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1.
Leukemia ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467429

RESUMO

NOTCH1 mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) lead to accumulation of NOTCH1 intracellular domain (NICD) and prolong signaling. These mutations associate with a more aggressive disease compared to wild-type (WT) CLL. In this work we demonstrate a bidirectional functional relationship between NOTCH1 and the B cell receptor (BCR) pathways. By using highly homogeneous cohorts of primary CLL cells, activation of NOTCH1 is shown to increase expression of surface IgM, as well as LYN, BTK, and BLNK, ultimately enhancing BCR signaling responses, including global mRNA translation. Upon BCR cross-linking, NOTCH1 itself is actively translated and increased on cell surface. Furthermore, BCR ligation induces calcium mobilization that can facilitate ligand-independent NOTCH1 activation. These data suggest that the two pathways are functionally linked, providing a rationale for dual inhibition strategies. Consistently, addition of the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT to ibrutinib significantly potentiates its effects, both in vitro and in a short-term patient-derived xenograft model. While this observation may find limited applications in the CLL field, it is more relevant for Richter's Syndrome (RS) management, where very few successful therapeutic options exist. Treatment of RS-patient-derived xenografts (RS-PDX) with the combination of ibrutinib and DAPT decreases disease burden and increases overall survival.

2.
Haematologica ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371416

RESUMO

BIRC3 is a recurrently mutated gene in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) but the functional implications of BIRC3 mutations are largely unexplored. Also, little is known about the prognostic impact of BIRC3 mutations in CLL cohorts homogeneously treated with first line fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR). Immunoblotting analysis showed that the non-canonical NF-kB pathway is active in BIRC3 mutated cell lines and primary CLL samples, as documented by the stabilization of MAP3K14 and by the nuclear localization of p52. In addition, BIRC3 mutated primary CLL cells are less sensitive to fludarabine. In order to confirm in patients that BIRC3 mutations confer resistance to fludarabine-based chemoimmunotherapy, a retrospective multicenter cohort of 287 untreated CLL receiving first-line FCR was analyzed by targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) of 24 recurrently mutated genes in CLL. By univariate analysis adjusted for multiple comparisons BIRC3 mutations identify a very poor prognostic subgroup of patients failing FCR [(median progression free survival (PFS): 2.2 years, p < 0.001] similar to cases harboring TP53 mutations (median PFS: 2.6 years, p < 0.0001]. BIRC3 mutations maintained an independent association with an increased risk of progression with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.8 (95% C.I. 1.4-5.6, p = 0.004) in multivariate analysis adjusted for TP53 mutation, 17p deletion and IGHV mutation status. If validated, BIRC3 mutations may be used as a new molecular predictor to select high-risk patients for novel frontline therapeutic approaches.

3.
Br J Haematol ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385291

RESUMO

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) constitutes 25-35% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas in Western countries. Approximately two thirds of the patients can be cured with standard immuno-chemotherapy. Most relapses occur within 1-2 years from diagnosis, however, the occurrence of relapses after 5 years or more has been described. We aimed at defining the incidence and clinical features of late relapses. Data of 1113 DLBCL patients were analysed. Among the 196 patients relapsing after a first complete remission, 36 (18% of relapses and 3% of all DLBCLs) experienced a recurrence more than 5 years from diagnosis. Late relapsing patients, in comparison with those relapsing earlier, showed a more favourable risk profile at presentation: normal lactate dehydrogenase levels (P = 0·002), early Ann Arbor stage (P = 0·006) and low International Prognostic Index (P = 0·003). The risk of late relapse was lowered by the introduction of rituximab as part of the front-line treatment (P < 0·001). Cause-specific survival (CSS) from the time of relapse was significantly better for late relapsing patients compared to those relapsing early: 5-year CSS rates were 53% and 31%, respectively (P = 0·033). A trend toward a better overall survival was also observed, with 5-year rates after relapse of 47% and 25%, respectively (P = 0·054).

5.
JAMA ; 322(2): 123-133, 2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287523

RESUMO

Importance: Herpes zoster, a frequent complication following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), is associated with significant morbidity. A nonlive adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine has been developed to prevent posttransplantation zoster. Objective: To assess the efficacy and adverse event profile of the recombinant zoster vaccine in immunocompromised autologous HSCT recipients. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 3, randomized, observer-blinded study conducted in 167 centers in 28 countries between July 13, 2012, and February 1, 2017, among 1846 patients aged 18 years or older who had undergone recent autologous HSCT. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive 2 doses of either recombinant zoster vaccine (n = 922) or placebo (n = 924) administered into the deltoid muscle; the first dose was given 50 to 70 days after transplantation and the second dose 1 to 2 months thereafter. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was occurrence of confirmed herpes zoster cases. Results: Among 1846 autologous HSCT recipients (mean age, 55 years; 688 [37%] women) who received 1 vaccine or placebo dose, 1735 (94%) received a second dose and 1366 (74%) completed the study. During the 21-month median follow-up, at least 1 herpes zoster episode was confirmed in 49 vaccine and 135 placebo recipients (incidence, 30 and 94 per 1000 person-years, respectively), an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.32 (95% CI, 0.22-0.44; P < .001), equivalent to 68.2% vaccine efficacy. Of 8 secondary end points, 3 showed significant reductions in incidence of postherpetic neuralgia (vaccine, n=1; placebo, n=9; IRR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.00-0.78; P = .02) and of other prespecified herpes zoster-related complications (vaccine, n=3; placebo, n=13; IRR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.04-0.81; P = .02) and in duration of severe worst herpes zoster-associated pain (vaccine, 892.0 days; placebo, 6275.0 days; hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42-0.89; P = .01). Five secondary objectives were descriptive. Injection site reactions were recorded in 86% of vaccine and 10% of placebo recipients, of which pain was the most common, occurring in 84% of vaccine recipients (grade 3: 11%). Unsolicited and serious adverse events, potentially immune-mediated diseases, and underlying disease relapses were similar between groups at all time points. Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults who had undergone autologous HSCT, a 2-dose course of recombinant zoster vaccine compared with placebo significantly reduced the incidence of herpes zoster over a median follow-up of 21 months. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01610414.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Vacina contra Herpes Zoster , Herpes Zoster/prevenção & controle , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Herpes Zoster/epidemiologia , Vacina contra Herpes Zoster/administração & dosagem , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/prevenção & controle , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Método Simples-Cego , Transplante Autólogo , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem
6.
Cell ; 178(3): 699-713.e19, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280963

RESUMO

Accurate prediction of long-term outcomes remains a challenge in the care of cancer patients. Due to the difficulty of serial tumor sampling, previous prediction tools have focused on pretreatment factors. However, emerging non-invasive diagnostics have increased opportunities for serial tumor assessments. We describe the Continuous Individualized Risk Index (CIRI), a method to dynamically determine outcome probabilities for individual patients utilizing risk predictors acquired over time. Similar to "win probability" models in other fields, CIRI provides a real-time probability by integrating risk assessments throughout a patient's course. Applying CIRI to patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma, we demonstrate improved outcome prediction compared to conventional risk models. We demonstrate CIRI's broader utility in analogous models of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and breast adenocarcinoma and perform a proof-of-concept analysis demonstrating how CIRI could be used to develop predictive biomarkers for therapy selection. We envision that dynamic risk assessment will facilitate personalized medicine and enable innovative therapeutic paradigms.

7.
Haematologica ; 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289209

RESUMO

In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) regulates the response of tumour cells to hypoxia and their protective interactions with the leukemic microenvironment. In this study we demonstrate that chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from TP53-disrupted (TP53dis) patients have constitutively higher expression levels of the α-subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1 α) and increased HIF-1 transcriptional activity, compared to the wild type counterpart. In the TP53dis subset, HIF-1 α upregulation is due to reduced expression of the HIF-1 α ubiquitin ligase von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL). Hypoxia and stromal cells further enhance HIF-1α accumulation, independently from the TP53 status. Hypoxia acts through the downmodulation of pVHL and the activation of the PI3K/AKT and RAS/ERK1-2 pathways, whereas stromal cells induce an increased activity of the RAS/ERK1-2, RHOA/RHOA kinase and PI3K/AKT pathways, without affecting pVHL expression. Interestingly, we observed that higher levels of HIF-1A mRNA correlate with a lower susceptibility of leukemic cells to spontaneous apoptosis, and associate with the fludarabine resistance that mainly characterizes TP53dis tumour cells. The HIF-1α inhibitor BAY87-2243 exerts cytotoxic effects toward leukemic cells, regardless of the TP53 status, and has anti-tumour activity in Eµ-TCL1 mice. BAY87-2243 also overcomes the constitutive fludarabine resistance of TP53dis leukemic cells and elicits a strongly synergistic cytotoxic effect in combination with ibrutinib, thus providing preclinical evidences for its further investigation as a potential new drug in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

8.
Leuk Res ; 81: 88-94, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055248

RESUMO

The introduction of new therapeutic agents in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), including the new kinase inhibitors (KIs) ibrutinib and idelalisib, has changed the therapeutic landscape of the disease. The new KIs have also changed frequency and epidemiology of infections, that represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality of the disease. Hence, the great strides in the indications and use of new KIs need parallel amelioration of prophylaxis and supportive treatment for infections. Moving from the recognition that infection control represents an unmet need, the Italian Society of Hematology (SIE) convened a panel of experts who had published and/or expressed an interest in infection complications in CLL. The goal of the project was to provide practice recommendations for the management of the infectious complications of CLL during ibrutinib or idelalisib therapy. The present publication represents the results of a series of email correspondences and meetings held during 2017 and 2018. Three domains of infectious complications during KIs therapy for CLL were explored: risk assessment, risk management and risk monitoring. We hope these recommendations will help to minimize infectious adverse events, and we believe that an optimal management of them will be rewarded by better outcomes, and better quality of life.

9.
Cancer Med ; 8(5): 2041-2055, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950237

RESUMO

Treatment-free remission (TFR) by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) discontinuation in patients with deep molecular response (DMR) is a paramount goal in the current chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) therapeutic strategy. The best DMR level by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) for TKI discontinuation is still a matter of debate. To compare the accuracy of digital PCR (dPCR) and RT-qPCR for BCR-ABL1 transcript levels detection, 142 CML patients were monitored for a median time of 24 months. Digital PCR detected BCR-ABL1 transcripts in the RT-qPCR undetectable cases. The dPCR analysis of the samples, grouped by the MR classes, revealed a significant difference between MR4.0 and MR4.5 (P = 0.0104) or MR5.0 (P = 0.0032). The clinical and hematological characteristics of the patients grouped according to DMR classes (MR4.0 vs MR4.5-5.0 ) were superimposable. Conversely, patients with dPCR values <0.468 BCR-ABL1 copies/µL (as we previously described) showed a longer DMR duration (P = 0.0220) and mainly belonged to MR4.5-5.0 (P = 0.0442) classes compared to patients with higher dPCR values. Among the 142 patients, 111 (78%) discontinued the TKI treatment; among the 111 patients, 24 (22%) lost the MR3.0 or MR4.0 . RT-qPCR was not able to discriminate patients with higher risk of MR loss after discontinuation (P = 0.8100). On the contrary, according to dPCR, 12/25 (48%) patients with BCR-ABL1 values ≥0.468 and 12/86 (14%) patients with BCR-ABL1 values <0.468 lost DMR in this cohort, respectively (P = 0.0003). Treatment-free remission of patients who discontinued TKI with a dPCR <0.468 was significantly higher compared to patients with dPCR ≥ 0.468 (TFR at 2 years 83% vs 52% P = 0.0017, respectively). In conclusion, dPCR resulted in an improved recognition of stable DMR and of candidates to TKI discontinuation.

11.
Haematologica ; 104(4): 648-652, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846503
13.
Haematologica ; 104(8): 1640-1647, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733270

RESUMO

Twice-weekly carfilzomib is approved at 27 and 56 mg/m2 to treat relapsed multiple myeloma patients. In the phase III study ARROW, once-weekly 70 mg/m 2 carfilzomib prolonged the median progression-free survival of relapsed multiple myeloma patients in comparison with twice-weekly 27 mg/m2 carfilzomib, without adding significant toxicity. Data were pooled from two phase I/II studies of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients who received nine induction cycles of carfilzomib (either 70 mg/m2 once-weekly or 36 mg/m2 twice-weekly), cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone, followed by carfilzomib maintenance. Overall, 121 transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma were analyzed (once-weekly, n=63; twice-weekly, n=58). We found no significant difference in median progression-free survival [35.7 months (95%CI: 23.7-not reached, NR) vs 35.5 months (95%CI: 24.3-NR); HR: 1.39; P=0.26] and 3-year overall survival [70% [95%CI: 59%-84%) vs 72% (95%CI: 60%-85%); HR: 1.27; P=0.5] between once-weekly and twice-weekly carfilzomib. From the start of maintenance, 3-year progression-free survival [47% (95%CI: 33%-68%) vs 51% (95%CI: 38%-70%); HR: 1.04; P=0.92] and overall survival [72% (95%CI: 58%-89%) vs 73% (95%CI: 59%-90%); HR: 0.82; P=0.71] were similar in the once- versus twice-weekly carfilzomib. The rate of grade 3-5 hematologic (24% vs 30%; P=0.82) and non-hematologic (38% vs 41%; P=0.83) adverse events was similar in the two groups. Once-weekly 70 mg/m2 carfilzomib as induction and maintenance therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients was as safe and effective as twice-weekly 36 mg/m2 carfilzomib and provided a more convenient schedule. The trials are registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifiers: 01857115 (IST-CAR-561) and 01346787 (IST-CAR-506).

14.
Blood Adv ; 3(3): 384-396, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723113

RESUMO

Classic hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a tumor of mature clonal B cells with unique genetic, morphologic, and phenotypic features. DNA methylation profiling has provided a new tier of investigation to gain insight into the origin and behavior of B-cell malignancies; however, the methylation profile of HCL has not been specifically investigated. DNA methylation profiling was analyzed with the Infinium HumanMethylation27 array in 41 mature B-cell tumors, including 11 HCL, 7 splenic marginal zone lymphomas (SMZLs), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia with an unmutated (n = 7) or mutated (n = 6) immunoglobulin gene heavy chain variable (IGHV) region or using IGHV3-21 (n = 10). Methylation profiles of nontumor B-cell subsets and gene expression profiling data were obtained from public databases. HCL had a methylation signature distinct from each B-cell tumor entity, including the closest entity, SMZL. Comparison with normal B-cell subsets revealed the strongest similarity with postgerminal center (GC) B cells and a clear separation from pre-GC and GC cellular programs. Comparison of the integrated analysis with post-GC B cells revealed significant hypomethylation and overexpression of BCR-TLR-NF-κB and BRAF-MAPK signaling pathways and cell adhesion, as well as hypermethylation and underexpression of cell-differentiation markers and methylated genes in cancer, suggesting regulation of the transformed hairy cells through specific components of the B-cell receptor and the BRAF signaling pathways. Our data identify a specific methylation profile of HCL, which may help to distinguish it from other mature B-cell tumors.

16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1881: 253-265, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350211

RESUMO

Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is an easily accessible source of tumor DNA that allows accurate profiling of lymphoma patients, representing a complementary source of tumor DNA to tissue biopsy for genotyping. Applications of cfDNA analysis in lymphomas include: (1) identification of tumor mutations in a biopsy-free manner; (2) tracking tumor clonal evolution and identification of mutations causing resistance to treatment; and (3) monitoring of residual disease after therapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , DNA de Neoplasias/sangue , Linfoma/diagnóstico , Mutação , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Linfoma/sangue , Linfoma/genética
17.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447004

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) stereotyped subsets #6 and #8 include cases expressing unmutated B cell receptor immunoglobulin (BcR IG) (U-CLL). Subset #6 (IGHV1-69/IGKV3-20) is less aggressive compared to subset #8 (IGHV4-39/IGKV1(D)-39) which has the highest risk for Richter's transformation among all CLL. The underlying reasons for this divergent clinical behavior are not fully elucidated. To gain insight into this issue, here we focused on epigenomic signatures and their links with gene expression, particularly investigating genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in subsets #6 and #8 as well as other U-CLL cases not expressing stereotyped BcR IG. We found that subset #8 showed a distinctive DNA methylation profile compared to all other U-CLL cases, including subset #6. Integrated analysis of DNA methylation and gene expression revealed significant correlation for several genes, particularly highlighting a relevant role for the TP63 gene which was hypomethylated and overexpressed in subset #8. This observation was validated by quantitative PCR, which also revealed TP63 mRNA overexpression in additional non-subset U-CLL cases. BcR stimulation had distinct effects on p63 protein expression, particularly leading to induction in subset #8, accompanied by increased CLL cell survival. This pro-survival effect was also supported by siRNA-mediated downregulation of p63 expression resulting in increased apoptosis. In conclusion, we report that DNA methylation profiles may vary even among CLL patients with similar somatic hypermutation status, supporting a compartmentalized approach to dissecting CLL biology. Furthermore, we highlight p63 as a novel prosurvival factor in CLL, thus identifying another piece of the complex puzzle of clinical aggressiveness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

18.
Haematologica ; 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409799

RESUMO

Richter syndrome represents the transformation of the most frequent type of leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia into an aggressive lymphoma. Patients with Richter syndrome have limited response to therapies and dismal survival. The underlying mechanisms of transformation are insufficiently understood and there is a major lack of knowledge regarding the roles of microRNAs that have already proved to be causative for most cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Here, by using four types of genomic platforms and independent sets of patients from three institutions, we identified microRNAs involved in the transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia to Richter syndrome. The expression signature is composed of miR-21, miR-150, miR-146b and miR-181b, with confirmed targets significantly enriched in pathways involved in cancer, immunity and inflammation. In addition, we demonstrated that genomic alterations may account for microRNA deregulation in a subset of Richter syndrome cases. Furthermore, network analysis showed that Richter transformation leads to a complete rearrangement, resulting in a highly-connected microRNA network. Functionally, ectopic overexpression of miR-21 increased proliferation of malignant B-cells in multiple assays, while miR-150 and miR-26a are downregulated in a chronic lymphocytic leukemia xenogeneic mouse transplantation model. Together, our results suggest that Richter transformation is associated with significant expression and genomic loci alterations of microRNAs involved in both malignancy and immunity.

19.
Br J Cancer ; 119(8): 994-1008, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The TP53 tumor suppressor gene is the most frequently altered gene in tumors and mutant p53 gain-of-function isoforms actively promote cancer malignancy. METHODS: A panel of wild-type and mutant p53 cancer cell lines of different tissues, including pancreas, breast, skin, and lung were used, as well as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients with different TP53 gene status. The effects of mutant p53 were evaluated by confocal microscopy, reactive oxygen species production assay, immunoblotting, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction after cellular transfection. RESULTS: We demonstrate that oncogenic mutant p53 isoforms are able to inhibit SESN1 expression and consequently the amount of SESN1/AMPK complex, resulting in the downregulation of the AMPK/PGC-1α/UCP2 axis and mitochondrial O2-· production. We also show a correlation between the decrease of reduced thiols with a poorer clinical outcome of CLL patients bearing mutant TP53 gene. The restoration of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) expression, as well as the addition of the radical scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine, reversed the oncogenic effects of mutant p53 as cellular hyper-proliferation, antiapoptotic effect, and resistance to drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The inhibition of the SESN1/AMPK/PGC-1α/UCP2 axis contributes to the pro-oxidant and oncogenic effects of mutant p53, suggesting pro-oxidant drugs as a therapeutic approach for cancer patients bearing mutant TP53 gene.

20.
Br J Haematol ; 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30338509

RESUMO

TP53-disrupted chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients show a suboptimal long-term response to ibrutinib. We hereby report that ibrutinib-induced in vitro apoptosis and proliferation inhibition were significantly lower in TP53-mutated (TP53-M) CLL cells compared to TP53 wild-type cells. Contrariwise, venetoclax effectively killed TP53-M cells. Gene expression profile analysis of TP53-M cells revealed a downmodulation of B-cell receptor (BCR)-related genes and an upmodulation of genes with anti-apoptotic/pro-survival activity, suggesting that the survival and proliferation of TP53-M cells are less dependent on the BCR pathway. These observations further support the use of drug combinations for the optimal management of TP53-M CLL patients.

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