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1.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 150(11): 933-939.e2, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A significant amount of clinical information captured as free-text narratives could be better used for several applications, such as clinical decision support, ontology development, evidence-based practice, and research. The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) is specifically used for semantic comparisons for diagnostic purposes. All these functions require quality coverage of the domain of interest. The authors used natural language processing to capture craniofacial and oral phenotype signatures from electronic health records and then used these signatures for evaluation of existing oral phenotype ontology coverage. METHODS: The authors applied a text-processing pipeline based on the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System to annotate the clinical notes with Unified Medical Language System codes. The authors extracted the disease or disorder phenotype terms, which were then compared with HPO terms and their synonyms. RESULTS: The authors retrieved 2,153 deidentified clinical notes from 558 patients. Finally, 2,416 unique diseases or disorders phenotype terms were extracted, which included 210 craniofacial or oral phenotype terms. Twenty-six of these phenotypes were not found in the HPO. CONCLUSIONS: The authors demonstrated that natural language processing tools could extract relevant phenotype terms from clinical narratives, which could help identify gaps in existing ontologies and enhance craniofacial and dental phenotyping vocabularies. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The expansion of terms in the dental, oral, and craniofacial domains in the HPO is particularly important as the dental community moves toward electronic health records.

2.
Biomed Chromatogr ; : e4735, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691999

RESUMO

The biosynthesis of sialic acid (Neu5Ac) leads to the intracellular production of cytidine-5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac), the active sialic acid donor to nascent glycans (glycoproteins and glycolipids) in the Golgi. GNE myopathy is a rare autosomal recessive muscular disease characterized by progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. To quantify the intracellular levels of CMP-Neu5Ac as well as ManNAc and Neu5Ac in human leukocytes, we developed and validated robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. A fit-for-purpose approach was implemented for method validation. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) was used to retain three hydrophilic analytes. The human leukocyte pellets were lysed and extracted in a methanol/water mixture and the leukocyte extract was used for LC-MS/MS analysis. The lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) for ManNAc, Neu5Ac and CMP-Neu5Ac were 25.0, 25.0 and 10.0 ng/mL, respectively. These validated methods were applied to a clinical study.

3.
Transl Res ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520587

RESUMO

Precision medicine has generated diagnoses for many patients with challenging undiagnosed disorders. Some individuals remain without a diagnosis despite comprehensive testing, and this impedes their treatment. This report addresses the role of personalized medicine in identifying effective therapy for an undiagnosed disease. A 22-year-old woman presented with chronic severe recurrent trismus, facial pain, progressive multicentric inflammatory and fibrotic masses, and high C-reactive protein. Sites of disease included the pterygomaxillary region, masseter muscles, mandible, lung, pericardium, intrabdominal cavity, and retroperitoneum. A diagnosis was not established after an extensive assessment, including multiple biopsies. The patient was subsequently evaluated under the Undiagnosed Diseases Program at the National Institutes of Health. Large scale genotyping, proteomic studies, and in vitro and gene expression analyses of fibroblasts obtained from a major disease locus were performed. Germline genetic testing did not identify strong candidate genes; proteomic studies of the patient's serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and gene expression analyses of her cells were consistent with dysregulation of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha pathway. The patient's cultured fibroblasts were incubated with selected drugs, and cell proliferation was inhibited by hydroxychloroquine. Treatment of the patient with hydroxychloroquine conferred prolonged beneficial clinical effects, including stabilization of trismus and reduction of corticosteroid dose, C-reactive protein, and size of masses. This case represents an example of precision medicine applied to discover effective treatments for individuals with enigmatic undiagnosed disorders.

5.
Mol Genet Metab ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445883

RESUMO

Defects of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis pathway constitute an emerging subgroup of congenital disorders of glycosylation with heterogeneous phenotypes. A mutation in the promoter of PIGM, resulting in a syndrome with portal vein thrombosis and persistent absence seizures, was previously described in three patients. We now report four additional patients in two unrelated families, with further clinical, biochemical and molecular delineation of this unique entity. We also describe the first prenatal diagnosis of PIGM deficiency, allowing characterization of the natural history of the disease from birth. The patients described herein expand the phenotypic spectrum of PIGM deficiency to include macrocephaly and infantile-onset cerebrovascular thrombotic events. Finally, we offer insights regarding targeted treatment of this rare disorder with sodium phenylbutyrate.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419911

RESUMO

RATIONALE: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are evolutionarily conserved membrane proteins that pump a variety of endogenous substrates across cell membranes. Certain subfamilies are known to interact with pharmaceutical compounds, potentially influencing drug delivery and treatment efficacy. However, the role of drug resistance-associated ABC transporters has not been examined in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) or its animal model: the bleomycin-induced murine model. OBJECTIVE: Here we investigate the expression of two ABC transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), in human IPF lung tissue and two different bleomycin-induced mouse models of pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: We obtained human IPF specimens from patients during lung transplantation and administered bleomycin to male C57BL/6J mice either by oropharyngeal aspiration (1 U/kg) or subcutaneous osmotic infusion (100 U/kg over 7 days). RESULTS: We report that P-gp and BCRP expression in IPF patient lungs was comparable to controls. However, murine lungs expressed increased levels of P-gp and BCRP after oropharyngeal and subcutaneous bleomycin administration. We localized this upregulation to multiple pulmonary cell types, including alveolar fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and type-2 epithelial cells. Functionally, this effect reduced murine lung exposure to nintedanib, an FDA-approved IPF therapy known to be a P-gp substrate. CONCLUSION: The study reveals a discrepancy between IPF pathophysiology and the common animal model of lung fibrosis. Bleomycin-induced drug efflux in the murine lungs may present an uncontrolled confounding variable in the preclinical study of IPF drug candidates, and these findings will facilitate disease model validation, enhance new drug discoveries that ultimately improve patient outcomes.

7.
Ann Neurol ; 86(5): 695-703, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the underlying etiology in a patient with progressive dementia with extrapyramidal signs and chronic inflammation referred to the National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program. METHODS: Extensive investigations included metabolic profile, autoantibody panel, infectious etiologies, genetic screening, whole exome sequencing, and the phage-display assay, VirScan, for viral immune responses. An etiological diagnosis was established postmortem. RESULTS: Using VirScan, enrichment of dengue viral antibodies was detected in cerebrospinal fluid as compared to serum. No virus was detected in serum or cerebrospinal fluid, but postmortem analysis confirmed dengue virus in the brain by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing. Dengue virus was also detectable by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing from brain biopsy tissue collected 33 months antemortem, confirming a chronic infection despite a robust immune response directed against the virus. Immunoprofiling and whole exome sequencing of the patient did not reveal any immunodeficiency, and sequencing of the virus demonstrated wild-type dengue virus in the central nervous system. INTERPRETATION: Dengue virus is the most common arbovirus worldwide and represents a significant public health concern. Infections with dengue virus are usually self-limiting, and chronic dengue infections have not been previously reported. Our findings suggest that dengue virus infections may persist in the central nervous system causing a panencephalitis and should be considered in patients with progressive dementia with extrapyramidal features in endemic regions or with relevant travel history. Furthermore, this work highlights the utility of comprehensive antibody profiling assays to aid in the diagnosis of encephalitis of unknown etiology. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:695-703.

8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2091-2100, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441224

RESUMO

Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is a rare X-linked urea cycle disorder. Maternal OTCD can lead to life-threatening hyperammonemia if untreated. We aimed to compare the outcomes of maternal OTCD when diagnosis is known prior to pregnancy to when diagnosis is made during pregnancy. We performed a systematic literature review on maternal OTCD using the databases Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed from 1982 through 2018. Studies were included if addressed maternal OTCD signs, symptoms, and detailed pregnancy outcomes. We calculated the median or the mean for continuous variables and percentages for categorical variables. Of 36 cases of maternal OTCD, 20 (55%) were diagnosed prior to pregnancy while 16 (45%) were not. In the 20 patients diagnosed prior to pregnancy, 7 (35%) had either a neurologic or psychiatric presentation during pregnancy or postpartum. Two hyperammonemic patients (11%) experienced ICU admission, dialysis, and coma with no maternal deaths. All had a favorable outcome. In the 16 patients not known to have maternal OTCD prior to pregnancy, 13 (81%) had neurologic or psychiatric presentation during pregnancy or postpartum. Four presented with hyperemesis gravidarum. Eleven (69%) hyperammonemic patients had ICU admission and coma and 7 (47%) of them had dialysis. There were 5 (31%) maternal deaths. Three patients (19%) had prolonged hospitalization course. Overall, three male neonatal deaths were reported. Three other male children had liver transplant. Maternal OTCD is associated with high maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality when diagnosis is made during pregnancy compared to when diagnosis is known prior to pregnancy.

9.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335576

RESUMO

Numerous 3d imaging systems are now available commercially for the capture of facial shape data via landmarking or surface shape comparisons but it is not known whether these systems produce data of comparable quality. This study investigates the error associated with landmark coordinate data collected on facial surface images taken using three 3d imaging systems: the 3dMDface system (3dMD, Atlanta, GA), the Planmeca ProFace system (Planmeca, Roselle, IL), and the Vectra H1 handheld system (Canfield Scientific, Parsippany, NJ). This was a retrospective study involving 3d imaging data that used geometric morphometric analysis to assess overall shape differences as well as landmark-specific differences among the systems. Ten individuals evaluated at the NIDCR dental clinic on various protocols were imaged on all 3 systems. The subject pool consisted of syndromic and unaffected subjects, as disease status was irrelevant to the question of reproducibility and variability. Variation in landmark placement across systems was assessed by ANOVA, covariance matrix, and summary statistics. No overall shape or size differences were found among the systems. However, there was some landmark-specific variation and the 3dMD and Vectra systems were generally more similar to each other than either was to the Planmeca system. The data acquired by these 3 systems are comparable, although landmarks on the eyes and ears are noisy and most different among systems.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 413-424, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327508

RESUMO

WD40 repeat-containing proteins form a large family of proteins present in all eukaryotes. Here, we identified five pediatric probands with de novo variants in WDR37, which encodes a member of the WD40 repeat protein family. Two probands shared one variant and the others have variants in nearby amino acids outside the WD40 repeats. The probands exhibited shared phenotypes of epilepsy, colobomas, facial dysmorphology reminiscent of CHARGE syndrome, developmental delay and intellectual disability, and cerebellar hypoplasia. The WDR37 protein is highly conserved in vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms and is currently not associated with a human disease. We generated a null allele of the single Drosophila ortholog to gain functional insights and replaced the coding region of the fly gene CG12333/wdr37 with GAL4. These flies are homozygous viable but display severe bang sensitivity, a phenotype associated with seizures in flies. Additionally, the mutant flies fall when climbing the walls of the vials, suggesting a defect in grip strength, and repeat the cycle of climbing and falling. Similar to wall clinging defect, mutant males often lose grip of the female abdomen during copulation. These phenotypes are rescued by using the GAL4 in the CG12333/wdr37 locus to drive the UAS-human reference WDR37 cDNA. The two variants found in three human subjects failed to rescue these phenotypes, suggesting that these alleles severely affect the function of this protein. Taken together, our data suggest that variants in WDR37 underlie a novel syndromic neurological disorder.

11.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(5): 1019-1029, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177550

RESUMO

Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive storage disease due to impaired transport of cystine out of lysosomes. Since the accumulation of intracellular cystine affects all organs and tissues, the management of cystinosis requires a specialized multidisciplinary team consisting of pediatricians, nephrologists, nutritionists, ophthalmologists, endocrinologists, neurologists' geneticists, and orthopedic surgeons. Treatment with cysteamine can delay or prevent most clinical manifestations of cystinosis, except the renal Fanconi syndrome. Virtually all individuals with classical, nephropathic cystinosis suffer from cystinosis metabolic bone disease (CMBD), related to the renal Fanconi syndrome in infancy and progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) later in life. Manifestations of CMBD include hypophosphatemic rickets in infancy, and renal osteodystrophy associated with CKD resulting in bone deformities, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, fractures, and short stature. Assessment of CMBD involves monitoring growth, leg deformities, blood levels of phosphate, electrolytes, bicarbonate, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase, periodically obtaining bone radiographs, determining levels of critical hormones and vitamins, such as thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone, 25(OH) vitamin D, and testosterone in males, and surveillance for nonrenal complications of cystinosis such as myopathy. Treatment includes replacement of urinary losses, cystine depletion with oral cysteamine, vitamin D, hormone replacement, physical therapy, and corrective orthopedic surgery. The recommendations in this article came from an expert meeting on CMBD that took place in Salzburg, Austria, in December 2016.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1127-1138, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155284

RESUMO

Optimal lysosome function requires maintenance of an acidic pH maintained by proton pumps in combination with a counterion transporter such as the Cl-/H+ exchanger, CLCN7 (ClC-7), encoded by CLCN7. The role of ClC-7 in maintaining lysosomal pH has been controversial. In this paper, we performed clinical and genetic evaluations of two children of different ethnicities. Both children had delayed myelination and development, organomegaly, and hypopigmentation, but neither had osteopetrosis. Whole-exome and -genome sequencing revealed a de novo c.2144A>G variant in CLCN7 in both affected children. This p.Tyr715Cys variant, located in the C-terminal domain of ClC-7, resulted in increased outward currents when it was heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Fibroblasts from probands displayed a lysosomal pH approximately 0.2 units lower than that of control cells, and treatment with chloroquine normalized the pH. Primary fibroblasts from both probands also exhibited markedly enlarged intracellular vacuoles; this finding was recapitulated by the overexpression of human p.Tyr715Cys CLCN7 in control fibroblasts, reflecting the dominant, gain-of-function nature of the variant. A mouse harboring the knock-in Clcn7 variant exhibited hypopigmentation, hepatomegaly resulting from abnormal storage, and enlarged vacuoles in cultured fibroblasts. Our results show that p.Tyr715Cys is a gain-of-function CLCN7 variant associated with developmental delay, organomegaly, and hypopigmentation resulting from lysosomal hyperacidity, abnormal storage, and enlarged intracellular vacuoles. Our data supports the hypothesis that the ClC-7 antiporter plays a critical role in maintaining lysosomal pH.

13.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 6(3): e560, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044148

RESUMO

Objective: To highlight a novel, treatable syndrome, we report 4 patients with CNS-isolated inflammation associated with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) gene mutations (CNS-FHL). Methods: Retrospective chart review. Results: Patients with CNS-FHL are characterized by chronic inflammation restricted to the CNS that is not attributable to any previously described neuroinflammatory etiology and have germline mutations in known FHL-associated genes with no signs of systemic inflammation. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) can be well tolerated and effective in achieving or maintaining disease remission in patients with CNS-FHL. Conclusions: Early and accurate diagnosis followed by treatment with HCT can reduce morbidity and mortality in CNS-FHL, a novel, treatable syndrome. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that HCT is well tolerated and effective in treating CNS-FHL.

14.
PLoS Genet ; 15(5): e1008143, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125343

RESUMO

Maintenance of the correct redox status of iron is functionally important for critical biological processes. Multicopper ferroxidases play an important role in oxidizing ferrous iron, released from the cells, into ferric iron, which is subsequently distributed by transferrin. Two well-characterized ferroxidases, ceruloplasmin (CP) and hephaestin (HEPH) facilitate this reaction in different tissues. Recently, a novel ferroxidase, Hephaestin like 1 (HEPHL1), also known as zyklopen, was identified. Here we report a child with compound heterozygous mutations in HEPHL1 (NM_001098672) who presented with abnormal hair (pili torti and trichorrhexis nodosa) and cognitive dysfunction. The maternal missense mutation affected mRNA splicing, leading to skipping of exon 5 and causing an in-frame deletion of 85 amino acids (c.809_1063del; p.Leu271_ala355del). The paternal mutation (c.3176T>C; p.Met1059Thr) changed a highly conserved methionine that is part of a typical type I copper binding site in HEPHL1. We demonstrated that HEPHL1 has ferroxidase activity and that the patient's two mutations exhibited loss of this ferroxidase activity. Consistent with these findings, the patient's fibroblasts accumulated intracellular iron and exhibited reduced activity of the copper-dependent enzyme, lysyl oxidase. These results suggest that the patient's biallelic variants are loss-of-function mutations. Hence, we generated a Hephl1 knockout mouse model that was viable and had curly whiskers, consistent with the hair phenotype in our patient. These results enhance our understanding of the function of HEPHL1 and implicate altered ferroxidase activity in hair growth and hair disorders.

15.
Hum Mutat ; 40(7): 908-925, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817854

RESUMO

Pathogenic de novo variants in the X-linked gene SLC35A2 encoding the major Golgi-localized UDP-galactose transporter required for proper protein and lipid glycosylation cause a rare type of congenital disorder of glycosylation known as SLC35A2-congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG; formerly CDG-IIm). To date, 29 unique de novo variants from 32 unrelated individuals have been described in the literature. The majority of affected individuals are primarily characterized by varying degrees of neurological impairments with or without skeletal abnormalities. Surprisingly, most affected individuals do not show abnormalities in serum transferrin N-glycosylation, a common biomarker for most types of CDG. Here we present data characterizing 30 individuals and add 26 new variants, the single largest study involving SLC35A2-CDG. The great majority of these individuals had normal transferrin glycosylation. In addition, expanding the molecular and clinical spectrum of this rare disorder, we developed a robust and reliable biochemical assay to assess SLC35A2-dependent UDP-galactose transport activity in primary fibroblasts. Finally, we show that transport activity is directly correlated to the ratio of wild-type to mutant alleles in fibroblasts from affected individuals.

16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 520-529, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824121

RESUMO

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are essential enzymes responsible for charging tRNA molecules with cognate amino acids. Consistent with the essential function and ubiquitous expression of ARSs, mutations in 32 of the 37 ARS-encoding loci cause severe, early-onset recessive phenotypes. Previous genetic and functional data suggest a loss-of-function mechanism; however, our understanding of the allelic and locus heterogeneity of ARS-related disease is incomplete. Cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CARS) encodes the enzyme that charges tRNACys with cysteine in the cytoplasm. To date, CARS variants have not been implicated in any human disease phenotype. Here, we report on four subjects from three families with complex syndromes that include microcephaly, developmental delay, and brittle hair and nails. Each affected person carries bi-allelic CARS variants: one individual is compound heterozygous for c.1138C>T (p.Gln380∗) and c.1022G>A (p.Arg341His), two related individuals are compound heterozygous for c.1076C>T (p.Ser359Leu) and c.1199T>A (p.Leu400Gln), and one individual is homozygous for c.2061dup (p.Ser688Glnfs∗2). Measurement of protein abundance, yeast complementation assays, and assessments of tRNA charging indicate that each CARS variant causes a loss-of-function effect. Compared to subjects with previously reported ARS-related diseases, individuals with bi-allelic CARS variants are unique in presenting with a brittle-hair-and-nail phenotype, which most likely reflects the high cysteine content in human keratins. In sum, our efforts implicate CARS variants in human inherited disease, expand the locus and clinical heterogeneity of ARS-related clinical phenotypes, and further support impaired tRNA charging as the primary mechanism of recessive ARS-related disease.

17.
JCI Insight ; 4(4)2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830864

RESUMO

Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation refers to the covalent attachment of ADP-ribose to protein, generating branched, long chains of ADP-ribose moieties, known as poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is the main polymerase and acceptor of PAR in response to DNA damage. Excessive intracellular PAR accumulation due to PARP1 activation leads cell death in a pathway known as parthanatos. PAR degradation is mainly controlled by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and ADP-ribose-acceptor hydrolase 3 (ARH3). Our previous results demonstrated that ARH3 confers protection against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure, by lowering cytosolic and nuclear PAR levels and preventing apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation. We identified a family with an ARH3 gene mutation that resulted in a truncated, inactive protein. The 8-year-old proband exhibited a progressive neurodegeneration phenotype. In addition, parthanatos was observed in neurons of the patient's deceased sibling, and an older sibling exhibited a mild behavioral phenotype. Consistent with the previous findings, the patient's fibroblasts and ARH3-deficient mice were more sensitive, respectively, to H2O2 stress and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced PAR accumulation and cell death. Further, PARP1 inhibition alleviated cell death and injury resulting from oxidative stress and ischemia/reperfusion. PARP1 inhibitors may attenuate the progression of neurodegeneration in affected patients with ARH3 deficiency.

18.
Genet Med ; 21(8): 1772-1780, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700791

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Develop an automated exome analysis workflow that can produce a very small number of candidate variants yet still detect different numbers of deleterious variants between probands and unaffected siblings. METHODS: Ninety-seven outbred nuclear families from the Undiagnosed Diseases Program/Network included single probands and the corresponding unaffected sibling(s). Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip and exome analyses were performed on all, with proband and unaffected sibling considered independently as the target. The total burden of candidate genetic variants was summed for probands and siblings over all considered disease models. RESULTS: Exome analysis workflow include automated programs for ethnicity-matched genotype calling, salvage pathway for Mendelian inconsistency, compound heterozygous recessive detection, BAM file regional curation, population frequency filtering, pedigree-aware BAM file noise evaluation, and exon deletion filtration. This workflow relied heavily on BAM file analysis. A greater average pathogenic variant number was found compared with unaffected siblings. This was significant (p < 0.05) when using published recommended thresholds, and implies that causal variants are retained in many probands' lists. CONCLUSION: Using Mendelian and non-Mendelian models, this agnostic exome analysis shows a difference between a small group of probands and their unaffected siblings. This workflow produces candidate lists small enough to pursue with laboratory validation.

19.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 52, 2019 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determining the etiology of oculocutaneous albinism is important for proper clinical management and to determine prognosis. The purpose of this study was to genotype and phenotype eight adopted Chinese children who presented with oculocutaneous albinism and easy bruisability. RESULTS: The patients were evaluated at a single center; their ages ranged from 3 to 8 years. Whole exome or direct sequencing showed that two of the children had Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) type-1 (HPS-1), one had HPS-3, one had HPS-4, and four had non-syndromic oculocutaneous albinism associated with TYR variants (OCA1). Two frameshift variants in HPS1 (c.9delC and c.1477delA), one nonsense in HPS4 (c.416G > A), and one missense variant in TYR (c.1235C > T) were unreported. The child with HPS-4 is the first case with this subtype reported in the Chinese population. Hypopigmentation in patients with HPS was mild compared to that in OCA1 cases, who had severe pigment defects. Bruises, which may be more visible in patients with hypopigmentation, were found in all cases with either HPS or OCA1. Whole mount transmission electron microscopy demonstrated absent platelet dense granules in the HPS cases; up to 1.9 mean dense granules per platelet were found in those with OCA1. Platelet aggregation studies in OCA1 cases were inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical manifestations of oculocutaneous albinism and easy bruisability may be observed in children with HPS or OCA1. Establishing definitive diagnoses in children presenting with these phenotypic features is facilitated by genetic testing. Non-syndromic oculocutaneous albinism and various HPS subtypes, including HPS-4, are found in children of Chinese ancestry.


Assuntos
Albinismo Oculocutâneo/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Hermanski-Pudlak/diagnóstico , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/etiologia , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/genética , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Plaquetas/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Síndrome de Hermanski-Pudlak/etiologia , Síndrome de Hermanski-Pudlak/genética , Humanos , Hipopigmentação , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Mutação/genética , Linhagem
20.
JCI Insight ; 4(2)2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) results in reduced melanin synthesis, skin hypopigmentation, increased risk of UV-induced malignancy, and developmental eye abnormalities affecting vision. No treatments exist. We have shown that oral nitisinone increases ocular and fur pigmentation in a mouse model of one form of albinism, OCA-1B, due to hypomorphic mutations in the Tyrosinase gene. METHODS: In this open-label pilot study, 5 adult patients with OCA-1B established baseline measurements of iris, skin, and hair pigmentation and were treated over 12 months with 2 mg/d oral nitisinone. Changes in pigmentation and visual function were evaluated at 3-month intervals. RESULTS: The mean change in iris transillumination, a marker of melanin, from baseline was 1.0 ± 1.54 points, representing no change. The method of iris transillumination grading showed a high intergrader reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.88 at each visit). The number of letters read (visual acuity) improved significantly at month 12 for both eyes (right eye, OD, mean 4.2 [95% CI, 0.3, 8.1], P = 0.04) and left eye (OS, 5 [1.0, 9.1], P = 0.003). Skin pigmentation on the inner bicep increased (M index increase = 1.72 [0.03, 3.41], P = 0.047). Finally, hair pigmentation increased by both reflectometry (M index [17.3 {4.4, 30.2}, P = 0.01]) and biochemically. CONCLUSION: Nitisinone did not result in an increase in iris melanin content but may increase hair and skin pigmentation in patients with OCA-1B. The iris transillumination grading scale used in this study proved robust, with potential for use in future clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01838655. FUNDING: Intramural program of the National Eye Institute.

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