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1.
EBioMedicine ; 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously conducted a systematic field synopsis of 1059 breast cancer candidate gene studies and investigated 279 genetic variants, 51 of which showed associations. The major limitation of this work was the small sample size, even pooling data from all 1059 studies. Thereafter, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have accumulated data for hundreds of thousands of subjects. It's necessary to re-evaluate these variants in large GWAS datasets. METHODS: Of these 279 variants, data were obtained for 228 from GWAS conducted within the Asian Breast Cancer Consortium (24,206 cases and 24,775 controls) and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry). Meta-analyses were conducted to combine the results from these two datasets. FINDINGS: Of those 228 variants, an association was observed for 12 variants in 10 genes at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 2·19 × 10-4. The associations for four variants reached P < 5 × 10-8 and have been reported by previous GWAS, including rs6435074 and rs6723097 (CASP8), rs17879961 (CHEK2) and rs2853669 (TERT). The remaining eight variants were rs676387 (HSD17B1), rs762551 (CYP1A2), rs1045485 (CASP8), rs9340799 (ESR1), rs7931342 (CHR11), rs1050450 (GPX1), rs13010627 (CASP10) and rs9344 (CCND1). Further investigating these 10 genes identified associations for two additional variants at P < 5 × 10-8, including rs4793090 (near HSD17B1), and rs9210 (near CYP1A2), which have not been identified by previous GWAS. INTERPRETATION: Though most candidate gene variants were not associated with breast cancer risk, we found 14 variants showing an association. Our findings warrant further functional investigation of these variants. FUND: National Institutes of Health.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12524, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467304

RESUMO

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with 22 disease-causing genes reported to date. In some FA genes, monoallelic mutations have been found to be associated with breast cancer risk, while the risk associations of others remain unknown. The gene for FA type C, FANCC, has been proposed as a breast cancer susceptibility gene based on epidemiological and sequencing studies. We used the Oncoarray project to genotype two truncating FANCC variants (p.R185X and p.R548X) in 64,760 breast cancer cases and 49,793 controls of European descent. FANCC mutations were observed in 25 cases (14 with p.R185X, 11 with p.R548X) and 26 controls (18 with p.R185X, 8 with p.R548X). There was no evidence of an association with the risk of breast cancer, neither overall (odds ratio 0.77, 95%CI 0.44-1.33, p = 0.4) nor by histology, hormone receptor status, age or family history. We conclude that the breast cancer risk association of these two FANCC variants, if any, is much smaller than for BRCA1, BRCA2 or PALB2 mutations. If this applies to all truncating variants in FANCC it would suggest there are differences between FA genes in their roles on breast cancer risk and demonstrates the merit of large consortia for clarifying risk associations of rare variants.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265136

RESUMO

A small number of circulating proteins have been reported to be associated with breast cancer risk, with inconsistent results. Herein, we attempted to identify novel protein biomarkers for breast cancer via the integration of genomics and proteomics data. In the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), with 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European descendants, we evaluated the associations of the genetically predicted concentrations of >1,400 circulating proteins with breast cancer risk. We used data from a large-scale protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) analysis as our study instrument. Summary statistics for these pQTL variants related to breast cancer risk were obtained from the BCAC and used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for each protein using the inverse-variance weighted method. We identified 56 proteins significantly associated with breast cancer risk by instrumental analysis (false discovery rate <0.05). Of these, the concentrations of 32 were influenced by variants close to a breast cancer susceptibility locus (ABO, 9q34.2). Many of these proteins, such as insulin receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 and other membrane receptors (OR: 0.82-1.18, p values: 6.96 × 10-4 -3.28 × 10-8 ), are linked to insulin resistance and estrogen receptor signaling pathways. Proteins identified at other loci include those involved in biological processes such as alcohol and lipid metabolism, proteolysis, apoptosis, immune regulation and cell motility and proliferation. Consistent associations were observed for 22 proteins in the UK Biobank data (p < 0.05). The study identifies potential novel biomarkers for breast cancer, but further investigation is needed to replicate our findings.

4.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation plays a critical role in breast cancer development. Previous studies have identified DNA methylation marks in white blood cells as promising biomarkers for breast cancer. However, these studies were limited by low statistical power and potential biases. Utilizing a new methodology, we investigated DNA methylation marks for their associations with breast cancer risk. METHODS: Statistical models were built to predict levels of DNA methylation marks using genetic data and DNA methylation data from HumanMethylation450 BeadChip from the Framingham Heart Study (N=1,595). The prediction models were validated using data from the Women's Health Initiative (N=883). We applied these models to genome-wide association study (GWAS) data of 122,977 breast cancer cases and 105,974 controls to evaluate if the genetically predicted DNA methylation levels at CpGs are associated with breast cancer risk. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Of the 62,938 CpG sites (CpGs) investigated, statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk were observed for 450 CpGs at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P<7.94 × 10-7, including 45 CpGs residing in 18 genomic regions which have not previously been associated with breast cancer risk. Of the remaining 405 CpGs located within 500 kilobase flaking regions of 70 GWAS-identified breast cancer risk variants, the associations for 11 CpGs were independent of GWAS-identified variants. Integrative analyses of genetic, DNA methylation and gene expression data found that 38 CpGs may affect breast cancer risk through regulating expression of 21 genes. CONCLUSION: Our new methodology can identify novel DNA methylation biomarkers for breast cancer risk and can be applied to other diseases.

5.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(6): 591-600, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737679

RESUMO

Observational studies suggest that higher birth weight (BW) is associated with increased risk of breast cancer in adult life. We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) study to assess whether this association is causal. Sixty independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be associated at P < 5 × 10-8 with BW were used to construct (1) a 41-SNP instrumental variable (IV) for univariable MR after removing SNPs with pleiotropic associations with other breast cancer risk factors and (2) a 49-SNP IV for multivariable MR after filtering SNPs for data availability. BW predicted by the 41-SNP IV was not associated with overall breast cancer risk in inverse-variance weighted (IVW) univariable MR analysis of genetic association data from 122,977 breast cancer cases and 105,974 controls (odds ratio = 0.86 per 500 g higher BW; 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.01). Sensitivity analyses using four alternative methods and three alternative IVs, including an IV with 59 of the 60 BW-associated SNPs, yielded similar results. Multivariable MR adjusting for the effects of the 49-SNP IV on birth length, adult height, adult body mass index, age at menarche, and age at menopause using IVW and MR-Egger methods provided estimates consistent with univariable analyses. Results were also similar when all analyses were repeated after restricting to estrogen receptor-positive or -negative breast cancer cases. Point estimates of the odds ratios from most analyses performed indicated an inverse relationship between genetically-predicted BW and breast cancer, but we are unable to rule out an association between the non-genetically-determined component of BW and breast cancer. Thus, genetically-predicted higher BW was not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in adult life in our MR study.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333222

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer in younger patients is reported to be more aggressive and associated with lower survival; however, factors associated with age-specific mortality differences have not been adequately assessed. METHODS: We used data from the population-based California Cancer Registry for 38,509 younger (18-49 years) and 121,573 older (50 years and older) women diagnosed with Stage I-III breast cancer, 2005-2014. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate breast cancer specific mortality rate ratios (MRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), stratified by tumor subtype, guideline treatment, and care at a National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center (NCICC). RESULTS: Older breast cancer patients at diagnosis experienced 17% higher disease-specific mortality than younger patients, after multivariable adjustment (MRR=1.17; 95% CI, 1.11-1.23). Higher MRRs (95% CI) were observed for older versus younger patients with hormone receptor (HR)+/HER2- [1.24 (1.14-1.35)] and HR+/HER2+ [1.38 (1.17-1.62)], but not for HR-/HER2+ [HR=0.94; 0.79-1.12)] nor triple-negative breast cancers [1.01; 0.92-1.11)]. The higher mortality in older versus younger patients was diminished among patients who received guideline-concordant treatment (MRR=1.06; 95% CI, 0.99-1.14) and reversed among those seen at an NCICC (MRR=0.86; 95% CI, 0.73-1.01). CONCLUSIONS: While younger women tend to be diagnosed with more aggressive breast cancers, adjusting for these aggressive features results in older patients having higher mortality than younger patients, with variations by age, tumor subtype, receipt of guideline treatment, and being cared for at a NCICC. IMPACT: Higher breast cancer mortality in older compared to younger women could partly be addressed by ensuring optimal treatment and comprehensive patient-centered care.

7.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(2): 526-536, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315403

RESUMO

Background: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast cancer can be used to stratify the population into groups at substantially different levels of risk. Combining PRS and environmental risk factors will improve risk prediction; however, integrating PRS into risk prediction models requires evaluation of their joint association with known environmental risk factors. Methods: Analyses were based on data from 20 studies; datasets analysed ranged from 3453 to 23 104 invasive breast cancer cases and similar numbers of controls, depending on the analysed environmental risk factor. We evaluated joint associations of a 77-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) PRS with reproductive history, alcohol consumption, menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), height and body mass index (BMI). We tested the null hypothesis of multiplicative joint associations for PRS and each of the environmental factors, and performed global and tail-based goodness-of-fit tests in logistic regression models. The outcomes were breast cancer overall and by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Results: The strongest evidence for a non-multiplicative joint associations with the 77-SNP PRS was for alcohol consumption (P-interaction = 0.009), adult height (P-interaction = 0.025) and current use of combined MHT (P-interaction = 0.038) in ER-positive disease. Risk associations for these factors by percentiles of PRS did not follow a clear dose-response. In addition, global and tail-based goodness of fit tests showed little evidence for departures from a multiplicative risk model, with alcohol consumption showing the strongest evidence for ER-positive disease (P = 0.013 for global and 0.18 for tail-based tests). Conclusions: The combined effects of the 77-SNP PRS and environmental risk factors for breast cancer are generally well described by a multiplicative model. Larger studies are required to confirm possible departures from the multiplicative model for individual risk factors, and assess models specific for ER-negative disease.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 141(9): 1830-1840, 2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28670784

RESUMO

Investigating the most likely causal variants identified by fine-mapping analyses may improve the power to detect gene-environment interactions. We assessed the interplay between 70 single nucleotide polymorphisms identified by genetic fine-scale mapping of susceptibility loci and 11 epidemiological breast cancer risk factors in relation to breast cancer. Analyses were conducted on up to 58,573 subjects (26,968 cases and 31,605 controls) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, in one of the largest studies of its kind. Analyses were carried out separately for estrogen receptor (ER) positive (ER+) and ER negative (ER-) disease. The Bayesian False Discovery Probability (BFDP) was computed to assess the noteworthiness of the results. Four potential gene-environment interactions were identified as noteworthy (BFDP < 0.80) when assuming a true prior interaction probability of 0.01. The strongest interaction result in relation to overall breast cancer risk was found between CFLAR-rs7558475 and current smoking (ORint = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.67-0.88, pint = 1.8 × 10-4 ). The interaction with the strongest statistical evidence was found between 5q14-rs7707921 and alcohol consumption (ORint =1.36, 95% CI: 1.16-1.59, pint = 1.9 × 10-5 ) in relation to ER- disease risk. The remaining two gene-environment interactions were also identified in relation to ER- breast cancer risk and were found between 3p21-rs6796502 and age at menarche (ORint = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.12-1.43, pint =1.8 × 10-4 ) and between 8q23-rs13267382 and age at first full-term pregnancy (ORint = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.83-0.95, pint = 5.2 × 10-4 ). While these results do not suggest any strong gene-environment interactions, our results may still be useful to inform experimental studies. These may in turn, shed light on the potential interactions observed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteína Reguladora de Apoptosis Semelhante a CASP8 e FADD/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Associação Genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
9.
Springerplus ; 5: 39, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26835221

RESUMO

Although alcohol intake is an established risk factor for overall breast cancer, few studies have looked at the relationship between alcohol use and breast cancer risk by the four major subtypes of breast cancer and very few data exist in the alcohol-breast cancer relationship in Spanish women. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Galicia, Spain. A total of 1766 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1997 and 2014 and 833 controls participated in the study. Data on demographics, breast cancer risk factors, and clinico-pathological characteristics were collected. We examined the alcohol-breast cancer association according to the major breast cancer subtypes [hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative (luminal A); hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-positive (luminal B); hormone-receptor-negative, HER2-negative (TNBC); and hormone-receptor-negative, HER2-positive (HER2 overexpressing)] as well as grade and morphology in Spanish women. With the exception of HER2 overexpressing, the risk of all subtypes of breast cancer significantly increased with increasing alcohol intake. The association was similar for hormonal receptor positive breast cancer, i.e., luminal A and luminal B breast cancer (odds ratio, OR 2.16, 95 % confidence interval, CI 1.55-3.02; and OR 1.98, 95 % CI 1.11-3.53, respectively), and for TNBC (TNBC: OR 1.93, 95 % CI 1.07-3.47). The alcohol-breast cancer association was slightly more pronounced among lobular breast cancer (OR 2.76, 95 % CI 1.62-4.69) than among ductal type breast cancers (OR 2.21, 95 % CI 1.61-3.03). In addition, significant associations were shown for all grades, I, II and III breast cancer (OR 1.98, 95 % CI 1.26-3.10; OR 2.34, 95 % CI 1.66-3.31; and OR 2.16, 95 % CI 1.44-3.25 for Grades I, II and III, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the association of breast cancer subtypes and alcohol intake in Spanish women. Our findings indicate that breast cancer risk increased with increasing alcohol intakes for three out of the four major subtypes of breast cancer. The association was similar for hormonal receptor positive breast cancer, i.e., luminal A and luminal B breast cancer, and for TNBC. The association seemed to be slightly more pronounced for lobular than ductal breast cancers. No differences were detected by grade.

10.
Hum Mol Genet ; 25(6): 1203-14, 2016 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26732427

RESUMO

Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 15 independent genomic regions associated with bladder cancer risk. In search for additional susceptibility variants, we followed up on four promising single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that had not achieved genome-wide significance in 6911 cases and 11 814 controls (rs6104690, rs4510656, rs5003154 and rs4907479, P < 1 × 10(-6)), using additional data from existing GWAS datasets and targeted genotyping for studies that did not have GWAS data. In a combined analysis, which included data on up to 15 058 cases and 286 270 controls, two SNPs achieved genome-wide statistical significance: rs6104690 in a gene desert at 20p12.2 (P = 2.19 × 10(-11)) and rs4907479 within the MCF2L gene at 13q34 (P = 3.3 × 10(-10)). Imputation and fine-mapping analyses were performed in these two regions for a subset of 5551 bladder cancer cases and 10 242 controls. Analyses at the 13q34 region suggest a single signal marked by rs4907479. In contrast, we detected two signals in the 20p12.2 region-the first signal is marked by rs6104690, and the second signal is marked by two moderately correlated SNPs (r(2) = 0.53), rs6108803 and the previously reported rs62185668. The second 20p12.2 signal is more strongly associated with the risk of muscle-invasive (T2-T4 stage) compared with non-muscle-invasive (Ta, T1 stage) bladder cancer (case-case P ≤ 0.02 for both rs62185668 and rs6108803). Functional analyses are needed to explore the biological mechanisms underlying these novel genetic associations with risk for bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 13 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 20 , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etnologia
11.
Carcinogenesis ; 35(8): 1737-44, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24662972

RESUMO

Bladder cancer is a complex disease with known environmental and genetic risk factors. We performed a genome-wide interaction study (GWAS) of smoking and bladder cancer risk based on primary scan data from 3002 cases and 4411 controls from the National Cancer Institute Bladder Cancer GWAS. Alternative methods were used to evaluate both additive and multiplicative interactions between individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and smoking exposure. SNPs with interaction P values < 5 × 10(-) (5) were evaluated further in an independent dataset of 2422 bladder cancer cases and 5751 controls. We identified 10 SNPs that showed association in a consistent manner with the initial dataset and in the combined dataset, providing evidence of interaction with tobacco use. Further, two of these novel SNPs showed strong evidence of association with bladder cancer in tobacco use subgroups that approached genome-wide significance. Specifically, rs1711973 (FOXF2) on 6p25.3 was a susceptibility SNP for never smokers [combined odds ratio (OR) = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.20-1.50, P value = 5.18 × 10(-) (7)]; and rs12216499 (RSPH3-TAGAP-EZR) on 6q25.3 was a susceptibility SNP for ever smokers (combined OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.67-0.84, P value = 6.35 × 10(-) (7)). In our analysis of smoking and bladder cancer, the tests for multiplicative interaction seemed to more commonly identify susceptibility loci with associations in never smokers, whereas the additive interaction analysis identified more loci with associations among smokers-including the known smoking and NAT2 acetylation interaction. Our findings provide additional evidence of gene-environment interactions for tobacco and bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genoma Humano , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
12.
Int J Cancer ; 135(2): 335-47, 2014 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24382701

RESUMO

Tobacco smoking is a bladder cancer risk factor and a source of carcinogens that induce DNA damage to urothelial cells. Using data and samples from 988 cases and 1,004 controls enrolled in the Los Angeles County Bladder Cancer Study and the Shanghai Bladder Cancer Study, we investigated associations between bladder cancer risk and 632 tagSNPs that comprehensively capture genetic variation in 28 DNA repair genes from four DNA repair pathways: base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination repair (HHR). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each tagSNP were corrected for multiple testing for all SNPs within each gene using pACT and for genes within each pathway and across pathways with Bonferroni. Gene and pathway summary estimates were obtained using ARTP. We observed an association between bladder cancer and POLB rs7832529 (BER) (pACT = 0.003; ppathway = 0.021) among all, and SNPs in XPC (NER) and OGG1 (BER) among Chinese men and women, respectively. The NER pathway showed an overall association with risk among Chinese males (ARTP NER p = 0.034). The XRCC6 SNP rs2284082 (NHEJ), also in LD with SREBF2, showed an interaction with smoking (smoking status interaction pgene = 0.001, ppathway = 0.008, poverall = 0.034). Our findings support a role in bladder carcinogenesis for regions that map close to or within BER (POLB, OGG1) and NER genes (XPC). A SNP that tags both the XRCC6 and SREBF2 genes strongly modifies the association between bladder cancer risk and smoking.


Assuntos
Antígenos Nucleares/genética , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Adulto , Idoso , China , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Autoantígeno Ku , Los Angeles , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
13.
Hum Mol Genet ; 23(5): 1387-98, 2014 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24163127

RESUMO

Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 11 independent susceptibility loci associated with bladder cancer risk. To discover additional risk variants, we conducted a new GWAS of 2422 bladder cancer cases and 5751 controls, followed by a meta-analysis with two independently published bladder cancer GWAS, resulting in a combined analysis of 6911 cases and 11 814 controls of European descent. TaqMan genotyping of 13 promising single nucleotide polymorphisms with P < 1 × 10(-5) was pursued in a follow-up set of 801 cases and 1307 controls. Two new loci achieved genome-wide statistical significance: rs10936599 on 3q26.2 (P = 4.53 × 10(-9)) and rs907611 on 11p15.5 (P = 4.11 × 10(-8)). Two notable loci were also identified that approached genome-wide statistical significance: rs6104690 on 20p12.2 (P = 7.13 × 10(-7)) and rs4510656 on 6p22.3 (P = 6.98 × 10(-7)); these require further studies for confirmation. In conclusion, our study has identified new susceptibility alleles for bladder cancer risk that require fine-mapping and laboratory investigation, which could further understanding into the biological underpinnings of bladder carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Metanálise como Assunto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
14.
Int J Cancer ; 134(1): 125-35, 2014 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23775870

RESUMO

N-Nitroso compounds (NOCs) have been proposed as possible bladder carcinogens. The main sources of exogenous exposure to NOCs are cigarette smoke and diet, particularly processed (i.e., nitrite-treated) meats. Perhaps more importantly, NOCs can be formed endogenously from dietary precursors such as nitrate, nitrite and amines. Heme has been shown to increase endogenous nitrosation. We examined the role of dietary sources of NOCs and NOC precursors as potential bladder cancer risk factors using data from the Los Angeles Bladder Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study. Dietary and demographic information was collected from 1,660 bladder cancer cases and 1,586 controls via a structured questionnaire. Intake of liver and of salami/pastrami/corned beef, were both statistically significantly associated with risk of bladder cancer in this study, particularly among nonsmokers. Heme intake was also statistically significantly associated with risk of bladder cancer among nonsmokers only. When considering NOC precursors, risk was consistently higher among subjects with concurrent high intake of nitrate and high intake of the different meats (sources of amines and nitrosamines). Results of this study are consistent with a role of dietary sources of NOC precursors from processed meats in bladder cancer risk, suggesting consumption of meats with high amine and heme content such as salami and liver as a risk factor for bladder cancer. In addition, any effect of consuming these meats may be greater when accompanied by high nitrate intake.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Produtos da Carne/efeitos adversos , Compostos Nitrosos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia , Adulto , Animais , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Nitrosos/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 8(4): e60464, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23560096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent genome-wide studies identified a risk locus for colorectal cancer at 18q21, which maps to the SMAD7 gene. Our objective was to confirm the association between SMAD7 SNPs and colorectal cancer risk in the multi-center Colon Cancer Family Registry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 23 tagging SNPs in the SMAD7 gene were genotyped among 1,592 population-based and 253 clinic-based families. The SNP-colorectal cancer associations were assessed in multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Among the population-based families, both SNPs rs12953717 (odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.49), and rs11874392 (odds ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.92) were associated with risk of colorectal cancer. These associations were similar among the population- and the clinic-based families, though they were significant only among the former. Marginally significant differences in the SNP-colorectal cancer associations were observed by use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cigarette smoking, body mass index, and history of polyps. CONCLUSIONS: SMAD7 SNPs were associated with colorectal cancer risk in the Colon Cancer Family Registry. There was evidence suggesting that the association between rs12953717 and colorectal cancer risk may be modified by factors such as smoking and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sistema de Registros , Proteína Smad7/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pólipos do Colo/complicações , Pólipos do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 22(5): 937-45, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23539508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 4-Aminobiphenyl (ABP) is an established human bladder carcinogen, with tobacco smoke being a major source of human exposure. Other arylamine compounds, including 2,6-dimethylaniline (2,6-DMA), have been implicated as possible human bladder carcinogens. Hemoglobin adducts of 4-ABP and 2,6-DMA are validated biomarkers of exposure to those compounds in humans. METHODS: The Shanghai Bladder Cancer Study enrolled 581 incident bladder cancer cases and 604 population controls. Each participant was solicited for his/her history of tobacco use and other lifestyle factors and donation of blood and urine specimens. Red blood cell lysates were used to quantify both hemoglobin adducts of 4-ABP and 2,6-DMA. Urine samples were used to quantify total cotinine. ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for bladder cancer were estimated using unconditional logistic regression methods. RESULTS: Among lifelong nonsmokers, ORs (95% CIs) of bladder cancer for low (below median of positive values) and high versus undetectable levels of 2,6-DMA hemoglobin adducts were 3.87 (1.39-10.75) and 6.90 (3.17-15.02), respectively (Ptrend < 0.001). Similarly, among lifelong nonsmokers, ORs (95% CIs) of bladder cancer for third and fourth versus first/second quartiles of 4-ABP hemoglobin adducts was 1.30 (0.76-2.22) and 2.29 (1.23-4.24), respectively (Ptrend = 0.009). The two associations were independent of each other. CONCLUSION: Hemoglobin adducts of 4-ABP and 2,6-DMA were significantly and independently associated with increased bladder cancer risk among lifelong nonsmokers in Shanghai, China. IMPACT: The findings of the present study in China with previous data in Los Angeles, California strongly implicate arylamines as potential causal agents of human bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/sangue , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/urina , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/urina
17.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 137(1): 237-46, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23135573

RESUMO

Breast cancer incidence rates have declined among older but not younger women; the latter are more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancers carrying a poor prognosis. Epidemiological evidence supports an increase in breast cancer incidence following pregnancy with risk elevated as much as 10 years post-partum. We investigated the association between years since last full-term pregnancy at the time of diagnosis (≤10 or >10 years) and breast tumor subtype in a case series of premenopausal Hispanic women (n = 627). Participants were recruited in the United States, Mexico, and Spain. Cases with known estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 status, with one or more full-term pregnancies ≥1 year prior to diagnosis were eligible for this analysis. Cases were classified into three tumor subtypes according to hormone receptor (HR+ = ER+ and/or PR+; HR- = ER- and PR-) expression and HER2 status: HR+/HER2-, HER2+ (regardless of HR), and triple negative breast cancer. Case-only odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for HER2+ tumors in reference to HR+/HER2- tumors. Participants were pooled in a mixed-effects logistic regression model with years since pregnancy as a fixed effect and study site as a random effect. When compared to HR+/HER2- cases, women with HER2+ tumors were more likely be diagnosed in the post-partum period of ≤10 years (OR = 1.68; 95 % CI, 1.12-2.52). The effect was present across all source populations and independent of the HR status of the HER2+ tumor. Adjusting for age at diagnosis (≤45 or >45 years) did not materially alter our results (OR = 1.78; 95 % CI, 1.08-2.93). These findings support the novel hypothesis that factors associated with the post-partum breast, possibly hormonal, are involved in the development of HER2+ tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hormônios Placentários/fisiologia , Gravidez , Pré-Menopausa , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nat Genet ; 44(11): 1182-4, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23001122

RESUMO

We conducted a genome-wide association study of male breast cancer comprising 823 cases and 2,795 controls of European ancestry, with validation in independent sample sets totaling 438 cases and 474 controls. A SNP in RAD51B at 14q24.1 was significantly associated with male breast cancer risk (P = 3.02 × 10(-13); odds ratio (OR) = 1.57). We also refine association at 16q12.1 to a SNP within TOX3 (P = 3.87 × 10(-15); OR = 1.50).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14 , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
19.
PLoS One ; 7(7): e40543, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22792365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differences in the incidence and outcome of breast cancer among Hispanic women compared with white women are well documented and are likely explained by ethnic differences in genetic composition, lifestyle, or environmental exposures. METHODOLGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based study was conducted in Galicia, Spain. A total of 510 women diagnosed with operable invasive breast cancer between 1997 and 2010 participated in the study. Data on demographics, breast cancer risk factors, and clinico-pathological characteristics were collected. The different breast cancer tumor subtypes were compared on their clinico-pathological characteristics and risk factor profiles, particularly reproductive variables and breastfeeding. Among the 501 breast cancer patients (with known ER and PR receptors), 85% were ER+/PR+ and 15% were ER-&PR-. Among the 405 breast cancer with known ER, PR and HER2 status, 71% were ER+/PR+/HER2- (luminal A), 14% were ER+/PR+/HER2+ (luminal B), 10% were ER-/PR-/HER2- (triple negative breast cancer, TNBC), and 5% were ER-/PR-/HER2+ (non-luminal). A lifetime breastfeeding period equal to or longer than 7 months was less frequent in case patients with TNBC (OR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.08-0.68) compared to luminal A breast cancers. Both a low (2 or fewer pregnancies) and a high (3-4 pregnancies) number of pregnancies combined with a long breastfeeding period were associated with reduced odds of TNBC compared with luminal A breast cancer, although the association seemed to be slightly more pronounced among women with a low number of pregnancies (OR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.005-0.54). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In case-case analyses with the luminal A cases as the reference group, we observed a lower proportion of TNBC among women who breastfed 7 or more months. The combination of longer breastfeeding duration and lower parity seemed to further reduce the odds of having a TNBC compared to a luminal A breast cancer.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Paridade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
20.
Cancer Causes Control ; 23(7): 1139-48, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22581032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer among hairdressers, who are occupationally exposed to hair dyes. There has also been concern about a possible increased risk of bladder cancer among users of hair dyes. However, the association between personal hair dye use and bladder cancer risk remains inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined associations between personal use of permanent and temporary hair dyes and bladder cancer risk in a population-based case-control study involving 1,385 cases (n = 246 women) and 4,754 controls (n = 2,587 women). METHODS: Participants filled out a questionnaire with regard to history of personal hair dye use and risk factors for bladder cancer. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for age, smoking status, duration of smoking and intensity of smoking. RESULTS: Analyses were restricted to women as less than 5 % of all men in the study ever used hair dyes. About 50 % of the women ever used hair dyes. Use of temporary hair dyes (OR, 0.77; 95 % CI, 0.58-1.02) or use of permanent hair dyes (OR, 0.87; 95 % CI, 0.65-1.18) was not associated with bladder cancer risk. No clear association between hair dyes and bladder cancer risk was found when dye use was defined by type, duration or frequency of use, dye color, or extent of use. Also, results were similar for aggressive- and non-aggressive bladder cancer. Age, educational level, and smoking status did not modify the association between hair dye use and bladder cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: The present study does not support an association between personal hair dye use and bladder cancer risk. Also, various types of hair dye, intensity of exposure to hair dyes or dye color do not appear to be important factors for bladder cancer development.


Assuntos
Tinturas para Cabelo/envenenamento , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
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