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1.
Chemosphere ; : 132551, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655645

RESUMO

Biochar has widely been utilized as an agricultural soil amendment owing to its enhanced surface properties and cost-effectiveness. In the present work, the influence of tea waste biochar (TWBC) upon acid modification on Allium cepa L. (red onion) growth has been studied. Its effect as a soil amendment has also been studied by assessing the nutrient retention, microbial population growth and immobilization of potentially toxic metal ions. A greenhouse experiment was carried out by applying different biochar (BC) ratios (2% and 5% w/w) to soil as the growth media for onion plants. A 2.4 times (2.4 × ) reduction of phosphate from leaching was observed upon BC application at a ratio of 2% than that of 5%. Moreover, red onion plants that grew in the BC-fertilizer amended soil at a 2% ratio showed higher growth compared to that of 5%. A ∼1.3 × and ∼1.2 × increment of total dry weight was observed upon amendment of soil fertilizer system with nitric and sulfuric acid-modified TWBC, respectively. An analysis of the potentially toxic metal ion uptake by the respective plant parts showed that lead uptake by the roots of red onion was ∼8.3 × less in BC amended soil compared to that in contaminated soil. Thus, acid-modified TWBC can be considered a potential soil amendment for an enhanced red onion growth. Employing TWBC as a soil amendment in tropical countries, where tea-waste is in abundance, will boost sustainable agriculture.

2.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(12)2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321878

RESUMO

Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth and development during the pre-and post-flowering stages are susceptible to high temperature and drought. We report the field-based characterization of multiple morpho-physiological and reproductive stress resilience traits in 11 interspecific chromosome substitution (CS) lines isogenic to each other and the inbred G. hirsutum line TM-1. Significant genetic variability was detected (p < 0.001) in multiple traits in CS lines carrying chromosomes and chromosome segments from CS-B (G. barbadense) and CS-T (G. tomentosum). Line CS-T15sh had a positive effect on photosynthesis (13%), stomatal conductance (33%), and transpiration (24%), and a canopy 6.8 °C cooler than TM-1. The average pollen germination was approximately 8% greater among the CS-B than CS-T lines. Based on the stress response index, three CS lines are identified as heat- and drought-tolerant (CS-T07, CS-B15sh, and CS-B18). The three lines demonstrated enhanced photosynthesis (14%), stomatal conductance (29%), transpiration (13%), and pollen germination (23.6%) compared to TM-1 under field conditions, i.e., traits that would expectedly enhance performance in stressful environments. The generated phenotypic data and stress-tolerance indices on novel CS lines, along with phenotypic methods, would help in developing new cultivars with improved resilience to the effects of global warming.

3.
Funct Integr Genomics ; 19(1): 171-190, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244303

RESUMO

Elevated CO2 along with drought is a serious global threat to crop productivity. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms plants use to protect these stresses is the key for plant growth and development. In this study, we mimicked natural stress conditions under a controlled Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Research (SPAR) system and provided the evidence for how miRNAs regulate target genes under elevated CO2 and drought conditions. Significant physiological and biomass data supported the effective utilization of source-sink (leaf to root) under elevated CO2. Additionally, elevated CO2 partially rescued the effect of drought on total biomass. We identified both known and novel miRNAs differentially expressed during drought, CO2, and combined stress, along with putative targets. A total of 32 conserved miRNAs belonged to 23 miRNA families, and 25 novel miRNAs were identified by deep sequencing. Using the existing sweet potato genome database and stringent analyses, a total of 42 and 22 potential target genes were predicted for the conserved and novel miRNAs, respectively. These target genes are involved in drought response, hormone signaling, photosynthesis, carbon fixation, sucrose and starch metabolism, etc. Gene ontology and KEGG ontology functional enrichment revealed that these miRNAs might target transcription factors (MYB, TCP, NAC), hormone signaling regulators (ARF, AP2/ERF), cold and drought factors (corA), carbon metabolism (ATP synthase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate), and photosynthesis (photosystem I and II complex units). Our study is the first report identifying targets of miRNAs under elevated CO2 levels and could support the molecular mechanisms under elevated CO2 in sweet potato and other crops in the future.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Ipomoea batatas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Biomassa , Ciclo do Carbono/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Ontologia Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fotossíntese/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
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