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1.
J Nutr Biochem ; 79: 108361, 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179409

RESUMO

Branched fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs) are a new family of endogenous lipids recently discovered. Several studies reported that some FAHFAs have antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of this study was to explore the impact of two FAHFAs, 9-PAHPA or 9-OAHPA, on the metabolism of mice. C57Bl/6J male mice, 6 weeks old, were divided into 3 groups of 10 mice each. One group received a control diet and the two others groups received the control diet supplemented with 9-PAHPA or 9-OAHPA for 12 weeks. Mouse weight and body composition were monitored throughout the study. Some days before euthanasia, energy expenditure, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were also determined. After sacrifice, blood and organs were collected for relevant molecular, biochemical and histological analyses. Although high intake of 9-PAHPA or 9-OAHPA increased basal metabolism, it had no direct effect on body weight. Interestingly, the 9-PAHPA or 9-OAHPA intake increased insulin sensitivity but without modifying glucose tolerance. Nevertheless, 9-PAHPA intake induced a loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Surprisingly, both studied FAHFAs induced hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in some mice, which were more marked with 9-PAHPA. Finally, a slight remodeling of white adipose tissue was also observed with 9-PAHPA intake. In conclusion, the long-term high intake of 9-PAHPA or 9-OAHPA increased basal metabolism and insulin sensitivity in healthy mice. However, this effect, highly likely beneficial in a diabetic state, was accompanied by manifest liver damage in certain mice that should deserve special attention in both healthy and pathological studies.

2.
J Food Biochem ; 43(9): e12979, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489676

RESUMO

The use of Spirulina platensis (Sp) as a functional food was suggested decades ago. Biological incorporation of Silicon (Si) into Sp increases its bioavailability for potential food supplement applications. This work aimed at determining the effects of Sp and Si-enriched Sp (Sp+Si) on metabolic syndrome features in Zucker fatty rats. Thirty Zucker fatty rats were divided into three groups and supplemented with placebo or Sp or Sp+Si croquettes for 12 weeks. Food consumption, glucose intolerance, hepatic steatosis, and mitochondrial and oxidative stress were determined. Zucker fatty rats exhibited several hepatic metabolic alterations as well as mitochondrial and oxidative stress perturbations. The intake of Sp increased plasma TG levels and decreased the hepatic NADPH oxidase activity and ameliorated transitorily the glucose intolerance. However, Si-spirulina does not appear to have more beneficial effects than spirulina alone. Other experiments with different species of rats/mice, different diets, or durations of diet intake should be undertaken to confirm or infirm these results. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis, two major components of metabolic syndrome, are increasing and becomes a major public health issue. Use of Spirulina platensis (Sp) as a functional food was suggested as a protein-dense food source. Bioavailable silicon (Si) may be an essential nutrient for higher animals, including humans. Sp but not Sp+Si decreased liver NADPH oxidase activity and improved transitorily glucose tolerance. This is the first study where Sp and Sp+Si effect on glucose intolerance is reported in Zucker rat. Other experiments should be undertaken to confirm or infirm invalidate the beneficial effects of Sp+Si supplement in the metabolic syndrome features.

3.
Lipids ; 54(1): 81-97, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767221

RESUMO

Inflammation and oxidative stress are thought to be involved in, or associated with, the development of obesity, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. This work was designed to determine the evolution of inflammation and oxidative stress during onset and progression of hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance. Seventy-five male Wistar rats were divided to control and high-fat high-fructose (HFHFr) groups. A subgroup of each group was sacrificed at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks. HFHFr-fed rats exhibited overweight, glucose intolerance, and hepatic steatosis with increased contents of hepatic diacylglycerols and ceramides. The HFHFr diet increased hepatic interleukin 6 (IL-6) protein and adipose tissue CCL5 gene expression and hepatic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity but not mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The HFHFr diet decreased plasma and liver levels of isoprostanoid metabolites as well as plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels. Hepatic glutathione content was decreased with a moderate decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) with the HFHFr diet. Overall, HFHFr diet led to hepatic lipid accumulation and glucose intolerance, which were accompanied by only moderate inflammation and oxidative stress. Most of these changes occurred at the same time and as early as 8 or 12 weeks of diet treatment. This implies that oxidative stress may be the result, not the cause, of these metabolic alterations, and suggests that marked hepatic oxidative stress should probably occur at the end of the steatotic stage to result in frank insulin resistance and steatohepatitis. These findings need to be further evaluated in other animal species as well as in human studies.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dislipidemias/imunologia , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Inflamação/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
4.
J Nutr Biochem ; 64: 182-197, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530258

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome components, including obesity, dyslipidemia and impaired glucose homeostasis, become a major public health issue. Muscles play a predominant role in insulin-mediated glucose uptake, and high fat diets may negatively affect muscle function and homeostasis. This work aimed to study the time-course of muscle lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction and their association to impaired glucose homeostasis in rats fed an obesogenic diet. Male Wistar rats were fed with a standard or a high fat/high fructose (HFHFr) diet and sacrificed on 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 weeks. Rats fed the HFHFr diet developed mild overweight, increased liver and adipose tissue weights and glucose intolerance. The impaired glucose homeostasis increased gradually with the HFHFr diet to become significant on the 12th and 16th weeks of diet. In parallel, the muscle lipid composition showed an increase in the saturated fatty acids and the monounsaturated fatty acids with a marked decrease in the polyunsaturated fatty acids. The HFHFr diet also increased muscle contents of both diacylglycerols and Ceramides. Surprisingly, HFHFr diet did not induce major muscle mitochondrial dysfunction or oxidative stress. These results indicate that muscle lipid alterations, as well as impaired glucose homeostasis occur as early as the 8th week of HFHFr diet, increase to reach a plateau around the 12th-16th weeks of diet, and then attenuate towards the end of study. At these diet treatment durations, muscle mitochondrial activity and oxidative stress remained unchanged and do not seem to have a major role in the observed impaired glucose homeostasis.

5.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(8): 3091-3107, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30392135

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Palm (PO) and olive oils (OO) are the two most consumed and/or used oils in the world for food elaboration. These oils should not be confused with the solid palm stearin which is widely used in pastry making. Large number of studies was reported dealing with adverse/beneficial cardiovascular effects of PO and OO, whereas few studies were conducted to compare their potential effects on hepatic steatosis and liver lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic effects of high intake of POs (both crude and refined) and virgin OO on surrogate parameters of glucose tolerance, hepatic lipid metabolism and liver integrity. METHODS: Thirty-two young male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups and fed either control diet (11% energy from fat) or three high-fat diets rich in crude or refined POs or in OO (56% energy from fat), during 12 weeks. Systemic blood and liver biochemical parameters linked to glucose and lipid metabolism as well as hepatic steatosis and liver fatty acid composition were explored. The inflammation and oxidative stress status as well as the expression of several genes/proteins were also analyzed. RESULTS: The major effects of POs intake concerned glucose metabolism and liver fatty acid composition, whereas the major effects of OO intake concerned hepatic TG accumulation, inflammation, and cytolysis. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, high dietary intake of PO compromises glucose tolerance whereas high dietary intake of OO compromises hepatic lipid composition and liver integrity. However, adverse hepatic effects of OO observed in this study may not be transposed to human since, (a) the rodent model could lead to different effects than those observed in humans and (b) the average normal OO amounts ingested in the population are lower than those corresponding to a high-fat diet. So, further studies are needed to determine a maximum non-invasive dietary intake of OO.

6.
Food Funct ; 9(12): 6165-6178, 2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30431036

RESUMO

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome components, such as obesity, glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis, is rapidly increasing and becoming a major issue of public health. The present work was designed to determine the effects of Spirulina platensis (Sp) algae and silicon-enriched Sp on major metabolic syndrome components in obesogenic diet-fed rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Ten rats were fed a control diet and 30 rats were fed a high fat (HF) diet. The HF groups were divided into three groups and supplemented with placebo or Sp or Si-enriched Sp for 12 weeks. Dietary intake and body weight were recorded. Oral glucose tolerance test and surrogate metabolic syndrome (insulin, leptin, adiponectin and lipids), mitochondrial function (enzymatic activity of respiratory chain complexes and ß-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase), NADPH oxidase activity and several long-established oxidative stress markers were measured in the blood and liver. The HF diet induced obesity, glucose intolerance, hepatic steatosis and huge metabolic alterations, associated with higher NADPH oxidase activity and lower hepatic sulfhydryl group and glutathione contents. Otherwise, the Sp and Sp + Si supplements showed some interesting effects on rat characteristics and particularly on blood and hepatic metabolic parameters. Indeed, the intake of Sp or Sp + Si mainly improved glucose tolerance and decreased the enzymatic activity of hepatic NADPH oxidase. Overall, Si supplementation of spirulina does not appear to have more beneficial effects than spirulina alone. Other experiments with different species of rats/mice, different diets or different durations of diet intake should be undertaken to confirm or invalidate these results.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Silício/metabolismo , Spirulina/metabolismo , Animais , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Obesidade/enzimologia , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Silício/análise , Spirulina/química
7.
Nutrients ; 10(10)2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326655

RESUMO

The development of nutraceutical ingredients has risen as a nutritional solution for health prevention. This study evaluated the effects of Oleactiv®, an ingredient developed for the prevention of atherogenesis, in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Oleactiv® is a polyphenol-rich ingredient obtained from artichoke, olive and grape extracts as part of fruit and vegetables commonly consumed within the Mediterranean diet. A total of 21 Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into three groups. The standard group (STD) was fed a normolipidemic diet for 12 weeks, while the control group (CTRL) and Oleactiv® goup (OLE) were fed a high-fat diet. After sacrifice, the aortic fatty streak area (AFSA), plasmatic total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C), non-HDL-C and triglycerides (TG), were assessed. The cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) of hamster plasma was quantified using a radiolabeled technique in murine macrophages J774. OLE administration induced a significant reduction of AFSA (-69%, p < 0.0001). Hamsters of the OLE group showed a significant decrease of both non-HDL-C (-173 mmol/L, p < 0.05) and TG (-154 mmol/L, p < 0.05). Interestingly, OLE induced a significant increase of total CEC (+17,33%, p < 0,05). Oleactiv® supplementation prevented atheroma development and had positive effects on the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic hamsters. The increased CEC underlines the anti-atherosclerotic mechanism at the root of the atheroma reduction observed.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Colesterol/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Aorta Torácica/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/sangue , Doenças da Aorta/etiologia , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Linhagem Celular , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/etiologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Camundongos , Placa Aterosclerótica , Triglicerídeos/sangue
8.
Br J Nutr ; 119(4): 368-380, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498345

RESUMO

The incidence of obesity and its metabolic complications are rapidly increasing and become a major public health issue. This trend is associated with an increase in the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin resistance and diabetes. The sequence of events leading to NAFLD progression and mitochondrial dysfunction and their interrelation remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to explore the installation and progression of NAFLD and its association with the liver mitochondrial structure and activity changes in rats fed an obesogenic diet up to 20 weeks. Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard or high-fat-high-fructose (HFHFR) diet and killed on 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks of diet intake. Rats fed the HFHFR diet developed mildly overweight, associated with increased adipose tissue weight, hepatic steatosis, hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia after 8 weeks of HFHFR diet. Hepatic steatosis and many biochemical modifications plateaued at 8-12 weeks of HFHFR diet with slight amelioration afterwards. Interestingly, several biochemical and physiological parameters of mitochondrial function, as well as its phospholipid composition, in particular cardiolipin content, were tightly related to hepatic steatosis installation. These results showed once again the interrelation between hepatic steatosis development and mitochondrial activity alterations without being able to say whether the mitochondrial alterations preceded or followed the installation/progression of hepatic steatosis. Because both hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial alterations occurred as early as 4 weeks of diet, future studies should consider these four 1st weeks to reveal the exact interconnection between these major consequences of obesogenic diet intake.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/patologia , Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Variância , Animais , Respiração Celular , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Intolerância à Glucose/diagnóstico , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hiperinsulinismo/etiologia , Lipídeos/análise , Fígado/química , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/química , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/classificação , Fosfolipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
9.
Food Chem ; 252: 49-60, 2018 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478563

RESUMO

This study developed, optimized and validated an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method to identify and quantify metabolites and microbial-derived catabolites in urine, plasma and feces of rats following ingestion of 50 mg of a red wine proanthocyanidin-rich extract. The method was validated for specificity, linearity, limit of detection (LD) and quantification (LQ), intra-day and inter-day precision, recovery and matrix effects, which were determined for 34 compounds in the three biological matrices. After method validation, three parent flavan-3-ols, four 5-carbon side chain ring fission metabolites, and 27 phenolic acid and aromatic catabolites were quantified in plasma, urine and feces after red wine proanthocyanidin intake. These results establish the value of the UHPLC-HRMS protocol in obtaining a detailed picture of proanthocyanidin metabolites and their microbial-derived catabolites, along with their phase II metabolites, in biological fluids of rat, and potentially in human clinical studies designed to evaluate the bioavailability of dietary flavan-3-ols.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fezes/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Vinho/análise , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Flavonoides/sangue , Flavonoides/farmacocinética , Flavonoides/urina , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Ratos
10.
Phytother Res ; 31(11): 1739-1746, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28856749

RESUMO

High-intensity exercises are known to provoke delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Delayed onset muscle soreness typically occurs within the first 24 h, peaks between 24 and 72 h, and can last as long as 5-7 days post-exercise. Delayed onset muscle soreness is a multifactorial process involving both mechanical and biochemical components, associated with clinical features that may limit range of motion, and athletes seek for effective recovery strategies to optimize future training sessions. TensLess® is a food supplement developed to help manage post-exercise recovery. The supplement has been investigated on 13 recreationally active athletes of both sex, during a randomized, double-blind, and crossover clinical investigation, including a 3-week washout period. The clinical investigation was based on the study of TensLess® effects for DOMS management and on the reduction of associated muscle damages following an eccentric exercise protocol. Supplementation with TensLess® induced significant decrease in DOMS perception (-33%; p = 0.008) as of the first 24 h; this was significantly correlated with a lowered release of muscle damage-associated biomarkers, namely myoglobin, creatinine, and creatine kinase, for the whole length of the recovery period. Taken together, these positive results clearly indicate that post-exercise supplementation with TensLess® may preserve myocytes and reduce soreness following eccentric exercise-induced damages, and, accordingly, significantly shorten muscle recovery. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Mialgia/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Atletas , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Mioglobina/sangue , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrients ; 9(4)2017 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28441760

RESUMO

Workout capacity is energy-production driven. To produce peak metabolic power outputs, the organism predominantly relies more on anaerobic metabolism, but this undoubtedly has a negative and limiting impact on muscle function and performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate if an innovative polyphenol-based food supplement, PerfLoad®, was able to improve metabolic homeostasis and physical performance during high-intensity exercises under anaerobic conditions. The effect of a supplementation has been investigated on fifteen recreationally-active male athletes during a randomized, double-blind and crossover clinical investigation. The Wingate test, an inducer of an unbalanced metabolism associated to oxidative stress, was used to assess maximum anaerobic power during a high-intensity exercise on a cycle ergometer. Supplementation with PerfLoad® correlated with a significant increase in total power output (5%), maximal peak power output (3.7%), and average power developed (5%), without inducing more fatigue or greater heart rate. Instead, oxidative homeostasis was stabilized in supplemented subjects. Such results demonstrated that PerfLoad® is a natural and efficient solution capable of, similarly to training benefits, helping athletes to improve their physical performance, while balancing their metabolism and reducing exercise-induced oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Eritropoese/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/química , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrition ; 31(9): 1148-54, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26233874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary silicon-enriched spirulina (SES) on atherosclerosis. METHODS: Hamsters (six per group) on a high-fat (HF) diet received SES or non-enriched spirulina (both at 57 mg/kg body weight) daily. This corresponded to 0.57 mg silicon/kg body weight daily. RESULTS: The HF diet induced dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and vascular dysfunction. Compared with the HF group, SES attenuated increases of lipemia and prevented insulin resistance (IR) (P = 0.001). SES protected against oxidative stress through a reduction of heart (P = 0.006) and liver (P < 0.0001) nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase activity and by sparing the activity of superoxide dismutase (P = 0.0017) and glutathione peroxidase (P = 0.01861). SES decreased inflammation, lowering tumor necrosis factor-α (P = 0.0006) and interleukin-6 levels (P = 0.0112), decreasing polymorphonuclear cells and preventing nuclear factor-κB activity (P = 0.0259). SES corrected plasma level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (P = 0.0380), which was increased by the HF diet. Finally, SES supplementation prevented vascular and endothelial functions assessed respectively by the contractile response to the agonist phenylephrine and the relaxation induced by acetylcholine. CONCLUSION: SES protects against metabolic imbalance, inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular dysfunction induced by an HF diet, and could prevent the atherogenic processes. Synergistic effects between spirulina and silicon were observed.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Resistência à Insulina , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Silício/uso terapêutico , Spirulina , Animais , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores , Cricetinae , Citocinas/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/etiologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Silício/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/farmacologia , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico
13.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 80: 108-113, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25778349

RESUMO

Silicon has beneficial effects especially on bones and skin and is important in cardiovascular pathophysiology. Furthermore, in spontaneously hypertensive rats, it reduces hypertension and increases antihypertensive and antiatherogenic gene expressions in the aorta. Thus, incorporating silicon into spirulina could be a way to produce a bioavailable food supplement. The potential toxic effects of silicon-rich spirulina (SES) through haematological and biochemical parameters and inflammatory and oxidative status were evaluated in rats' blood and liver tissue. The study consisted in a 90-day experiment on female and male rats supplemented with three doses (28.5, 57 and 285 mg/kg BW/day) of SES. No mortality, abnormal clinical signs, behavioural changes or macroscopic findings were observed whatever the groups. Haematological parameters were not modified in SES treated-groups. No marked change was recorded in biochemical parameters The liver endogenous antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, catalase) activities were not modified whatever the gender and the dose, just as markers of oxidative stress (O2°(-), TBARS, thiols) and inflammation such as IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Our findings indicate that dietary supplementation of silicon-rich spirulina on rats has no harmful side nor toxic effects and could be beneficial especially in the case of suspicion or installation of pathologies due to oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Silício/efeitos adversos , Silício/química , Spirulina/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos
14.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 77: 58-63, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25556118

RESUMO

Because of their antimicrobial properties, the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is increasing fast in industry, food, and medicine. In the food industry, nanoparticles are used in packaging to enable better conservation products such as sensors to track their lifetime, and as food additives, such as anti-caking agents and clarifying agents for fruit juices. Nanoemulsions, used to encapsulate, protect and deliver additives are also actively developed. Nanomaterials in foods will be ingested and passed through the digestive tract. Those incorporated in food packaging may also be released unintentionally into food, ending up in the gastrointestinal tract. It is therefore important to make a risk assessment of nanomaterials to the consumer. Thus, exposure to AgNPs is increasing in quantity and it is imperative to know their adverse effects in man. However, controversies still remain with respect to their toxic effects and their mechanisms. Understanding the toxic effects and the interactions of AgNPs with biological systems is necessary to handle these nanoparticles and their use. They usually generate reactive oxygen species resulting in increased pro-inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress via intracellular signalling pathways. Here, we mainly focus on the routes of exposure of AgNPs, toxic effects and the mechanisms underlying the induced toxicity.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Aditivos Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacocinética , Aditivos Alimentares/toxicidade , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Prata/administração & dosagem , Prata/farmacocinética
15.
Metallomics ; 6(12): 2242-9, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25363792

RESUMO

A comprehensive study of the bioavailability of orally administered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out using a rat model. The silver uptake was monitored in liver and kidney tissues, as well as in urine and in feces. Significant accumulation of silver was found in both organs, the liver being the principal target of AgNPs. A significant (∼50%) fraction of silver was found in feces whereas the fraction excreted via urine was negligible (< 0.01%). Intact silver nanoparticles were found in feces by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) coupled with UV-Vis analysis. Laser ablation-ICP MS imaging showed that AgNPs were able to penetrate into the liver, in contrast to kidneys where they were retained in the cortex. Silver speciation analysis in cytosols from kidneys showed the metallothionein complex as the major species whereas in the liver the majority of silver was bound to high-molecular (70-25 kDa) proteins. These findings demonstrate the presence of Ag(i), released by the oxidation of AgNPs in the biological environment.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/análise , Prata/análise , Prata/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Fezes/química , Rim/química , Fígado/química , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Prata/administração & dosagem
16.
Food Chem ; 159: 477-85, 2014 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24767085

RESUMO

ß,ß-Carotene 15-15' mono-oxygenase 1 (BCMO1) is a key enzyme in vitamin A (VitA) metabolism in mammals. Dietary compounds, such as carotenoids and polyphenols, were reported to influence BCMO1 activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hesperidin (Hes), on the VitA bioefficacy of ß-carotene (Bc) from orange-fleshed sweet potato, using Mongolian gerbils, focussing on BCMO1 activity. Gerbils (n=50) depleted in VitA were divided into five groups fed with basal diet containing 3% white- or orange-fleshed sweet potatoes supplemented or not with Hes. Liver BCMO1 activity was low, with no significant differences between groups. Interestingly, intestinal mucosal BCMO1 activity was significantly higher in the gerbils fed without Bc or VitA than those fed with a VitA/Bc-supplemented diet. Finally, our results show that, under a low VitA status, Hes dramatically stimulated intestinal BCMO1 activity, an effect that could possibly be related to its action as an agonist of PPARγ.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Hesperidina/química , Intestinos/enzimologia , Vitamina A/química , beta-Caroteno 15,15'-Mono-Oxigenase/química , Animais , Carotenoides/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Gerbillinae , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Oxigenases , Retinoides/química , beta Caroteno/química
17.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 58(6): 1212-25, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24585438

RESUMO

SCOPE: High-fat (HF) diets contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome. This study was undertaken to investigate the beneficial effects of Vineatrol®-enriched red wines on blood lipids, oxidative stress and inflammation, and the role of some metabolic pathway regulatory proteins. METHODS AND RESULTS: Golden Syrian hamsters received an HF diet for 13 wk, in the presence or absence of red wines supplemented with Vineatrol® (RWV) or not. The HF diet increased plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin, which were attenuated by RWV treatment. RWV protected against the HF-induced increase in liver nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity and spared antioxidant enzyme activities. RWV did not reduce either liver steatosis or increased plasma leptin due to the HF diet, but greatly improved adiponectinemia. In the liver, RWV affected the inflammatory response by decreasing polymorphonuclear cell number and lowering TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Moreover, the increase in NF-κB activity in the HF group liver was prevented by RWV. Finally, RWV partially corrected low SIRT1 levels due to the HF diet but had no influence on SIRT3 or p-AMPK protein levels. CONCLUSION: Our studies suggest that RWV is capable of reversing the atherogenic process induced by an HF diet in hamster tissues.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Vinho/análise , Adiponectina/sangue , Animais , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Cricetinae , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Mesocricetus , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/sangue , Sirtuína 3/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
18.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 65: 254-261, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23792771

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is involved in obesity. However, dietary antioxidants could prevent oxidative stress-induced damage. We have previously shown the preventive effects of a melon superoxide dismutase (SODB) on oxidative stress. However, the mechanism of action of SODB is still unknown. Here, we evaluated the effects of a 1-month curative supplementation with SODB on the liver of obese hamsters. Golden Syrian hamsters received either a standard diet or a cafeteria diet composed of high-fat, high-sugar, and high-salt supermarket products, for 15 weeks. This diet resulted in insulin resistance and in increased oxidative stress in the liver. However, inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α, and NF-κB) were not enhanced and no liver steatosis was detected, although these are usually described in obesity-induced insulin resistance models. After the 1-month supplementation with SODB, body weight and insulin resistance induced by the cafeteria diet were reduced and hepatic oxidative stress was corrected. This could be due to the increased expression of the liver antioxidant defense proteins (manganese and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase). Even though no inflammation was detected in the obese hamsters, inflammatory markers were decreased after SODB supplementation, probably through the reduction of oxidative stress. These findings suggest for the first time that SODB could exert its antioxidant properties by inducing the endogenous antioxidant defense. The mechanisms underlying this induction need to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cucurbitaceae/química , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/farmacologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Cricetinae , Cucurbitaceae/metabolismo , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 60(44): 11029-36, 2012 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23078520

RESUMO

We evaluated the effect of the intake of a grapevine-shoot phenolic extract (Vineatrol 30) on early atherosclerosis in hamsters fed a hyperlipidic diet. Golden Syrian hamsters received for 13 weeks either a standard diet, a high-fat (HF) diet, or the HF diet plus Vineatrol 30 at 0.04, 0.2, or 1.0 mg/(kg body weight/d). We measured plasma lipids and glucose, insulin, leptin and adiponectin, as well as liver TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring plasma paraoxonase activity (PON) and liver superoxide anion production (O(2)(•-)). The aortic fatty streak area (AFSA) was also determined. In comparison with HF group, we demonstrated that the highest dose of Vineatrol 30 was capable of decreasing AFSA (67%), insulinemia (40%), and leptinemia (8.7%), which were increased by the HF diet. We also showed increased O(2)(•-) production (35%) and a rise in levels of the liver proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α (22%) and IL-6 (21%), accompanied by a fall in PON activity (56%) due to the HF diet versus the standard diet. In contrast, except plasma adiponectin levels that are not changed, Vineatrol 30 treatment lowered AFSA (67%), O(2)(•-) production (36%), insulin resistance (42%), leptinemia (9%), liver TNF-α (18%) and IL-6 (15%), while it rose PON activity (29%). These findings demonstrate the preventive effects of polyphenols present in Vineatrol 30 in managing cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory risk factors.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Adiponectina/sangue , Animais , Arildialquilfosfatase/sangue , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Glicemia/análise , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Insulina/sangue , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Estresse Oxidativo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
20.
Free Radic Res ; 46(9): 1140-9, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22607117

RESUMO

This study explored major systems of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and their consequences on oxidative stress, mitochondriogenesis and muscle metabolism in aged rats, and evaluated the efficiency of 30-day oral supplementation with a moderate dose of a red grape polyphenol extract (RGPE) on these parameters. In the liver of aged rats, NADPH oxidase activity was increased and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities were altered, while xanthine oxidase activity remained unchanged. In muscles, only mitochondrial activity was modified with aging. The oral intake of RGPE decreased liver NADPH oxidase activity in the aged rats without affecting global oxidative stress, suggesting that NADPH oxidase was probably not the dominant detrimental source of production of O(2)·(-) in the liver. Interestingly, RGPE supplementation increased mitochondrial biogenesis and improved antioxidant status in the gastrocnemius of aged rats, while it had no significant effect in soleus. RGPE supplementation also decreased age-dependent autophagy in gastrocnemius of aged rats. These results extended existing findings on the beneficial effects of RGPE on mitochondriogenesis and muscle metabolism in aged rats.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Musculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , NADPH Oxidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dieta , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Vitis/química
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