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1.
Pharmacol Ther ; 200: 55-68, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998941

RESUMO

In most (if not all) solid tumors, malignant cells are outnumbered by their non-malignant counterparts, including immune, endothelial and stromal cells. However, while the mechanisms whereby cancer cells adapt to microenvironmental perturbations have been studied in great detail, relatively little is known on stress responses in non-malignant compartments of the tumor microenvironment. Here, we discuss the mechanisms whereby cancer-associated fibroblasts and other cellular components of the tumor stroma react to stress in the context of an intimate crosstalk with malignant, endothelial and immune cells, and how such crosstalk influences disease progression and response to treatment.

2.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208914, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients who leave Emergency Department before physician's visit (LWBS) or during treatment (LDT) represent a useful indicator of the emergency care's quality. The profile of patients LWBS was described: they are generally males, young, with lower urgency triage allocation and longer waiting time. They have a greater risk of ED re-admission compared to discharged patients, but effect on hospitalization and mortality are more controversial. The aims of this study are to identify determinants and adverse short term outcomes for LWBS and LDT patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study that include all ED visits of LWBS, LDT and discharged patients in 2015 in the Lazio region, Central Italy. Determinants of LWBS or LDT were selected from gender, age, citizenship, residence area, triage category, chronic comorbidities, number of uncompleted ED visit in the previous year, mode of arrival in ED, time-band, day of the week, waiting time and ED crowding, using a multi-level logistic regression. A multivariate logistic regression was used to test if LWBS or LDT have a greater risk of short term adverse outcome compared to discharged patients. RESULTS: The cohort consists in 835,440 visits in ED, 86.8% subjects visited and discharged, 8.9% subjects are LWBS patients and 4.3% LDT. LWBS and LDT patients are mainly young, males, with a less severe triage, with long waiting times in ED. Moreover, ED crowding and leaving ED before physician's visit in the previous year are risk factors of self-discharging. LWBS and LDT patients have a higher risk of readmission (LWBS: OR = 4.63, 95%CI 4.5-4.7; OR = 2.89, 95%CI 2.8-2.9; LDT: OR = 3.12, 95%CI 3-3.2; OR = 2.25, 95%CI2.2-2.3 for readmissions within 2 and 7 days respectively) and hospitalization (LWBS: OR = 3.65, 95%CI 3.4-3.9; OR = 2.25, 95%CI 2.1-2.4; LDT: OR = 3.96, 95%CI 3.6-4.3; OR = 2.62, 95%CI 2.4-2.8 for hospitalization within 2 and 7 days respectively). Furthermore, we find a mortality excess of risk for LWBS patients compared to the reference group (OR = 2.56, 95%CI1.6-4.2; OR = 1.7, 95%CI 1.3-2.2 within 2 and 7 days respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Determinants of LWBS confirmed what already known, but LDT patients should be further investigated. There could be adverse health effects for people with LWBS and LDT behaviour. This could be an issue that the Regional Health System should deal with.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes/psicologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Aglomeração , Tratamento de Emergência/psicologia , Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/psicologia , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Triagem/métodos , Listas de Espera , Adulto Jovem
3.
Environ Int ; 120: 163-171, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096610

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous analysis from the large European multicentre ESCAPE study showed an association of ambient particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) air pollution exposure at residence with the incidence of gastric cancer. It is unclear which components of PM are most relevant for gastric and also upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer and some of them may not be strongly correlated with PM mass. We evaluated the association between long-term exposure to elemental components of PM2.5 and PM10 and gastric and UADT cancer incidence in European adults. METHODS: Baseline addresses of individuals were geocoded and exposure was assessed by land-use regression models for copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) representing non-tailpipe traffic emissions; sulphur (S) indicating long-range transport; nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) for mixed oil-burning and industry; silicon (Si) for crustal material and potassium (K) for biomass burning. Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders were used for cohort-specific analyses. Combined estimates were determined with random effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Ten cohorts in six countries contributed data on 227,044 individuals with an average follow-up of 14.9 years with 633 incident cases of gastric cancer and 763 of UADT cancer. The combined hazard ratio (HR) for an increase of 200 ng/m3 of PM2.5_S was 1.92 (95%-confidence interval (95%-CI) 1.13;3.27) for gastric cancer, with no indication of heterogeneity between cohorts (I2 = 0%), and 1.63 (95%-CI 0.88;3.01) for PM2.5_Zn (I2 = 70%). For the other elements in PM2.5 and all elements in PM10 including PM10_S, non-significant HRs between 0.78 and 1.21 with mostly wide CIs were seen. No association was found between any of the elements and UADT cancer. The HR for PM2.5_S and gastric cancer was robust to adjustment for additional factors, including diet, and restriction to study participants with stable addresses over follow-up resulted in slightly higher effect estimates with a decrease in precision. In a two-pollutant model, the effect estimate for total PM2.5 decreased whereas that for PM2.5_S was robust. CONCLUSION: This large multicentre cohort study shows a robust association between gastric cancer and long-term exposure to PM2.5_S but not PM10_S, suggesting that S in PM2.5 or correlated air pollutants may contribute to the risk of gastric cancer.

4.
Environ Int ; 119: 334-345, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29990954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence indicates common risk factors, including air pollution exposure, for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, suggesting the involvement of common altered molecular pathways. OBJECTIVES: The goal was to find intermediate metabolites or metabolic pathways that could be associated with both air pollutants and health outcomes ("meeting-in-the-middle"), thus shedding light on mechanisms and reinforcing causality. METHODS: We applied a statistical approach named 'meet-in-the-middle' to untargeted metabolomics in two independent case-control studies nested in cohorts on adult-onset asthma (AOA) and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CCVD). We compared the results to identify both common and disease-specific altered metabolic pathways. RESULTS: A novel finding was a strong association of AOA with ultrafine particles (UFP; odds ratio 1.80 [1.26, 2.55] per increase by 5000 particles/cm3). Further, we have identified several metabolic pathways that potentially mediate the effect of air pollution on health outcomes. Among those, perturbation of Linoleate metabolism pathway was associated with air pollution exposure, AOA and CCVD. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest common pathway perturbations may occur as a consequence of chronic exposure to air pollution leading to increased risk for both AOA and CCVD.

5.
Int J Eat Disord ; 51(8): 842-851, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29722053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates associations of maternal eating disorders (bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, and purging behaviors) with infant wheezing and examines the effects of eating disorders on several wheezing determinants. METHOD: We studied 5,150 singletons from the NINFEA birth cohort. Maternal bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa diagnoses were ascertained from the questionnaires completed in pregnancy and 6 months after delivery, and were analyzed as: ever diagnosis, only before pregnancy, and during pregnancy. Purging behaviors were assessed for 12 months before or during pregnancy. The associations with wheezing between 6 and 18 months of age were assessed in models adjusted for a priori selected confounders. RESULTS: Children born to mothers with lifetime eating disorders were at an increased risk of developing wheezing (adjusted OR 1.68; [95% CI: 1.08, 2.60]), and this risk further increased when the disorders were active during pregnancy (2.52 [1.23, 5.19]). Increased risk of offspring wheezing was observed also for purging behaviors without history of eating disorder diagnosis (1.50 [1.10, 2.04]). The observed associations were not explained by comorbid depression and/or anxiety. Bulimia nervosa and/or anorexia nervosa during pregnancy were also associated with several risk factors for wheezing, including maternal smoking, adverse pregnancy outcomes, shorter breastfeeding duration, and day-care attendance. DISCUSSION: The associations of maternal eating disorders with offspring wheezing suggest long-term adverse respiratory outcomes in children of mothers with eating disorders. A better understanding of mechanisms implicated is necessary to help reduce the respiratory disease burden in these children.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696642

RESUMO

Air pollution has been classified as carcinogenic to humans. However, to date little is known about the relevance for cancers of the stomach and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). We investigated the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with incidence of gastric and UADT cancer in 11 European cohorts. Air pollution exposure was assigned by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM) below 10 µm (PM10 ), below 2.5 µm (PM2.5 ), between 2.5 and 10 µm (PMcoarse ), PM2.5 absorbance and nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOX ) as well as approximated by traffic indicators. Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders were used for cohort-specific analyses. Combined estimates were determined with random effects meta-analyses. During average follow-up of 14.1 years of 305,551 individuals, 744 incident cases of gastric cancer and 933 of UADT cancer occurred. The hazard ratio for an increase of 5 µg/m3 of PM2.5 was 1.38 (95% CI 0.99; 1.92) for gastric and 1.05 (95% CI 0.62; 1.77) for UADT cancers. No associations were found for any of the other exposures considered. Adjustment for additional confounders and restriction to study participants with stable addresses did not influence markedly the effect estimate for PM2.5 and gastric cancer. Higher estimated risks of gastric cancer associated with PM2.5 was found in men (HR 1.98 [1.30; 3.01]) as compared to women (HR 0.85 [0.5; 1.45]). This large multicentre cohort study shows an association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and gastric cancer, but not UADT cancers, suggesting that air pollution may contribute to gastric cancer risk.

7.
Neuro Oncol ; 20(3): 420-432, 2018 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016987

RESUMO

Background: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and brain tumor risk is sparse and inconsistent. Methods: In 12 cohorts from 6 European countries, individual estimates of annual mean air pollution levels at the baseline residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5, ≤10, and 2.5-10 µm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse), PM2.5 absorbance, nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx) and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations of air pollutant concentrations and traffic intensity with total, malignant, and nonmalignant brain tumor, in separate Cox regression models, adjusting for risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses. Results: Of 282194 subjects from 12 cohorts, 466 developed malignant brain tumors during 12 years of follow-up. Six of the cohorts also had data on nonmalignant brain tumor, where among 106786 subjects, 366 developed brain tumor: 176 nonmalignant and 190 malignant. We found a positive, statistically nonsignificant association between malignant brain tumor and PM2.5 absorbance (hazard ratio and 95% CI: 1.67; 0.89-3.14 per 10-5/m3), and weak positive or null associations with the other pollutants. Hazard ratio for PM2.5 absorbance (1.01; 0.38-2.71 per 10-5/m3) and all other pollutants were lower for nonmalignant than for malignant brain tumors. Conclusion: We found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 absorbance indicating traffic-related air pollution and malignant brain tumors, and no association with overall or nonmalignant brain tumors.

8.
Environ Res ; 160: 247-255, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29031214

RESUMO

Oxidative potential (OP) of particulate matter (PM) is proposed as a biologically-relevant exposure metric for studies of air pollution and health. We aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of the OP of measured PM2.5 using ascorbate (AA) and (reduced) glutathione (GSH), and develop land use regression (LUR) models to explain this spatial variability. We estimated annual average values (m-3) of OPAA and OPGSH for five areas (Basel, CH; Catalonia, ES; London-Oxford, UK (no OPGSH); the Netherlands; and Turin, IT) using PM2.5 filters. OPAA and OPGSH LUR models were developed using all monitoring sites, separately for each area and combined-areas. The same variables were then used in repeated sub-sampling of monitoring sites to test sensitivity of variable selection; new variables were offered where variables were excluded (p > .1). On average, measurements of OPAA and OPGSH were moderately correlated (maximum Pearson's maximum Pearson's R = = .7) with PM2.5 and other metrics (PM2.5absorbance, NO2, Cu, Fe). HOV (hold-out validation) R2 for OPAA models was .21, .58, .45, .53, and .13 for Basel, Catalonia, London-Oxford, the Netherlands and Turin respectively. For OPGSH, the only model achieving at least moderate performance was for the Netherlands (R2 = .31). Combined models for OPAA and OPGSH were largely explained by study area with weak local predictors of intra-area contrasts; we therefore do not endorse them for use in epidemiologic studies. Given the moderate correlation of OPAA with other pollutants, the three reasonably performing LUR models for OPAA could be used independently of other pollutant metrics in epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Modelos Teóricos , Material Particulado/análise , Meio Ambiente , Europa (Continente) , Oxirredução , Análise de Regressão
9.
Eur Urol Focus ; 4(1): 113-120, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28753823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution contains low concentrations of carcinogens implicated in the etiology of urinary bladder cancer (BC). Little is known about whether exposure to air pollution influences BC in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and BC incidence. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We obtained data from 15 population-based cohorts enrolled between 1985 and 2005 in eight European countries (N=303431; mean follow-up 14.1 yr). We estimated exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx), particulate matter (PM) with diameter <10µm (PM10), <2.5µm (PM2.5), between 2.5 and 10µm (PM2.5-10), PM2.5absorbance (soot), elemental constituents of PM, organic carbon, and traffic density at baseline home addresses using standardized land-use regression models from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects project. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We used Cox proportional-hazards models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and meta-analyses to estimate summary hazard ratios (HRs) for BC incidence. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: During follow-up, 943 incident BC cases were diagnosed. In the meta-analysis, none of the exposures were associated with BC risk. The summary HRs associated with a 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2 and 5-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 were 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-1.08) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.63-1.18), respectively. Limitations include the lack of information about lifetime exposure. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of an association between exposure to outdoor air pollution levels at place of residence and risk of BC. PATIENT SUMMARY: We assessed the link between outdoor air pollution at place of residence and bladder cancer using the largest study population to date and extensive assessment of exposure and comprehensive data on personal risk factors such as smoking. We found no association between the levels of outdoor air pollution at place of residence and bladder cancer risk.

10.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 59(3): 234-246, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29114965

RESUMO

Air pollution is associated with a broad range of adverse health effects, including mortality and morbidity due to cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases (CCVD), but the molecular mechanisms involved are not entirely understood. This study aims to investigate the involvement of oxidative stress and inflammation in the causal chain, and to identify intermediate biomarkers that are associated retrospectively with the exposure and prospectively with the disease. We designed a case-control study on CCVD nested in a cohort of 18,982 individuals from the EPIC-Italy study. We measured air pollution, inflammatory biomarkers, and whole-genome DNA methylation in blood collected up to 17 years before the diagnosis. The study sample includes all the incident CCVD cases among former- and never-smokers, with available stored blood sample, that arose in the cohort during the follow-up. We identified enrichment of altered DNA methylation in "ROS/Glutathione/Cytotoxic granules" and "Cytokine signaling" pathways related genes, associated with both air pollution (multiple comparisons adjusted p for enrichment ranging from 0.01 to 0.03 depending on pollutant) and with CCVD risk (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03, respectively). Also, Interleukin-17 was associated with higher exposure to NO2 (P = 0.0004), NOx (P = 0.0005), and CCVD risk (OR = 1.79; CI 1.04-3.11; P = 0.04 comparing extreme tertiles). Our findings indicate that chronic exposure to air pollution can lead to oxidative stress, which in turn activates a cascade of inflammatory responses mainly involving the "Cytokine signaling" pathway, leading to increased risk of CCVD. Inflammatory proteins and DNA methylation alterations can be detected several years before CCVD diagnosis in blood samples, being promising preclinical biomarkers. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:234-246, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/complicações , Estresse Oxidativo , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Inflamação/metabolismo , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar
11.
Environ Health Perspect ; 125(10): 107005, 2017 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29033383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and breast cancer risk is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women. METHODS: In 15 cohorts from nine European countries, individual estimates of air pollution levels at the residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts ­ Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Matter (TRANSPHORM) projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5µm, ≤10µm, and 2.5­10µm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse, respectively); PM2.5 absorbance; nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); traffic intensity; and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations between breast cancer and air pollutants using Cox regression models, adjusting for major lifestyle risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Of 74,750 postmenopausal women included in the study, 3,612 developed breast cancer during 991,353 person-years of follow-up. We found positive and statistically insignificant associations between breast cancer and PM2.5 {hazard ratio (HR)=1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 1.51] per 5 µg/m3}, PM10 [1.07 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.30) per 10 µg/m3], PMcoarse[1.20 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.49 per 5 µg/m3], and NO2 [1.02 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.07 per 10 µg/m3], and a statistically significant association with NOx [1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) per 20 µg/m3, p=0.04]. CONCLUSIONS: We found suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1742.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 52(2): 339-345, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28459956

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNC) is a rare tumour characterized by aggressive biological behaviour and poor prognosis. Due to its rarity and the lack of randomized clinical trials, the best treatment is still under debate. Some recent reports indicate that adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) may have a beneficial effect on survival. Our goal was to evaluate this finding using a large series of patients with neuroendocrine tumours obtained from the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons database. METHODS: Data for 400 patients with LCNC operated on in 14 thoracic surgery institutions worldwide between 1992 and 2014 were collected retrospectively. Overall survival was the primary endpoint; we used a multivariable Cox regression model to evaluate which clinical variables may influence patient outcomes; we also focused on the possible prognostic role of adjuvant CT. A propensity score (PS) analysis using the inverse probability of treatment weighting was also carried out. RESULTS: The 3- and 5-year survival rates were 54.1% and 45%, respectively. With the multivariable model, we found that increasing age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status ≥2 and advanced TNM stage were indicators of poor prognosis. Weak evidence of a higher overall survival in patients receiving adjuvant CT (adjusted hazard ratio 0.73; 95% confidence interval: 0.56-0.96, P = 0.022) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: A trend towards benefit from adjuvant CT has been observed in patients with LCNC. Although surgical procedures remain the mainstay of curative options, combination with other treatments (e.g. neoadjuvant CT/radiotherapy) should be evaluated by future studies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Grandes , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/terapia , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/mortalidade , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/terapia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Am J Epidemiol ; 185(6): 465-473, 2017 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28399567

RESUMO

Evidence on the association between mode of delivery and asthma at school age is inconclusive. We assessed the associations between specific modes of delivery and asthma in children from 9 European birth cohorts that enrolled participants between 1996 and 2006. Cohort-specific crude and adjusted risk ratios for asthma at ages 5-9 years were calculated using Poisson regression models and pooled. A sensitivity analysis was carried out in children born at term to reduce confounding due to perinatal factors. The study included 67,613 participants. Cohort-specific rates of cesarean delivery varied from 9.4% to 37.5%. Cesarean delivery, as opposed to vaginal delivery, was associated with an increased risk of asthma (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.46). Compared with spontaneous vaginal delivery, the adjusted risk ratio was 1.33 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.75) for elective cesarean delivery, 1.07 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.22) for emergency cesarean delivery, and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.12) for operative vaginal delivery. In children born at term, the associations were strengthened only for elective cesarean delivery (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.97). The large sample size allowed analysis of the associations between specific modes of delivery and asthma at school age. The increased risk of asthma associated with elective cesarean delivery, especially among children born at term, is relevant in counteracting the increasing use of this procedure, which is often performed without a clear medical indication.


Assuntos
Asma/etiologia , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Asma/epidemiologia , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Distribuição de Poisson , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Nascimento a Termo
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(6): 3336-3345, 2017 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28244744

RESUMO

Long-term ultrafine particle (UFP) exposure estimates at a fine spatial scale are needed for epidemiological studies. Land use regression (LUR) models were developed and evaluated for six European areas based on repeated 30 min monitoring following standardized protocols. In each area; Basel (Switzerland), Heraklion (Greece), Amsterdam, Maastricht, and Utrecht ("The Netherlands"), Norwich (United Kingdom), Sabadell (Spain), and Turin (Italy), 160-240 sites were monitored to develop LUR models by supervised stepwise selection of GIS predictors. For each area and all areas combined, 10 models were developed in stratified random selections of 90% of sites. UFP prediction robustness was evaluated with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) at 31-50 external sites per area. Models from Basel and The Netherlands were validated against repeated 24 h outdoor measurements. Structure and model R2 of local models were similar within, but varied between areas (e.g., 38-43% Turin; 25-31% Sabadell). Robustness of predictions within areas was high (ICC 0.73-0.98). External validation R2 was 53% in Basel and 50% in The Netherlands. Combined area models were robust (ICC 0.93-1.00) and explained UFP variation almost equally well as local models. In conclusion, robust UFP LUR models could be developed on short-term monitoring, explaining around 50% of spatial variance in longer-term measurements.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Material Particulado , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Modelos Teóricos
15.
Environ Res ; 154: 226-233, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke exposure increases the risk of cancer in the liver, but little is known about the possible risk associated with exposure to ambient air pollution. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association between residential exposure to air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence. METHODS: We obtained data from four cohorts with enrolment during 1985-2005 in Denmark, Austria and Italy. Exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOX), particulate matter (PM) with diameter of less than 10µm (PM10), less than 2.5µm (PM2.5), between 2.5 and 10µm (PM2.5-10) and PM2.5 absorbance (soot) at baseline home addresses were estimated using land-use regression models from the ESCAPE project. We also investigated traffic density on the nearest road. We used Cox proportional-hazards models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random-effects meta-analyses to estimate summary hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Out of 174,770 included participants, 279 liver cancer cases were diagnosed during a mean follow-up of 17 years. In each cohort, HRs above one were observed for all exposures with exception of PM2.5 absorbance and traffic density. In the meta-analysis, all exposures were associated with elevated HRs, but none of the associations reached statistical significance. The summary HR associated with a 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2 was 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 1.30) and 1.34 (95% CI: 0.76, 2.35) for a 5-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide suggestive evidence that ambient air pollution may increase the risk of liver cancer. Confidence intervals for associations with NO2 and NOX were narrower than for the other exposures.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Áustria/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
16.
Int J Cancer ; 140(7): 1528-1537, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28006861

RESUMO

Several studies have indicated weakly increased risk for kidney cancer among occupational groups exposed to gasoline vapors, engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other air pollutants, although not consistently. It was the aim to investigate possible associations between outdoor air pollution at the residence and the incidence of kidney parenchyma cancer in the general population. We used data from 14 European cohorts from the ESCAPE study. We geocoded and assessed air pollution concentrations at baseline addresses by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM10 , PM2.5 , PMcoarse , PM2.5 absorbance (soot)) and nitrogen oxides (NO2 , NOx ), and collected data on traffic. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effects models for meta-analyses to calculate summary hazard ratios (HRs). The 289,002 cohort members contributed 4,111,908 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean 14.2 years) 697 incident cancers of the kidney parenchyma were diagnosed. The meta-analyses showed higher HRs in association with higher PM concentration, e.g. HR = 1.57 (95%CI: 0.81-3.01) per 5 µg/m3 PM2.5 and HR = 1.36 (95%CI: 0.84-2.19) per 10-5 m-1 PM2.5 absorbance, albeit never statistically significant. The HRs in association with nitrogen oxides and traffic density on the nearest street were slightly above one. Sensitivity analyses among participants who did not change residence during follow-up showed stronger associations, but none were statistically significant. Our study provides suggestive evidence that exposure to outdoor PM at the residence may be associated with higher risk for kidney parenchyma cancer; the results should be interpreted cautiously as associations may be due to chance.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gasolina , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado , Fatores de Risco , Emissões de Veículos
17.
Thorax ; 71(12): 1091-1096, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27369356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid postnatal weight gain has been associated with wheezing and asthma in children, but it remains unclear whether it acts independently of overweight. We aimed to disentangle the roles of infant's size and weight gain velocity in the development of wheezing in early childhood using a novel method that allows for mutual adjustment for different aspects of growth. METHODS: Data were obtained from the NINFEA questionnaires where weight measurements from birth up to 18 months of age were assessed in 4492 term singletons. Wheezing was defined as at least one episode of wheezing/whistling in the chest occurring between 6 and 18 months of age. The SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation model was used to estimate individual weight trajectories defined by three child-specific parameters: size, velocity and tempo, that is age at peak weight velocity. These parameters were standardised and related to wheezing using logistic regression with effects expressed as an increase of one SD. RESULTS: A median of five weight measurements per child were obtained. Infant size (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.46) and weight gain velocity (OR=1.30; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.48) were independently positively associated with wheezing. We found no evidence of an effect of tempo on infant wheezing. The estimates were changed only minimally after adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Faster growth and larger size in the first 18 months of life are both independently associated with an increased risk of wheezing. These findings suggest that early growth patterns play a role in shaping the occurrence of wheezing.


Assuntos
Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Antropometria/métodos , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sons Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Environ Res ; 151: 1-10, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27447442

RESUMO

Satellite-derived (SAT) and chemical transport model (CTM) estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 are increasingly used in combination with Land Use Regression (LUR) models. We aimed to compare the contribution of SAT and CTM data to the performance of LUR PM2.5 and NO2 models for Europe. Four sets of models, all including local traffic and land use variables, were compared (LUR without SAT or CTM, with SAT only, with CTM only, and with both SAT and CTM). LUR models were developed using two monitoring data sets: PM2.5 and NO2 ground level measurements from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and from the European AIRBASE network. LUR PM2.5 models including SAT and SAT+CTM explained ~60% of spatial variation in measured PM2.5 concentrations, substantially more than the LUR model without SAT and CTM (adjR2: 0.33-0.38). For NO2 CTM improved prediction modestly (adjR2: 0.58) compared to models without SAT and CTM (adjR2: 0.47-0.51). Both monitoring networks are capable of producing models explaining the spatial variance over a large study area. SAT and CTM estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 significantly improved the performance of high spatial resolution LUR models at the European scale for use in large epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Movimentos do Ar , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Análise de Regressão , Comunicações Via Satélite
19.
Eur Respir J ; 47(3): 810-7, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26647436

RESUMO

The role of prenatal antibiotic exposure in the development of childhood wheezing is debated. We evaluated whether this association could potentially be explained by confounding factors.Antibiotic use in the first and third trimester of pregnancy, wheezing in children aged ≤18 months and confounding factors were assessed in singletons participating in the NINFEA (Nascita e Infanzia: gli Effetti dell'Ambiente) birth cohort (n=3530 for first-trimester exposure and n=3985 for third-trimester exposure).There was no evidence of an association between antibiotic exposure in the first trimester of pregnancy and ever-wheezing (adjusted risk ratio (RR) 1.02, 95% CI 0.80-1.30) or recurrent wheezing (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.54-1.82). For the third-trimester exposure, the crude RRs (95% CI) of ever-wheezing and recurrent wheezing were 1.34 (1.10-1.64) and 2.72 (1.80-4.11), respectively, which decreased to 1.12 (0.90-1.39) and 2.09 (1.32-3.29) after adjustment. The RRs of wheezing after genitourinary infections during pregnancy were increased independently of antibiotic treatment.In conclusion, the association between prenatal antibiotic exposure and infant wheezing could be largely explained by confounding factors, in particular respiratory infections during pregnancy. An excess risk of wheezing after antibiotic exposure during the third trimester of pregnancy remains after adjustment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Environ Int ; 84: 181-92, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26342569

RESUMO

An increasing number of epidemiological studies suggest that adverse health effects of air pollution may be related to particulate matter (PM) composition, particularly trace metals. However, we lack comprehensive data on the spatial distribution of these elements. We measured PM2.5 and PM10 in twenty study areas across Europe in three seasonal two-week periods over a year using Harvard impactors and standardized protocols. In each area, we selected street (ST), urban (UB) and regional background (RB) sites (totaling 20) to characterize local spatial variability. Elemental composition was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of all PM2.5 and PM10 filters. We selected a priori eight (Cu, Fe, K, Ni, S, Si, V, Zn) well-detected elements of health interest, which also roughly represented different sources including traffic, industry, ports, and wood burning. PM elemental composition varied greatly across Europe, indicating different regional influences. Average street to urban background ratios ranged from 0.90 (V) to 1.60 (Cu) for PM2.5 and from 0.93 (V) to 2.28 (Cu) for PM10. Our selected PM elements were variably correlated with the main pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, PM2.5 absorbance, NO2 and NOx) across Europe: in general, Cu and Fe in all size fractions were highly correlated (Pearson correlations above 0.75); Si and Zn in the coarse fractions were modestly correlated (between 0.5 and 0.75); and the remaining elements in the various size fractions had lower correlations (around 0.5 or below). This variability in correlation demonstrated the distinctly different spatial distributions of most of the elements. Variability of PM10_Cu and Fe was mostly due to within-study area differences (67% and 64% of overall variance, respectively) versus between-study area and exceeded that of most other traffic-related pollutants, including NO2 and soot, signaling the importance of non-tailpipe (e.g., brake wear) emissions in PM.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Análise de Variância , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Espectrometria por Raios X
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