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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5310, 2019 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757953

RESUMO

The role of Africa in the dynamics of the global spread of a zoonotic and economically-important virus, such as the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5Nx of the Gs/GD lineage, remains unexplored. Here we characterise the spatiotemporal patterns of virus diffusion during three HPAI H5Nx intercontinental epidemic waves and demonstrate that Africa mainly acted as an ecological sink of the HPAI H5Nx viruses. A joint analysis of host dynamics and continuous spatial diffusion indicates that poultry trade as well as wild bird migrations have contributed to the virus spreading into Africa, with West Africa acting as a crucial hotspot for virus introduction and dissemination into the continent. We demonstrate varying paths of avian influenza incursions into Africa as well as virus spread within Africa over time, which reveal that virus expansion is a complex phenomenon, shaped by an intricate interplay between avian host ecology, virus characteristics and environmental variables.


Assuntos
Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , África , África Ocidental , Animais , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/economia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/economia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/economia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
2.
Avian Dis ; 62(2): 237-240, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29944408

RESUMO

The connectedness in Arctic regions between migratory waterbird populations originating from different continents and the potential for virus exchange at their shared Arctic breeding ground point to the need to explore the largely unstudied circumpolar circulation of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We here report the investigation of AIV in wild birds and lakes in a high Arctic area of Northeast Greenland. No AIV could be detected in the fecal, feather, and water samples collected from large flocks of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus and barnacle geese Branta leucopsis in and around refuge lakes, where they congregate at high density during their flightless molting period in summer.


Assuntos
Gansos/virologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Migração Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Cruzamento , Feminino , Gansos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gansos/fisiologia , Groenlândia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Muda , Orthomyxoviridae/classificação , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/fisiologia , Estações do Ano
3.
Sci Adv ; 3(6): e1700526, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28782012

RESUMO

In their recent paper, Savoca and collaborators (2016) showed that plastic debris in the ocean may acquire a dimethyl sulfide (DMS) signature from biofouling developing on their surface. According to them, DMS emission may represent an olfactory trap for foraging seabirds, which explains patterns of plastic ingestion among procellariiform seabirds. This hypothesis is appealing, but some of the data that Savoca et al. used to support their claim are questionable, resulting in a misclassification of species, as well as other decisions regarding the variables to include in their models. Furthermore, with their focus on a single lifestyle trait (nesting habit) of dubious relevance for explaining plastic ingestion, Savoca et al. neglect the opportunity to explore other factors that might provide better ecological insight. Finally, we are deeply concerned by the conservation policy recommendation proposed by Savoca et al.-to increase antifouling properties of consumer plastics-which constitutes a substantial environmental risk and delivers the wrong message to decision-makers. The reduction of plastic consumption, waste prevention, and proactive reuse through a circular economy should be at the heart of policy recommendations for future mitigation efforts.


Assuntos
Aves , Plásticos , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Olfato , Resíduos/análise
4.
Avian Dis ; 60(1 Suppl): 296-301, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27309070

RESUMO

Several ecologic factors have been proposed to describe the mechanisms whereby host ecology and the environment influence the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds, including bird's foraging behavior, migratory pattern, seasonal congregation, the rate of recruitment of juvenile birds, and abiotic factors. However, these ecologic factors are derived from studies that have been conducted in temperate or boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere. These factors cannot be directly translated to tropical regions, where differences in host ecology and seasonality may produce different ecologic interactions between wild birds and AIV. An extensive dataset of AIV detection in wildfowl and shorebirds sampled across tropical Africa was used to analyze how the distinctive ecologic features of Afrotropical regions may influence the dynamics of AIV transmission in wild birds. The strong seasonality of rainfall and surface area of wetlands allows testing of how the seasonality of wildfowl ecology (reproduction phenology and congregation) is related to AIV seasonal dynamics. The diversity of the African wildfowl community provides the opportunity to investigate the respective influence of migratory behavior, foraging behavior, and phylogeny on species variation in infection rate. Large aggregation sites of shorebirds in Africa allow testing for the existence of AIV infection hot spots. We found that the processes whereby host ecology influence AIV transmission in wild birds in the Afrotropical context operate through ecologic factors (seasonal drying of wetlands and extended and nonsynchronized breeding periods) that are different than the one described in temperate regions, hence, resulting in different patterns of AIV infection dynamics.


Assuntos
Aves/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , África , Animais , Animais Selvagens/classificação , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Aves/classificação , Ecossistema , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Filogenia , Estações do Ano
6.
Vet Res ; 46: 83, 2015 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26198845

RESUMO

In ecology, the grouping of species into functional groups has played a valuable role in simplifying ecological complexity. In epidemiology, further clarifications of epidemiological functions are needed: while host roles may be defined, they are often used loosely, partly because of a lack of clarity on the relationships between a host's function and its epidemiological role. Here we focus on the definition of bridge hosts and their epidemiological consequences. Bridge hosts provide a link through which pathogens can be transmitted from maintenance host populations or communities to receptive populations that people want to protect (i.e., target hosts). A bridge host should (1) be competent for the pathogen or able to mechanically transmit it; and (2) come into direct contact or share habitat with both maintenance and target populations. Demonstration of bridging requires an operational framework that integrates ecological and epidemiological approaches. We illustrate this framework using the example of the transmission of Avian Influenza Viruses across wild bird/poultry interfaces in Africa and discuss a range of other examples that demonstrate the usefulness of our definition for other multi-host systems. Bridge hosts can be particularly important for understanding and managing infectious disease dynamics in multi-host systems at wildlife/domestic/human interfaces, including emerging infections.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Aves , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Aves Domésticas , África , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
7.
Infect Genet Evol ; 33: 11-9, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25891281

RESUMO

Infection is a complex biological process involving reciprocally both the intensity of host exposure to a pathogen as well as the host intrinsic "receptivity", or permissiveness to infection. Disentangling their respective contributions is currently seen as a fundamental gap in our knowledge. Here, we take the advantage of a rare semi-natural experiment context provided by the emergence of the West Nile Virus (WNV) in North America. Focusing on the pathogen emergence period, we combine datasets from (i) wild birds exposed to WNV in an urban zoo to evaluate the species intrinsic receptivity to WNV infection in an environment where exposure to WNV vectors can be assumed to be relatively homogenous for all captive species, and (ii) from free-ranging birds in their natural habitat where species ecological traits is expected to influence their exposure to WNV vectors. We show that ecological trait and intrinsic receptivity to infection both contribute similarly to the species variation in WNV seroprevalence, but considering only one of them can lead to erroneous conclusions. We then argue that degree of pathogen host specialization could be a fundamental factor for the respective contribution of species exposure and receptivity for numerous pathogens.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Aves , Exposição Ambiental , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/fisiologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves/classificação , Aves/genética , Filogenia , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , RNA Viral , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 21(4): e1-7, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25811221

RESUMO

Wild birds play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and spread of avian influenza viruses. However, surveillance for these viruses in wild birds is sporadic, geographically biased, and often limited to the last outbreak virus. To identify opportunities to optimize wild bird surveillance for understanding viral diversity, we reviewed responses to a World Organisation for Animal Health-administered survey, government reports to this organization, articles on Web of Knowledge, and the Influenza Research Database. At least 119 countries conducted avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds during 2008-2013, but coordination and standardization was lacking among surveillance efforts, and most focused on limited subsets of influenza viruses. Given high financial and public health burdens of recent avian influenza outbreaks, we call for sustained, cost-effective investments in locations with high avian influenza diversity in wild birds and efforts to promote standardized sampling, testing, and reporting methods, including full-genome sequencing and sharing of isolates with the scientific community.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Orthomyxoviridae , Vigilância da População , Animais , Aves , Análise Custo-Benefício , Bases de Dados Factuais , Variação Genética , Saúde Global , Humanos , Notificação de Abuso , Orthomyxoviridae/classificação , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Navegador
9.
PLoS One ; 9(10): e110141, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25329399

RESUMO

Aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIV). Habitats in Brazil provide stopover and wintering sites for water birds that migrate between North and South America. The current study was conducted to elucidate the possibility of the transport of influenza A viruses by birds that migrate annually between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In total, 556 orotracheal/cloacal swab samples were collected for influenza A virus screening using real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). The influenza A virus-positive samples were subjected to viral isolation. Four samples were positive for the influenza A matrix gene by rRT-PCR. From these samples, three viruses were isolated, sequenced and characterized. All positive samples originated from a single bird species, the ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), that was caught in the Amazon region at Caeté Bay, Northeast Pará, at Ilha de Canelas. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of H11N9 in the ruddy turnstone in South America.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Charadriiformes/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Animais , Brasil , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Filogenia , Simpatria
10.
Ecohealth ; 11(1): 109-19, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24652313

RESUMO

For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Aves/virologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Migração Animal , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Patos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano
11.
PLoS One ; 8(10): e76413, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24204623

RESUMO

Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most lethal diseases of poultry worldwide. It is caused by an avian paramyxovirus 1 that has high genomic diversity. In the framework of an international surveillance program launched in 2007, several thousand samples from domestic and wild birds in Africa were collected and analyzed. ND viruses (NDV) were detected and isolated in apparently healthy fowls and wild birds. However, two thirds of the isolates collected in this study were classified as virulent strains of NDV based on the molecular analysis of the fusion protein and experimental in vivo challenges with two representative isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on the F and HN genes showed that isolates recovered from poultry in Mali and Ethiopia form new groups, herein proposed as genotypes XIV and sub-genotype VIf with reference to the new nomenclature described by Diel's group. In Madagascar, the circulation of NDV strains of genotype XI, originally reported elsewhere, is also confirmed. Full genome sequencing of five African isolates was generated and an extensive phylogeny reconstruction was carried out based on the nucleotide sequences. The evolutionary distances between groups and the specific amino acid signatures of each cluster allowed us to refine the genotype nomenclature.


Assuntos
Avulavirus/classificação , Avulavirus/genética , Genótipo , Filogenia , África , Animais , Avulavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Avulavirus/veterinária , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral , Doença de Newcastle/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , RNA Viral
12.
BMC Ecol ; 13: 36, 2013 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24079650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Partial migration, where one portion of a population conducts seasonal migrations while the other remains on a single range, is common in wild ungulate populations. However the relative costs and benefits associated with the distinct strategies adopted by coexisting migrant and resident individuals have rarely been investigated. Here we compare the body condition of migrants and residents in a partially migratory population of impalas (Aepyceros melampus) in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted during two consecutive years with highly contrasted population densities (16.4 and 8.6 indiv/km(2)) due to harvesting. RESULTS: We first identify a population substructure with a north-south sub-division in two spatial units related to distinct soils and vegetation cover. Impalas in the north range had a consistently higher diet quality and body condition than those in the south range. At the beginning of the dry season about one third of the individuals migrated from the lower (i.e. south) to the higher (i.e. north) diet quality range. This partial migration pattern was consistent between the consecutive years, and most individuals showed constancy to their moving strategy (migrant or resident). In both years, these migrants had a significantly higher body condition at the end of the dry season than the south residents that remained year-round in the lower diet quality range. Diet quality and body condition of impalas were higher in the year of lower density; however we did not detect any evidence for density-dependence in migration propensity, at the individual or population levels, nor in the benefit associated with migration. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide rare evidence for a significant relationship between body condition and seasonal migration strategy in wild ungulates in relation to a difference in the quality of resources acquired between distinct seasonal ranges. This study also constitutes rare evidence of partial migration in a tropical ungulate population.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Zimbábue
13.
PLoS One ; 7(9): e46049, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23029383

RESUMO

Heterogeneity in the transmission rates of pathogens across hosts or environments may produce disease hotspots, which are defined as specific sites, times or species associations in which the infection rate is consistently elevated. Hotspots for avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds are largely unstudied and poorly understood. A striking feature is the existence of a unique but consistent AIV hotspot in shorebirds (Charadriiformes) associated with a single species at a specific location and time (ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres at Delaware Bay, USA, in May). This unique case, though a valuable reference, limits our capacity to explore and understand the general properties of AIV hotspots in shorebirds. Unfortunately, relatively few shorebirds have been sampled outside Delaware Bay and they belong to only a few shorebird families; there also has been a lack of consistent oropharyngeal sampling as a complement to cloacal sampling. In this study we looked for AIV hotspots associated with other shorebird species and/or with some of the larger congregation sites of shorebirds in the old world. We assembled and analysed a regionally extensive dataset of AIV prevalence from 69 shorebird species sampled in 25 countries across Africa and Western Eurasia. Despite this diverse and extensive coverage we did not detect any new shorebird AIV hotspots. Neither large shorebird congregation sites nor the ruddy turnstone were consistently associated with AIV hotspots. We did, however, find a low but widespread circulation of AIV in shorebirds that contrast with the absence of AIV previously reported in shorebirds in Europe. A very high AIV antibody prevalence coupled to a low infection rate was found in both first-year and adult birds of two migratory sandpiper species, suggesting the potential existence of an AIV hotspot along their migratory flyway that is yet to be discovered.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Charadriiformes/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , África , Animais , Animais Selvagens/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Ásia , Charadriiformes/imunologia , Delaware , Europa (Continente) , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/imunologia , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
J Virol Methods ; 186(1-2): 119-25, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22925717

RESUMO

The occurrence of highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza (AI) H5N1 in Asia and its spread to Africa and Europe prompted costly monitoring programs of wild birds and domestic poultry. AI virus excretion is tested by examining avian swab samples by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). In this study, pools of swab samples and a reagents volume reduction per RT-qPCR were evaluated as measures of economization. Viral transport medium and faecal matrices were spiked with different low pathogenic AI virus strains and tested for loss of target RNA during all processing steps as individual rayon swabs or in sample pools of 5, 10 and 15 swabs. Fresh faeces from Mallard ducks and other aquatic bird species as sample matrix resulted in loss of AIV RNA of about 90% compared to transport medium. Due to sample RNA dilution in pools the likelihood of detection of single positive samples is decreasing with increasing size of sample pools. However, pools of five samples containing only one positive sample consistently gave positive results. Similarly, no differences in detection rates were obtained when analyzing 1030 wild bird swab samples either individually or in pools of five. Reducing the reaction volume of influenza A virus generic as well as of subtype-specific RT-qPCRs to 12.5 µl (2.5 µl template) instead of 25 µl did not adversely affect the limit of detection of these RT-qPCRs. A significant economic benefit without impeding detection efficacy can be achieved when sample pools of five samples are analyzed by RT-qPCR using a reduction of the reaction mix to the half of the original volume.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Virologia/métodos , África , Animais , Ásia , Aves , Custos e Análise de Custo , Europa (Continente) , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Aves Domésticas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/economia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/economia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes/economia
15.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 6(4): 240-4, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22168475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avian influenza viruses (AIV) have been detected in wild birds in West Africa during the northern winter, but no information is available on a potential year-round circulation of AIV in West Africa. Such year-round circulation would allow reassortment opportunities between strains circulating in Afro-tropical birds and strains imported by migratory birds wintering in West Africa. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: A 2-year longitudinal survey was conducted in the largest continental wetland of West Africa, the Inner Niger Delta in Mali, to determine the year-round circulation of AIV in wild birds. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Avian influenza virus RNA was detected during all periods of the year. Very low prevalence was detected during the absence of the migratory wild birds. However, a year-round circulation of AIV seems possible in West Africa, as shown in other African regions. West Africa may hence be another potential site of reassortment between AIV strains originating from both Afro-tropical and Eurasian regions.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Animais , Aves , Estudos Longitudinais , Mali , Prevalência , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação
16.
Int J Health Geogr ; 10: 60, 2011 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22085837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Characterizing the interface between wild and domestic animal populations is increasingly recognized as essential in the context of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) that are transmitted by wildlife. More specifically, the spatial and temporal distribution of contact rates between wild and domestic hosts is a key parameter for modeling EIDs transmission dynamics. We integrated satellite telemetry, remote sensing and ground-based surveys to evaluate the spatio-temporal dynamics of indirect contacts between wild and domestic birds to estimate the risk that avian pathogens such as avian influenza and Newcastle viruses will be transmitted between wildlife to poultry. We monitored comb ducks (Sarkidiornis melanotos melanotos) with satellite transmitters for seven months in an extensive Afro-tropical wetland (the Inner Niger Delta) in Mali and characterise the spatial distribution of backyard poultry in villages. We modelled the spatial distribution of wild ducks using 250-meter spatial resolution and 8-days temporal resolution remotely-sensed environmental indicators based on a Maxent niche modelling method. RESULTS: Our results show a strong seasonal variation in potential contact rate between wild ducks and poultry. We found that the exposure of poultry to wild birds was greatest at the end of the dry season and the beginning of the rainy season, when comb ducks disperse from natural water bodies to irrigated areas near villages. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides at a local scale a quantitative evidence of the seasonal variability of contact rate between wild and domestic bird populations. It illustrates a GIS-based methodology for estimating epidemiological contact rates at the wildlife and livestock interface integrating high-resolution satellite telemetry and remote sensing data.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Patos/virologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Aves , Ecossistema , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Mali , Modelos Biológicos , Níger , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Análise de Regressão , Telemetria
17.
Ecohealth ; 8(1): 109-15, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21125309

RESUMO

Waterfowl were counted and sampled in a Zimbabwean wetland over 24 months. LPAI strains were detected during 20 consecutive months, providing evidence of regional yearly persistence of LPAI. We discuss the role of Afro-tropical ducks in viral maintenance and transmission, and attempt to explain the observed patterns.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/isolamento & purificação , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Aves/virologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
18.
Ecohealth ; 7(3): 283-93, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20865438

RESUMO

Predicting areas of disease emergence when no epidemiological data is available is essential for the implementation of efficient surveillance programs. The Inner Niger Delta (IND) in Mali is a major African wetland where >1 million Palearctic and African waterbirds congregate. Waterbirds are the main reservoir of Avian Influenza Viruses (AIV). Our objective was to model their spatial distribution in order to predict where these viruses would be more likely to circulate. We developed a generalized linear model (GLM) and a boosted regression trees (BRT) model based on total aerial bird counts taken in winter over 6 years. We used remotely sensed environmental variables with a high temporal resolution (10 days) to predict the spatial distribution of four waterbird groups. The predicted waterbird abundances were weighted with an epidemiological indicator based on the prevalence of low pathogenic AIV reported in the literature. The BRT model had the best predictive power and allowed prediction of the high variability of waterbird distribution. Years with low flood levels showed areas with a higher risk of circulation and had better spatial distribution predictions. Each year, the model identified a few areas with a higher risk of AIV circulation. This model can be applied every 10 days to evaluate the risk of AIV emergence in wild waterbirds. By taking into account the IND's ecological variability, it allows better targeting of areas considered for surveillance. This could enhance the control of emerging diseases at a local and regional scale, especially when resources available for surveillance programs are scarce.


Assuntos
Anseriformes/virologia , Ecossistema , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Animais , Aves , Mali/epidemiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Rios
19.
Virol J ; 7: 43, 2010 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20167132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Virological, molecular and serological studies were carried out to determine the status of infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV) in different species of wild waterbirds in Iran during 2003-2007. Samples were collected from 1146 birds representing 45 different species with the majority of samples originating from ducks, coots and shorebirds. Samples originated from 6 different provinces representative for the 15 most important wintering sites of migratory waterbirds in Iran. RESULTS: Overall, AIV were detected in approximately 3.4% of the samples. However, prevalence was higher (up to 8.3%) at selected locations and for certain species. No highly pathogenic avian influenza, including H5N1 was detected. A total of 35 AIVs were detected from cloacal or oropharyngeal swab samples. These positive samples originated mainly from Mallards and Common Teals.Of 711 serum samples tested for AIV antibodies, 345 (48.5%) were positive by using a nucleoprotein-specific competitive ELISA (NP-C-ELISA). Ducks including Mallard, Common Teal, Common Pochard, Northern Shoveler and Eurasian Wigeon revealed the highest antibody prevalence ranging from 44 to 75%. CONCLUSION: Results of these investigations provide important information about the prevalence of LPAIV in wild birds in Iran, especially wetlands around the Caspian Sea which represent an important wintering site for migratory water birds. Mallard and Common Teal exhibited the highest number of positives in virological and serological investigations: 43% and 26% virological positive cases and 24% and 46% serological positive reactions, respectively. These two species may play an important role in the ecology and perpetuation of influenza viruses in this region. In addition, it could be shown that both oropharyngeal and cloacal swab samples contribute to the detection of positive birds, and neither should be neglected.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Aves , Cloaca/virologia , Genótipo , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Orofaringe/virologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 9(6): 737-41, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19402766

RESUMO

West Nile virus (WNV) has a history of irregular but recurrent epizootics in countries of Mediterranean and of Central and Eastern Europe. We have investigated the temporal enzootic activity of WNV in free-ranging birds over a 3-year period in an area with sporadic occurrences of WNV outbreaks in Southern France. We conducted an intensive serologic survey on several wild bird populations (>4000 serum samples collected from 3300 birds) selected as potential indicators of the WNV circulation. WNV antibodies were detected by seroneutralization and/or plaque reduction neutralization in house sparrows, black-billed magpies, and scops owls, but these species appeared to be insufficient indicators of WNV circulation. Overall seroprevalence was low (<1%), including in birds that had been potentially exposed to the virus during recent outbreaks. However, the detection of a seroconversion in one bird, as well as the detection of seropositive birds in all years of our monitoring, including juveniles, indicate a constant annual circulation of WNV at a low level, including in years without any detectable emergence of WN fever in horses or humans.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Aves/imunologia , Aves/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/imunologia , Aves/sangue , França/epidemiologia , Testes de Neutralização/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária
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