involves only age, male, albumin-bilirubin and platelets. The aMAP score (ranged from 0 to 100) satisfactorily predicted the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development among over 17,000 patients with viral and non-viral hepatitis from 11 global prospective studies. Our findings show that the aMAP score had excellent discrimination and calibration in assessing the 5-year HCC risk among all the cohorts irrespective of aetiology and ethnicity.

15.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609910

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes impact treatment outcomes and disease progression. The current genotyping methods have limitations in patients with low HBV viral load. In this study, a more sensitive assay has been developed for determining the HBV genotype in HBV DNA suppressed patients. Fifty-five serum samples from 55 chronic hepatitis B patients (HBeAg-, n = 20; HBeAg+, n = 35) across genotypes A to H with long-term nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) treatment were collected. All samples had HBV DNA less than 29 IU/mL. Total nucleic acid (viral DNA and RNA) was extracted and a 341 bp amplicon located at HBV S gene overlapping with reverse transcriptase domain of polymerase (pol/RT) was amplified via real time (RT)-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by population sequencing. HBV genotype was determined by phylogenetic analysis. The assay successfully amplified HBV S/RT gene from 53 of 55 (96.4%) patient serum samples. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the genotypes of all the 53 PCR positive samples matched the historical genotypes as determined by INNO-LiPA or RT sequence from the corresponding baseline samples. This assay was able to accurately determine HBV genotype irrespective of baseline genotype, HBeAg status, or duration of viral suppression. The ability to determine genotype in virally suppressed patients may facilitate the evaluation of novel treatment agents for HBV in this patient population.

16.
Hepatol Res ; 50(10): 1109-1117, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614468

RESUMO

AIM: The combination of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) has been approved for the treatment of various hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes across many countries. This article presents an integrated analysis of three prospective phase II/III trials in the Asia-Pacific region to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 12 weeks of LDV/SOF in HCV genotype 2 patients without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis. METHODS: A total of 200 patients were included in the integrated analysis. The primary end-point was the rate of sustained virologic response for 12 weeks after the end of therapy (SVR12), analyzed by fibrosis stage, treatment history, HCV genotype subtype, and presence of baseline resistance-associated substitutions (RAS). Safety was evaluated by adverse events and laboratory abnormalities. RESULTS: Twelve weeks of treatment with LDV/SOF was associated with high SVR12 rates (overall 98%) in patients with genotype 2 HCV, irrespective of fibrosis stage, treatment history, genotype 2 subtype, and presence of baseline non-structural protein 5A resistance-associated substitution (NS5A RAS), and LDV/SOF was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: Twelve weeks of treatment with LDV/SOF provides a highly effective and safe treatment for patients with genotype 2 HCV, including those with advanced fibrosis. As a ribavirin-free and protease inhibitor-free regimen with minimal on-treatment monitoring requirements, LDV/SOF can potentially play a crucial role in achieving the WHO's goal of HCV elimination.

17.
J Viral Hepat ; 27(10): 1061-1070, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384174

RESUMO

Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUC) treatment prevents progression of liver fibrosis in subjects with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) persists despite viral suppression. Specific HBV variants have been associated with adverse outcomes, including HCC; however, the frequency of these variants during the seemingly benign immunotolerant (IT) phase is unknown. Next-generation sequencing and detailed virological characterization on a cohort of treatment-naïve IT subjects were performed to determine the frequency of clinically relevant viral variants. Samples from 97 subjects (genotype B/C 55%/45%, median HBV-DNA 8.5 log10 IU/mL, median HBsAg 4.8 log10  IU/mL, median HBeAg 3.6 log10  PEIU/mL) were analysed. Despite subjects being in the IT phase, clinically relevant HBV variants were common at baseline, particularly in the basal core promoter (BCP, overlaps the hepatitis B X (HBx) gene), precore and PreS regions. BCP/HBx variants were independently associated with lower baseline HBeAg, HBsAg and HBV-DNA titres. Precore variants were independently associated with higher baseline ALT. Increased viral diversity was associated with increased age and lower HBV-DNA, HBsAg and HBeAg levels. Low-level (<5%) drug resistance-associated amino acid substitutions in the HBV reverse transcriptase were detected in 9 (9%) subjects at pre-treatment but were not associated with reduced antiviral activity. Future studies should evaluate whether the detection of HBV variant during IT CHB is predictive of progression to immune clearance and poor prognosis, and whether early initiation of antiviral therapy during IT CHB to prevent the selection of HBV variants is clinically beneficial.

18.
N Engl J Med ; 383(19): 1827-1837, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir is an RNA polymerase inhibitor with potent antiviral activity in vitro and efficacy in animal models of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). METHODS: We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial involving hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, oxygen saturation of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air, and radiologic evidence of pneumonia. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenous remdesivir for either 5 days or 10 days. All patients received 200 mg of remdesivir on day 1 and 100 mg once daily on subsequent days. The primary end point was clinical status on day 14, assessed on a 7-point ordinal scale. RESULTS: In total, 397 patients underwent randomization and began treatment (200 patients for 5 days and 197 for 10 days). The median duration of treatment was 5 days (interquartile range, 5 to 5) in the 5-day group and 9 days (interquartile range, 5 to 10) in the 10-day group. At baseline, patients randomly assigned to the 10-day group had significantly worse clinical status than those assigned to the 5-day group (P = 0.02). By day 14, a clinical improvement of 2 points or more on the ordinal scale occurred in 64% of patients in the 5-day group and in 54% in the 10-day group. After adjustment for baseline clinical status, patients in the 10-day group had a distribution in clinical status at day 14 that was similar to that among patients in the 5-day group (P = 0.14). The most common adverse events were nausea (9% of patients), worsening respiratory failure (8%), elevated alanine aminotransferase level (7%), and constipation (7%). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe Covid-19 not requiring mechanical ventilation, our trial did not show a significant difference between a 5-day course and a 10-day course of remdesivir. With no placebo control, however, the magnitude of benefit cannot be determined. (Funded by Gilead Sciences; GS-US-540-5773 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04292899.).


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Monofosfato de Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina/administração & dosagem , Alanina/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigenoterapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32318704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Serum HBsAg levels correlate with the duration of chronic HBV infection and may predict the extent of hepatic fibrosis. METHODS: We analysed data from the SONIC-B database, which contains data from 8 global randomized trials and two large hepatology centers. Relationship between HBsAg levels and presence of significant fibrosis (Ishak 3-4) or cirrhosis (Ishak 5-6) were explored and clinically relevant cut-offs were identified to rule out cirrhosis. RESULTS: The dataset included 2779 patients; 1866 HBeAg-positive; 322 with cirrhosis. Among HBeAg-positive patients, lower HBsAg levels were associated with higher rates of significant fibrosis (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.419, P<0.001) and cirrhosis (OR 0.435, p<0.001). No relationship was observed among HBeAg-negative patients. Among HBeAg-positive patients, genotype specific HBsAg cut-offs had excellent NPVs (>97%) and low misclassification rates (≤7.1%) and may therefore have utility in ruling out cirrhosis. Diagnostic performance of the HBsAg cut-offs was comparable among patients in whom cirrhosis could not be ruled out with FIB-4. CONCLUSIONS: HBV genotype specific HBsAg cut-offs may have utility in ruling out presence of cirrhosis in HBeAg-positive patients with genotypes B, C and D and can be an adjunct to FIB-4 to reduce the need for further testing.

20.
Liver Int ; 40(7): 1693-1700, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Most patients with cirrhosis induced by chronic HBV infection experience fibrosis regression after long-term antiviral treatment, while some remain cirrhotic. Fibrosis regression is associated with lower odds of developing hepatic decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma, but mechanisms impacting differential fibrosis regression between individuals are unclear. We asked whether soluble molecules, including serum microRNAs, could serve as biomarkers of fibrosis regression. METHODS: We analysed cryopreserved sera from clinical trials in which cirrhotic HBV-infected patients (baseline Ishak fibrosis score of 5-6) received 240 weeks of nucleotide analogue treatment. Liver biopsies at week 240 in these trials showed 71/96 patients (74%) had fibrosis regression (Ishak ≤ 4) while 25/96 (26%) remained cirrhotic (Ishak 5-6). We quantified inflammatory markers (CXCL10, soluble CD163) and miRNAs (n = 179) from serum at baseline, week 48 and week 240 of treatment in a sub-cohort of patients with (n = 14) or without (n = 14) fibrosis regression. RESULTS: CXCL10, sCD163 and miRNAs previously associated with HBV replication and inflammation decreased during treatment but did not differ based on fibrosis regression. Two miRNAs (miR-421 and miR-454-3p) had lower baseline expression in patients with subsequent fibrosis regression. In all, 27 miRNAs differed at week 240 and had higher expression in patients with fibrosis regression (eg miR-199a-3p, miR-423-3p, miR-142-3p, miR-let-7d-5p). Several miRNAs (miR-141-3p, let-7d-5p) that correlated with regression have previously been implicated in the pathophysiology of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. CONCLUSIONS: In cirrhotic patients with chronic HBV infection treated with antiviral therapy, serum miRNAs have differential expression based on fibrosis regression, suggesting potential utility as biomarkers.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Hepatite B , Neoplasias Hepáticas , MicroRNAs , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática
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