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1.
Br J Haematol ; 2020 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064595

RESUMO

In chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), caution is warranted regarding the clinical implications of immunoglobulin variable heavy chain region (IGHV) rearrangements with a 'borderline' (BL) percentage of mutations (i.e. 97-97·9% IGHV identity). We analysed the IGHV mutational status in 759 untreated CLL patients (cohort 1). BL-CLL (n = 36, 5%) showed a time to first treatment (TFT) similar to that of M-CLL (n = 338) and significantly longer than that of UM-CLL (n = 385), despite the enrichment in subset #2 cases. In fact, CLLs belonging to subset #2 (n = 15/759, 2%) were significantly more frequent among BL-CLLs (n = 5/36, 14%), with a brief TFT. TFT of BL-CLL remained comparable to that of M-CLL also considering the 327 CLL patients evaluated at diagnosis. These findings were then validated in an independent cohort 2 of 759 newly diagnosed CLL patients (BL-CLL: n = 11, 1·4%) and in all newly diagnosed patients from cohorts 1 and 2 (n = 1 086, 84% stage A; BL-CLL: n = 47, 4·3%). BL-CLL at diagnosis showed a biological profile comparable to that of M-CLL with a low frequency of unfavourable prognostic markers, except for a significant enrichment in subset #2. Our data suggest that the prognosis of BL-CLL is good and similar to that of M-CLL, with the exception of subset #2 cases.

2.
Blood ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006000

RESUMO

CD49d is a remarkable prognostic biomarker of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The extensively validated 30% of positive CLL cells cut-off value is able to separate CLL patients into two subgroups with different prognosis, but it does not consider the pattern of CD49d expression. In the present study, we analysed a cohort of 1,630 CLL samples and identified the presence of ~20% of CLL cases (n=313) characterized by a bimodal expression of CD49d, i.e. concomitant presence of a CD49dpos sub-population and a CD49dneg sub-population. At variance with the highly stable CD49d expression observed in CLL patients with a homogeneous pattern of CD49d expression, CD49d bimodal CLL showed a higher level of variability in sequential samples, and an increase in the CD49dpos sub-population over time after therapy. The CD49dpos sub-population from CD49d bimodal CLL displayed higher levels of proliferation compared to the CD49dneg cells, was more highly represented in the bone marrow compared to peripheral blood (PB), and in PB CLL subsets expressing the CXCR4dim/CD5bright phenotype, known to be enriched in proliferative cells. From a clinical standpoint, CLL patients with CD49d bimodal expression, regardless of whether the CD49dpos sub-population exceeded or not the 30% cut-off, experienced a clinical behavior similar to CD49dpos CLL, both in the chemo-immunotherapy (n=1,522) and in the ibrutinib (n=158) settings. Altogether, these results suggest that CD49d can drive disease progression in CLL, and that the pattern of CD49d expression should be also considered to improve the prognostic impact of this biomarker in CLL.

4.
Haematologica ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896686

RESUMO

Early progression of disease (POD) within two years from diagnosis is linked with poor overall survival (OS) in follicular lymphoma but its prognostic role is less clear in extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL). We sought to identify prognostic factors associated with early POD and to determine whether is associated with inferior OS. We analyzed the impact of early POD in the IELSG19 clinical trial dataset (training set of 401 patients randomly assigned to chlorambucil or rituximab or chlorambucil plus rituximab). Reproducibility was examined in a validation set of 287 patients who received systemic treatment. In both sets, we excluded from the analysis the patients who, within 24 months from treatment start, died without progression or were lost to follow-up without prior progression. OS was calculated from progression in patients with early POD and from 24 months after start of treatment in those without (reference group). Early POD was observed in 69 of the 384 (18%) evaluable patients of the IELSG19 study. Patients with high-risk MALT-IPI were more likely to have early POD (p=0.006). The 10-year OS rate was 64% in the early POD group and 85% in the reference group (HR= 2.42, 95%CI, 1.35-4.34; log-rank P=0.002). This prognostic impact was confirmed in the validation set, in which early POD was observed in 64 out of 224 (29%) evaluable patients with 10-year OS rate of 48% in the early POD group and 71% in the reference group (HR= 2.15, 95%CI, 1.19-3.90; log-rank P=0.009). In patients with EMZL who received front-line systemic treatment, early POD is associated with poorer survival and may represent a useful endpoint in future prospective clinical trials.

5.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 13(2): 109-116, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774349

RESUMO

Introduction: During the past few years, new genomic approaches have elucidated the molecular genetics of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) to a large extent. As a consequence, specific high-risk genetic features of the disease, e.g. TP53 disruption, have become the backbone of the treatment algorithm for CLL and serve as robust biomarkers for a precision medicine approach to this leukemia.Areas covered: This review covers the genetics of CLL and highlights the translational implications of molecular biomarkers that characterize patients with a high risk of disease progression. Knowledge of the genetic landscape of CLL has allowed the identification of the main molecular features associated with chemo-refractoriness, as well as resistance to BCR inhibitors and BCL2 inhibitors. The molecular basis of Richter transformation has also been characterized.Expert opinion: The term 'high risk CLL' has been changing over time, and might be subject to further changes in the future. With the advent of new therapeutic strategies targeting pathogenetic pathways of the disease, the definition is shifting from the historical view of refractoriness to chemo-immunotherapy, to refractoriness to BCR inhibitors and/or to BCL2 inhibitors. Patients failing these novel medicines are those for whom new therapeutic approaches are still highly needed.

6.
Haematologica ; 105(2): 448-456, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371416

RESUMO

BIRC3 is a recurrently mutated gene in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) but the functional implications of BIRC3 mutations are largely unexplored. Furthermore, little is known about the prognostic impact of BIRC3 mutations in CLL cohorts homogeneously treated with first-line fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR). By immunoblotting analysis, we showed that the non-canonical nuclear factor-κB pathway is active in BIRC3-mutated cell lines and in primary CLL samples, as documented by the stabilization of MAP3K14 and by the nuclear localization of p52. In addition, BIRC3-mutated primary CLL cells are less sensitive to flu-darabine. In order to confirm in patients that BIRC3 mutations confer resistance to fludarabine-based chemoimmunotherapy, a retrospective multicenter cohort of 287 untreated patients receiving first-line FCR was analyzed by targeted next-generation sequencing of 24 recurrently mutated genes in CLL. By univariate analysis adjusted for multiple comparisons BIRC3 mutations identify a poor prognostic subgroup of patients in whom FCR treatment fails (median progression-free survival: 2.2 years, P<0.001) similar to cases harboring TP53 mutations (median progression-free survival: 2.6 years, P<0.0001). BIRC3 mutations maintained an independent association with an increased risk of progression with a hazard ratio of 2.8 (95% confidence interval 1.4-5.6, P=0.004) in multivariate analysis adjusted for TP53 mutation, 17p deletion and IGHV mutation status. If validated, BIRC3 mutations may be used as a new molecular predictor to select high-risk patients for novel frontline therapeutic approaches.

7.
Leukemia ; 34(2): 462-477, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467429

RESUMO

NOTCH1 mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) lead to accumulation of NOTCH1 intracellular domain (NICD) and prolong signaling. These mutations associate with a more aggressive disease compared to wild-type (WT) CLL. In this work we demonstrate a bidirectional functional relationship between NOTCH1 and the B cell receptor (BCR) pathways. By using highly homogeneous cohorts of primary CLL cells, activation of NOTCH1 is shown to increase expression of surface IgM, as well as LYN, BTK, and BLNK, ultimately enhancing BCR signaling responses, including global mRNA translation. Upon BCR cross-linking, NOTCH1 itself is actively translated and increased on cell surface. Furthermore, BCR ligation induces calcium mobilization that can facilitate ligand-independent NOTCH1 activation. These data suggest that the two pathways are functionally linked, providing a rationale for dual inhibition strategies. Consistently, addition of the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT to ibrutinib significantly potentiates its effects, both in vitro and in a short-term patient-derived xenograft model. While this observation may find limited applications in the CLL field, it is more relevant for Richter's Syndrome (RS) management, where very few successful therapeutic options exist. Treatment of RS-patient-derived xenografts (RS-PDX) with the combination of ibrutinib and DAPT decreases disease burden and increases overall survival.

9.
Qual Life Res ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782016

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To ensure that observed differences in the scores of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) reflect actual differences in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) rather than measurement bias, measurement invariance needs to be established. We investigated the assumption of measurement invariance of the EORTC QLQ-C30 in patients with hematological malignancies across age, sex, comorbidity, disease type, and time. METHODS: We used a large database of patients with hematological malignancies, which included HRQoL data collected with the EORTC QLQ-C30. We used the structural equation modeling approach to test for measurement (metric and scalar) invariance across groups (age, sex, comorbidity, disease) and time (baseline, 1 month and 2 month follow-up). Longitudinal invariance was examined in a subgroup of patients diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndromes. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated full measurement invariance for age and comorbidity and over time, while support for partial scalar invariance was obtained for sex and disease. Violations of invariance for sex were observed for items of the physical functioning scale and the emotional functioning scale, while for disease type, violations of invariance were observed for items of the physical functioning scale, emotional functioning scale, and the cognitive functioning scale. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support measurement invariance of the EORTC QLQ-C30 in a large sample of patients with hematological malignancies. The results showed that the number of non-invariant items was negligible, suggesting that this questionnaire is a valid and robust measurement tool in patients with hematological malignancies, also for comparisons across groups and time.

10.
Value Health ; 22(11): 1303-1310, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708068

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the validity of the recently developed European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) summary score in patients with hematologic malignancies. Specifically, we evaluated the adequacy of a single-factor measurement model for the QLQ-C30, and its known-groups validity and responsiveness to change over time. METHODS: We used confirmatory factor analysis to test the single-factor model of the QLQ-C30, using baseline QLQ-C30 data (N = 2134). The QLQ-C30 summary score was compared to the original QLQ-C30 scales using general (age, sex, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, comorbidity) and disease-specific (red blood cell transfusion dependency) groups. Repeated measurements allowed us to investigate responsiveness to change in a subgroup of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. RESULTS: The single-factor model of the QLQ-C30 exhibited adequate fit in patients with hematologic malignancies. Known-group comparisons generally supported the construct validity of the summary score when using more general grouping variables (sociodemographics, broad clinical parameters). Nevertheless, when groups were formed on the basis of disease-specific variables (eg, transfusion dependency), the summary score performed less well the some of the original, separate scales of the QLQ-C30. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide support for the validity of the single-factor model of the EORTC QLQ-C30 in patients with hematologic malignancies. Specifically, the results suggest that the summary score can be used as an endpoint in this population when symptom- or other health domain-specific hypotheses are not available.

11.
Haematologica ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537689

RESUMO

In recent years, the outcome of mantle cell lymphoma has improved, especially in younger patients, receiving cytarabine-containing chemoimmunotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. Nevertheless, a proportion of mantle cell lymphoma patients still experience early failure. To identify biomarkers anticipating failure of intensive chemotherapy in mantle cell lymphoma, we performed target resequencing and DNA profiling of purified tumor samples collected from patients enrolled in the prospective FIL-MCL0208 phase III trial (high-dose chemoimmunotherapy followed by autologous transplantation and randomized lenalidomide maintenance). Mutations of KMT2D and disruption of TP53 by deletion or mutation associated with an increased risk of progression and death, both in univariate and multivariate analysis. By adding KMT2D mutations and TP53 disruption to the MIPI-c backbone, we derived a new prognostic index, the MIPI-genetic. The MIPI-g improved the model discrimination ability compared to the MIPI-c alone, defining three risk groups: i) low-risk patients (4-years progression free survival and overall survival of 72.0% and 94.5%); ii) intermediate-risk patients (4-years progression free survival and overall survival of 42.2% and 65.8%) and iii) high-risk patients (4-years progression free survival and overall survival of 11.5% and 44.9%). Our results: i) confirm that TP53 disruption identifies a high-risk population characterized by poor sensitivity to conventional or intensified chemotherapy; ii) provide the pivotal evidence that patients harboring KMT2D mutations share the same poor outcome as patients harboring TP53 disruption; and iii) allow to develop a tool for the identification of high-risk mantle cell lymphoma patients for whom novel therapeutic strategies need to be investigated. (Trial registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02354313).

13.
Br J Haematol ; 187(4): 478-487, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385291

RESUMO

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) constitutes 25-35% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas in Western countries. Approximately two thirds of the patients can be cured with standard immuno-chemotherapy. Most relapses occur within 1-2 years from diagnosis, however, the occurrence of relapses after 5 years or more has been described. We aimed at defining the incidence and clinical features of late relapses. Data of 1113 DLBCL patients were analysed. Among the 196 patients relapsing after a first complete remission, 36 (18% of relapses and 3% of all DLBCLs) experienced a recurrence more than 5 years from diagnosis. Late relapsing patients, in comparison with those relapsing earlier, showed a more favourable risk profile at presentation: normal lactate dehydrogenase levels (P = 0·002), early Ann Arbor stage (P = 0·006) and low International Prognostic Index (P = 0·003). The risk of late relapse was lowered by the introduction of rituximab as part of the front-line treatment (P < 0·001). Cause-specific survival (CSS) from the time of relapse was significantly better for late relapsing patients compared to those relapsing early: 5-year CSS rates were 53% and 31%, respectively (P = 0·033). A trend toward a better overall survival was also observed, with 5-year rates after relapse of 47% and 25%, respectively (P = 0·054).

14.
Haematologica ; 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289209

RESUMO

In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) regulates the response of tumour cells to hypoxia and their protective interactions with the leukemic microenvironment. In this study we demonstrate that chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from TP53-disrupted (TP53dis) patients have constitutively higher expression levels of the α-subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1 α) and increased HIF-1 transcriptional activity, compared to the wild type counterpart. In the TP53dis subset, HIF-1 α upregulation is due to reduced expression of the HIF-1 α ubiquitin ligase von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL). Hypoxia and stromal cells further enhance HIF-1α accumulation, independently from the TP53 status. Hypoxia acts through the downmodulation of pVHL and the activation of the PI3K/AKT and RAS/ERK1-2 pathways, whereas stromal cells induce an increased activity of the RAS/ERK1-2, RHOA/RHOA kinase and PI3K/AKT pathways, without affecting pVHL expression. Interestingly, we observed that higher levels of HIF-1A mRNA correlate with a lower susceptibility of leukemic cells to spontaneous apoptosis, and associate with the fludarabine resistance that mainly characterizes TP53dis tumour cells. The HIF-1α inhibitor BAY87-2243 exerts cytotoxic effects toward leukemic cells, regardless of the TP53 status, and has anti-tumour activity in Eµ-TCL1 mice. BAY87-2243 also overcomes the constitutive fludarabine resistance of TP53dis leukemic cells and elicits a strongly synergistic cytotoxic effect in combination with ibrutinib, thus providing preclinical evidences for its further investigation as a potential new drug in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

15.
Cell ; 178(3): 699-713.e19, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280963

RESUMO

Accurate prediction of long-term outcomes remains a challenge in the care of cancer patients. Due to the difficulty of serial tumor sampling, previous prediction tools have focused on pretreatment factors. However, emerging non-invasive diagnostics have increased opportunities for serial tumor assessments. We describe the Continuous Individualized Risk Index (CIRI), a method to dynamically determine outcome probabilities for individual patients utilizing risk predictors acquired over time. Similar to "win probability" models in other fields, CIRI provides a real-time probability by integrating risk assessments throughout a patient's course. Applying CIRI to patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma, we demonstrate improved outcome prediction compared to conventional risk models. We demonstrate CIRI's broader utility in analogous models of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and breast adenocarcinoma and perform a proof-of-concept analysis demonstrating how CIRI could be used to develop predictive biomarkers for therapy selection. We envision that dynamic risk assessment will facilitate personalized medicine and enable innovative therapeutic paradigms.

16.
JAMA ; 322(2): 123-133, 2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287523

RESUMO

Importance: Herpes zoster, a frequent complication following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), is associated with significant morbidity. A nonlive adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine has been developed to prevent posttransplantation zoster. Objective: To assess the efficacy and adverse event profile of the recombinant zoster vaccine in immunocompromised autologous HSCT recipients. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 3, randomized, observer-blinded study conducted in 167 centers in 28 countries between July 13, 2012, and February 1, 2017, among 1846 patients aged 18 years or older who had undergone recent autologous HSCT. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive 2 doses of either recombinant zoster vaccine (n = 922) or placebo (n = 924) administered into the deltoid muscle; the first dose was given 50 to 70 days after transplantation and the second dose 1 to 2 months thereafter. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was occurrence of confirmed herpes zoster cases. Results: Among 1846 autologous HSCT recipients (mean age, 55 years; 688 [37%] women) who received 1 vaccine or placebo dose, 1735 (94%) received a second dose and 1366 (74%) completed the study. During the 21-month median follow-up, at least 1 herpes zoster episode was confirmed in 49 vaccine and 135 placebo recipients (incidence, 30 and 94 per 1000 person-years, respectively), an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.32 (95% CI, 0.22-0.44; P < .001), equivalent to 68.2% vaccine efficacy. Of 8 secondary end points, 3 showed significant reductions in incidence of postherpetic neuralgia (vaccine, n=1; placebo, n=9; IRR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.00-0.78; P = .02) and of other prespecified herpes zoster-related complications (vaccine, n=3; placebo, n=13; IRR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.04-0.81; P = .02) and in duration of severe worst herpes zoster-associated pain (vaccine, 892.0 days; placebo, 6275.0 days; hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42-0.89; P = .01). Five secondary objectives were descriptive. Injection site reactions were recorded in 86% of vaccine and 10% of placebo recipients, of which pain was the most common, occurring in 84% of vaccine recipients (grade 3: 11%). Unsolicited and serious adverse events, potentially immune-mediated diseases, and underlying disease relapses were similar between groups at all time points. Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults who had undergone autologous HSCT, a 2-dose course of recombinant zoster vaccine compared with placebo significantly reduced the incidence of herpes zoster over a median follow-up of 21 months. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01610414.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Vacina contra Herpes Zoster , Herpes Zoster/prevenção & controle , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Herpes Zoster/epidemiologia , Vacina contra Herpes Zoster/administração & dosagem , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/prevenção & controle , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Método Simples-Cego , Transplante Autólogo , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem
17.
Leuk Res ; 81: 88-94, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055248

RESUMO

The introduction of new therapeutic agents in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), including the new kinase inhibitors (KIs) ibrutinib and idelalisib, has changed the therapeutic landscape of the disease. The new KIs have also changed frequency and epidemiology of infections, that represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality of the disease. Hence, the great strides in the indications and use of new KIs need parallel amelioration of prophylaxis and supportive treatment for infections. Moving from the recognition that infection control represents an unmet need, the Italian Society of Hematology (SIE) convened a panel of experts who had published and/or expressed an interest in infection complications in CLL. The goal of the project was to provide practice recommendations for the management of the infectious complications of CLL during ibrutinib or idelalisib therapy. The present publication represents the results of a series of email correspondences and meetings held during 2017 and 2018. Three domains of infectious complications during KIs therapy for CLL were explored: risk assessment, risk management and risk monitoring. We hope these recommendations will help to minimize infectious adverse events, and we believe that an optimal management of them will be rewarded by better outcomes, and better quality of life.

19.
Cancer Med ; 8(5): 2041-2055, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950237

RESUMO

Treatment-free remission (TFR) by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) discontinuation in patients with deep molecular response (DMR) is a paramount goal in the current chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) therapeutic strategy. The best DMR level by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) for TKI discontinuation is still a matter of debate. To compare the accuracy of digital PCR (dPCR) and RT-qPCR for BCR-ABL1 transcript levels detection, 142 CML patients were monitored for a median time of 24 months. Digital PCR detected BCR-ABL1 transcripts in the RT-qPCR undetectable cases. The dPCR analysis of the samples, grouped by the MR classes, revealed a significant difference between MR4.0 and MR4.5 (P = 0.0104) or MR5.0 (P = 0.0032). The clinical and hematological characteristics of the patients grouped according to DMR classes (MR4.0 vs MR4.5-5.0 ) were superimposable. Conversely, patients with dPCR values <0.468 BCR-ABL1 copies/µL (as we previously described) showed a longer DMR duration (P = 0.0220) and mainly belonged to MR4.5-5.0 (P = 0.0442) classes compared to patients with higher dPCR values. Among the 142 patients, 111 (78%) discontinued the TKI treatment; among the 111 patients, 24 (22%) lost the MR3.0 or MR4.0 . RT-qPCR was not able to discriminate patients with higher risk of MR loss after discontinuation (P = 0.8100). On the contrary, according to dPCR, 12/25 (48%) patients with BCR-ABL1 values ≥0.468 and 12/86 (14%) patients with BCR-ABL1 values <0.468 lost DMR in this cohort, respectively (P = 0.0003). Treatment-free remission of patients who discontinued TKI with a dPCR <0.468 was significantly higher compared to patients with dPCR ≥ 0.468 (TFR at 2 years 83% vs 52% P = 0.0017, respectively). In conclusion, dPCR resulted in an improved recognition of stable DMR and of candidates to TKI discontinuation.

20.
Haematologica ; 104(4): 648-652, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846503
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