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1.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51937

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. Mexico’s 2018 Report Card evaluates the opportunities available for Mexican children and youth to reach healthy levels of physical activity, sleep, and sedentary behavior. Methods. The Report Card is a surveillance system that gathers data from national surveys, censuses, government documents, websites, grey literature, and published studies to evaluate 16 indicators in four categories: Daily Behaviors; Physical Fitness; Settings and Sources of Influence; and Strategies and Investments. Data were compared to established benchmarks. Each indicator was assigned a grade from 1 – 10 (< 6 is a failing grade) or “incomplete” if data was insufficient/unavailable. Results. Daily Behavior grades were: Overall Physical Activity, 4; Organized Sport Participation, 5; Active Play, 3; Active Transportation, 5; Sleep, 7; and Sedentary Behavior, 3. Physical Fitness, received a 7. Settings and Sources of Influence grades were: Family and Peers, incomplete; School, 3; and Community and Environment, 4. Strategies and Investments were: Government Strategies, 6; and Non-Government Organizations, 2. Conclusion. Low grades in 11 of the 16 indicators indicate that schools, families, communities, and government need to work together to improve physical activity opportunities for children and youth in Mexico.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. El boletín de notas de México correspondiente al 2018 evalúa las oportunidades a disposición de la población infantil y joven mexicana para que puedan desarrollar niveles adecuados de actividad física y sueño, y disminuyan el sedentarismo. Métodos. El boletín es un sistema de vigilancia que recopila los datos obtenidos en las encuestas nacionales, censos, documentos gubernamentales, sitios web, literatura gris y estudios publicados con respecto al análisis de 16 indicadores en 4 categorías: comportamientos diarios, estado físico, entornos y fuentes influyentes, y estrategias e inversión. Los datos fueron cotejados con los puntos de referencia establecidos. A cada indicador se le asignó una calificación entre 1 y 10 (< 6 significa reprobado) o fue marcado como “incompleto” si los datos eran nulos o insuficientes. Resultados. Las calificaciones obtenidas para los comportamientos diarios fueron: actividad física en general: 4; participación en actividades deportivas organizadas: 5; juego activo: 3; modalidades de transporte activas: 5; sueño: 7; y sedentarismo: 3. El estado físico obtuvo un 7. Las calificaciones para los entornos y fuentes influyentes fueron: familiares y pares: “incompleto”; escuela: 3; comunidad y entorno: 4. Para las estrategias e inversión: estrategias gubernamentales: 6; entidades no gubernamentales: 2. Conclusiones. Las bajas calificaciones obtenidas en 11 de los 16 indicadores demuestran que las escuelas, las familias, las comunidades y el gobierno tienen que aunar esfuerzos para mejorar las oportunidades que tiene la población infantil y joven en México para desarrollar niveles de actividad física satisfactorios.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. O Report Card de 2018 para o México avalia as oportunidades disponíveis para que crianças e jovens mexicanos atinjam níveis adequados de atividade física, sono e comportamento sedentário. Métodos. O Report Card é um sistema de vigilância que reúne dados de pesquisas nacionais, censos, documentos governamentais, websites, literatura cinzenta e estudos publicados para avaliar 16 indicadores em quatro categorias: Comportamentos Diários, Forma Física, Ambientes e Influências, e Estratégias e Investimentos. Os dados foram comparados com indicadores de referência estabelecidos. A cada indicador foi atribuída uma pontuação de 1 a 10 (pontuações abaixo de 6 indicam reprovação) ou "incompleta" se os dados fossem insuficientes/indisponíveis. Resultados. As pontuações para o Comportamento Diário foram as seguintes: atividade física geral: 4; participação em esportes organizados: 5; brincadeiras ativas: 3; transporte ativo: 5; sono: 7; comportamento sedentário: 3. A pontuação para a Forma Física foi de 7. As pontuações para Ambientes e Influências foram: família e amigos, incompleta; escola: 3; comunidade e ambiente: 4. As pontuações para Estratégias e Investimentos foram: estratégias governamentais: 6; organizações não-governamentais: 2. Conclusão. As pontuações baixas em 11 dos 16 indicadores indicam que as escolas, famílias, comunidades e o governo precisam trabalhar juntos para oferecer mais oportunidades de atividade física às crianças e jovens no México.


Assuntos
Aptidão Física , Saúde da Criança , Esportes Juvenis , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Promoção da Saúde , México , Aptidão Física , Saúde da Criança , Esportes Juvenis , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Promoção da Saúde , México , Aptidão Física , Saúde da Criança , Esportes Juvenis , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Promoção da Saúde
2.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 19: 2325958220904241, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162997

RESUMO

In a setting of universal health care access, we compared diabetes control between Caucasians and African Americans (AA) living with HIV. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from a cohort study among military members living with HIV and diabetes. Using adjusted logistic regression models, we compared proportions of Caucasians and AA meeting the following diabetes treatment goals: hemoglobin A1c <7.0%, blood pressure (BP) <140/90 mm Hg, low density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dL, and not smoking. We included 107 Caucasian (mean age 37 years) and 126 AA (mean age 33 years) participants. A similar proportion of Caucasians and AA were prescribed diabetes (∼60%) and BP (∼80%) medications. Yet, more Caucasians met the BP treatment goal (77% [54%, 90%]) than AA (61% [36%, 82%]). Thus, more Caucasians met the combined A1c, BP, and cholesterol goals for diabetes control (25% [10%, 49%]) than AA (13% [5%, 31%]). Despite having equal access to health care, AA in this study have poorer diabetes control than Caucasians.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(2): e1921618, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083689

RESUMO

Importance: Antihypertension medications have been associated with prevention of cardiovascular events, although less is known about the comparative effectiveness of different medication classes. Objective: To compare contemporary aggregated first-in-trial cardiovascular events among patients with hypertension and no substantial comorbidities. Data Sources: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for articles published between January 1, 1990, and October 24, 2017. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials that tested commonly used antihypertension medications (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, nondihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, ß-blockers, angiotensin receptor blockers, and diuretics) and that reported selected cardiovascular outcomes for at least 6 months of follow-up. Data Extraction and Synthesis: The analysis was conducted from October 2017 to December 2019. Two reviewers extracted the number of cardiovascular events at the end of treatment for all study groups. For each outcome, a frequentist network meta-analysis was used to compare risk reductions between medication classes (random-effects models weighted by the inverse variance). The dose-response association between a 10-mm Hg reduction of systolic blood pressure and a 5-mm Hg reduction of diastolic blood pressure and the risk of first-in-trial cardiovascular events was estimated. Main Outcomes and Measures: First-in-trial cardiovascular events, including cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and revascularization. Results: In this systematic review and network meta-analysis, data were pooled from 46 eligible clinical trials (248 887 total participants with a mean [SD] age of 65.6 [5.8] years; 52.8% men). In the network meta-analysis, compared with placebo, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, and thiazide diuretics were reported to be similarly effective in reducing overall cardiovascular events (25%), cardiovascular death (20%), and stroke (35%); angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were reported to be the most effective in reducing the risk of myocardial infarction (28%); and diuretics were reported to be the most effective in reducing revascularization (33%). In the metaregression analyses, each 10-mm Hg reduction in systolic blood pressure and 5-mm Hg reduction in diastolic blood pressure was significantly associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular death, stroke, and overall cardiovascular events. Conclusions and Relevance: In this network meta-analysis of clinical trials of patients with hypertension and no substantial comorbidities, different classes of antihypertension medications were associated with similar benefits in reducing cardiovascular events. Future studies should compare the effectiveness of combinations of antihypertension medications in reducing cardiovascular events.

5.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 159: 107751, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152807

RESUMO

AIMS: To develop and pilot test a taxonomy that empirically estimates health intervention effectiveness from efficacy data. METHODS: We developed a taxonomy to score health interventions across 11 items on a scale from 0-100. The taxonomy was pilot-tested in efficacy and effectiveness diabetes prevention studies identified in two separate systematic reviews; here, the face validity, inter-rater reliability and factor structure of the taxonomy were established. Random effects meta-analyses were used to obtain weight loss and diabetes incidence pooled effects across studies. These effects and taxonomy scores were used to down calibrate efficacy estimates to effectiveness estimates as follows: Efficacy effect*[Efficacy score/highest possible score]. RESULTS: We scored 82 effectiveness lifestyle modification studies (mean score 49.2), 32 efficacy lifestyle modification studies (mean score 69.8) and 20 efficacy studies testing medications (mean score 77.4). The taxonomy had face validity and good inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.9 [0.87, 0.93]). The between-groups down calibrated weight loss estimate was similar to that observed in the effectiveness meta-analysis (1.7 and 1.8 kg, respectively). The down calibrated diabetes relative risk reduction was also similar to that observed in the effectiveness meta-analysis (30.6% over 2.7 years and 29% over 2 years, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The taxonomy is a promising tool to estimate the real-world impact of health interventions.

6.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 16: E49, 2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002636

RESUMO

PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES: Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have a large burden of noncommunicable diseases and confront leadership capacity challenges and gaps in implementation of proven interventions. To address these issues, we designed the Public Health Leadership and Implementation Academy (PH-LEADER) for noncommunicable diseases. The objective of this program evaluation was to assess the quality and effectiveness of PH-LEADER. INTERVENTION APPROACH: PH-LEADER was directed at midcareer public health professionals, researchers, and government public health workers from LMICs who were involved in prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. The 1-year program focused on building implementation research and leadership capacity to address noncommunicable diseases and included 3 complementary components: a 2-month online preparation period, a 2-week summer course in the United States, and a 9-month, in-country, mentored project. EVALUATION METHODS: Four trainee groups participated from 2013 through 2016. We collected demographic information on all trainees and monitored project and program outputs. Among the 2015 and 2016 trainees, we assessed program satisfaction and pre-post program changes in leadership practices and the perceived competence of trainees for performing implementation research. RESULTS: Ninety professionals (mean age 38.8 years; 57% male) from 12 countries were trained over 4 years. Of these trainees, 50% were from India and 29% from Mexico. Trainees developed 53 projects and 9 publications. Among 2015 and 2016 trainees who completed evaluation surveys (n = 46 of 55), we saw pre-post training improvements in the frequency with which they acted as role models (Cohen's d = 0.62, P <.001), inspired a shared vision (d = 0.43, P =.005), challenged current processes (d = 0.60, P <.001), enabled others to act (d = 0.51, P =.001), and encouraged others by recognizing or celebrating their contributions and accomplishments (d = 0.49, P =.002). Through short on-site evaluation forms (scale of 1-10), trainees rated summer course sessions as useful (mean, 7.5; SD = 0.2), with very good content (mean, 8.5; SD = 0.6) and delivered by very good professors (mean, 8.6; SD = 0.6), though they highlighted areas for improvement. IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH: The PH-LEADER program is a promising strategy to build implementation research and leadership capacity to address noncommunicable diseases in LMICs.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/normas , Gerenciamento Clínico , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Liderança , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/educação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 81(2): 224-230, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the pooled relative risk (RR) of incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among HIV-infected adults compared with HIV-uninfected controls and explore the contribution of traditional and HIV-related risk factors. BACKGROUND: Understanding AMI risk and associated risk factors in HIV-infected populations has the potential to inform clinical management and prevention strategies. METHODS: We systematically identified cohort studies of HIV-infected or HIV-infected and matched uninfected adults reporting AMI incidence rates published up to January 1, 2017. Random-effects meta-analysis models were used to estimate the aggregate RR of AMI by HIV status. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were used to explore factors affecting risk. RESULTS: Sixteen studies (N = 1,619,690, median age 38.5 years, 78.9% male, mean follow-up of 6.5 years) were included. In pooled analyses of HIV-infected and matched uninfected cohorts (n = 5), HIV-infected individuals had higher AMI incidence rates (absolute risk difference = 2.2 cases per 1000 persons per year) and twice the risk of AMI [RR = 1.96 (1.5-2.6)] compared with matched HIV-uninfected controls. In a multivariate meta-regression, each additional percentage point in the proportion of male participants [odds ratio (OR) = 1.20 (1.14-1.27)] and each additional percentage point in the prevalence of hypertension [OR = 1.19 (1.12-1.27)], dyslipidemia [OR = 1.09 (1.07-1.11)], and smoking [OR = 1.09 (1.05-1.13)] were independently associated with increased AMI risk in HIV-infected adults. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Chronic HIV infection is associated with a 2-fold higher AMI risk. Traditional risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and smoking are significant contributors to AMI risk among HIV-infected adults and should be aggressively targeted in routine HIV care.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
9.
J Phys Act Health ; 15(S2): S284-S297, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Global Matrix 3.0 brings together the Report Card grades for 10 physical activity indicators for children and youth from 49 countries. This study describes and compares the Global Matrix 3.0 findings among 10 countries with high Human Development Index. METHODS: Report Cards on physical activity indicators were developed by each country following a harmonized process. Countries informed their Report Cards with the best and most recent evidence available. Indicators were graded using a common grading rubric and benchmarks established by the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance. A database of grades from the countries was compiled, and letter grades were converted to numerical equivalents. Descriptive statistics and scores for groups of indicators were calculated, and correlation analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Grades for the 10 countries clustered around "D" ranging from "F" to "B+." Active Transportation had the highest average grade ("C"), whereas Overall Physical Activity had the lowest average grade ("D-"). Low grades were observed for both behavioral and sources of influence indicators. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of social and economical changes of high- Human Development Index countries, urgent actions to increase physical activity among children and youth are required. Surveillance and monitoring efforts are required to fill research gaps.


Assuntos
Exercício/psicologia , Política de Saúde/tendências , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Relatório de Pesquisa
10.
J Phys Act Health ; 15(S2): S251-S273, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating sufficient moderate to vigorous physical activity is recognized as a key determinant of physical, physiological, developmental, mental, cognitive, and social health among children and youth (aged 5-17 y). The Global Matrix 3.0 of Report Card grades on physical activity was developed to achieve a better understanding of the global variation in child and youth physical activity and associated supports. METHODS: Work groups from 49 countries followed harmonized procedures to develop their Report Cards by grading 10 common indicators using the best available data. The participating countries were divided into 3 categories using the United Nations' human development index (HDI) classification (low or medium, high, and very high HDI). RESULTS: A total of 490 grades, including 369 letter grades and 121 incomplete grades, were assigned by the 49 work groups. Overall, an average grade of "C-," "D+," and "C-" was obtained for the low and medium HDI countries, high HDI countries, and very high HDI countries, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides rich new evidence showing that the situation regarding the physical activity of children and youth is a concern worldwide. Strategic public investments to implement effective interventions to increase physical activity opportunities are needed.


Assuntos
Exercício/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Relatório de Pesquisa
11.
AIDS ; 32(18): 2767-2775, 2018 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of an adapted American Diabetes Association (ADA) risk score and the concise Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINRISC) for predicting type 2 diabetes development in women with and at risk of HIV infection. DESIGN: Longitudinal analysis of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. METHODS: The women's Interagency HIV Study is an ongoing prospective cohort study of women with and at risk for HIV infection. Women without prevalent diabetes and 3-year data on fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, self-reported diabetes medication use, and self-reported diabetes were included. ADA and FINRISC scores were computed at baseline and their ability to predict diabetes development within 3 years was assessed [sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) curve]. RESULTS: A total of 1111 HIV-positive (median age 41, 60% African American) and 454 HIV-negative women (median age 38, 63% African-American) were included. ADA sensitivity did not differ between HIV-positive (77%) and HIV-negative women (81%), while specificity was better in HIV-negative women (42 vs. 49%, P = 0.006). Overall ADA discrimination was suboptimal in both HIV-positive [AUROC = 0.64 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.70)] and HIV-negative women [AUROC = 0.67 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.77)]. FINRISC sensitivity and specificity did not differ between HIV-positive (72 and 49%, respectively) and HIV-negative women (86 and 52%, respectively). Overall FINRISC discrimination was suboptimal in HIV-positive [AUROC = 0.68 (95% CI: 0.62, 0.75)] and HIV-negative women [AUROC = 0.78 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.90)]. CONCLUSION: Model performance was suboptimal in women with and at risk of HIV, while greater misclassification was generally observed among HIV-positive women. HIV-specific risk factors known to contribute to diabetes risk should be explored in these models.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
12.
Am J Lifestyle Med ; 12(1): 4-20, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202378

RESUMO

Diabetes is a costly disease affecting 387 million individuals globally and 28 million in the United States. Its precursor, prediabetes, affects 316 and 86 million individuals globally and in the United States, respectively. People living with elevated blood glucose levels are at high risk for all-cause mortality and numerous cardiometabolic ailments. Fortunately, diabetes can be prevented or delayed by maintaining a healthy lifestyle and a healthy body weight. In this review, we summarize the literature around lifestyle diabetes prevention programs and provide recommendations for introducing prevention strategies in clinical practice. Overall, evidence supports the efficacy and effectiveness of lifestyle diabetes prevention interventions across clinical and community settings, delivery formats (eg, individual-, group-, or technology-based), and implementers (eg, clinicians, community members). Evidence-based diabetes prevention strategies that can be implemented in clinical practice include brief behavior change counseling, group-based education, community referrals, and health information technologies. These strategies represent opportunities where practitioners, communities, and health care systems can work together to provide individuals with education, support and opportunities to maintain healthy, diabetes-free lifestyles.

13.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 93(10): 1375-1396, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the pooled effects of community-based, recreational-level group sports on cardiometabolic risk factors and fitness parameters among adults. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science electronic databases for English-language articles reporting the effectiveness of recreational-level group sports published between January 1, 1965, and January 17, 2017. We extracted baseline and end of intervention means for cardiometabolic and fitness parameters. Random- or fixed-effects meta-analyses were used to obtain pooled before and after change in outcome means within intervention participants and between groups. RESULTS: From 2491 screened titles, 23 publications were included (902 participants; mean ± SD age, 46.6±11.7 years), comprising 21 soccer and 2 rugby interventions. Intervention participants achieved larger improvements (mean [95% CI]) compared with control subjects in weight (-1.44 kg [-1.79 to -1.08 kg]), body mass index (-0.88 kg/m2 [-1.73 to -0.03 kg/m2]), waist circumference (-0.77 cm [-1.21 to -0.33 cm]), body fat (-1.8% [-3.12% to -0.49%]), total cholesterol level (-0.33 mmol/L [-0.53 to -0.13 mmol/L]), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (-0.35 mmol/L [-0.54 to -0.15 mmol/L]), systolic blood pressure (-5.71 mm Hg [-7.98 to -3.44 mm Hg]), diastolic blood pressure (-3.36 mm Hg [-4.93 to -1.78 mm Hg]), maximum oxygen consumption (3.93 mL/min per kg [2.96-4.91 mL/min]), and resting heart rate (-5.51 beats/min [-7.37 to -3.66 beats/min]). Most studies (16) were classified as high quality, and we found no evidence of publication bias. CONCLUSION: We found significant cardiometabolic and fitness improvements following group sport participation, primarily recreational soccer. These findings suggest that group sport interventions are promising strategies for reducing cardiometabolic risk in adults.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Esportes , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Estrutura de Grupo , Humanos , Esportes/fisiologia , Esportes/psicologia
14.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 5(6): ofy121, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29942823

RESUMO

Background: Gains in life expectancy through optimal control of HIV infection with antiretroviral therapy (ART) may be threatened if other comorbidities, such as diabetes, are not optimally managed. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) from 2001, 2006, and 2015. We estimated the proportions of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women with diabetes who were engaged in care and achieved treatment goals (hemoglobin A1c [A1c] <7.0%, blood pressure [BP] <140/90 mmHg, low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol <100 mg/dL, not smoking) and viral suppression. Repeated-measures models were used to estimate the adjusted prevalence of achieving each diabetes treatment goal at each time point, by HIV status. Results: We included 486 HIV-positive and 258 HIV-negative women with diabetes. In 2001, 91.8% visited a health care provider, 60.7% achieved the A1c target, 70.5% achieved the BP target, 38.5% achieved the LDL cholesterol target, 49.2% were nonsmokers, 23.3% achieved combined ABC targets (A1c, BP, and cholesterol), and 10.9% met combined ABC targets and did not smoke. There were no differences by HIV status, and patterns were similar in 2006 and 2015. Among HIV-positive women, viral suppression increased from 41% in 2001 to 87% in 2015 compared with 8% and 13% achieving the ABC goals and not smoking. Viral suppression was not associated with achievement of diabetes care goals. Conclusions: Successful management of HIV is outpacing that of diabetes. Future studies are needed to identify factors associated with gaps in the HIV-diabetes care continuum and design interventions to better integrate effective diabetes management into HIV care.

15.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 15: E54, 2018 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29752803

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exercise is Medicine (EIM) is an initiative that seeks to integrate physical activity assessment, prescription, and patient referral as a standard in patient care. Methods to assess this integration have lagged behind its implementation. PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this work is to provide a pragmatic framework to guide health care systems in assessing the implementation and impact of EIM. EVALUATION METHODS: A working group of experts from health care, public health, and implementation science convened to develop an evaluation model based on the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework. The working group aimed to provide pragmatic guidance on operationalizing EIM across the different RE-AIM dimensions based on data typically available in health care settings. RESULTS: The Reach of EIM can be determined by the number and proportion of patients that were screened for physical inactivity, received brief counseling and/or a physical activity prescription, and were referred to physical activity resources. Effectiveness can be assessed through self-reported changes in physical activity, cardiometabolic biometric factors, incidence/burden of chronic disease, as well as health care utilization and costs. Adoption includes assessing the number and representativeness of health care settings that adopt any component of EIM, and Implementation involves assessing the extent to which health care teams implement EIM in their clinic. Finally, Maintenance involves assessing the long-term effectiveness (patient level) and sustained implementation (clinic level) of EIM in a given health care setting. IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH: The availability of a standardized, pragmatic, evaluation framework is critical in determining the impact of implementing EIM as a standard of care across health care systems.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/normas , Exercício , Padrão de Cuidado , Programas Governamentais , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta
16.
JAMA Intern Med ; 177(12): 1808-1817, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29114778

RESUMO

Importance: Diabetes prevention is imperative to slow worldwide growth of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. Yet the long-term efficacy of prevention strategies remains unknown. Objective: To estimate aggregate long-term effects of different diabetes prevention strategies on diabetes incidence. Data Sources: Systematic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases. The initial search was conducted on January 14, 2014, and was updated on February 20, 2015. Search terms included prediabetes, primary prevention, and risk reduction. Study Selection: Eligible randomized clinical trials evaluated lifestyle modification (LSM) and medication interventions (>6 months) for diabetes prevention in adults (age ≥18 years) at risk for diabetes, reporting between-group differences in diabetes incidence, published between January 1, 1990, and January 1, 2015. Studies testing alternative therapies and bariatric surgery, as well as those involving participants with gestational diabetes, type 1 or 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome, were excluded. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Reviewers extracted the number of diabetes cases at the end of active intervention in treatment and control groups. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to obtain pooled relative risks (RRs), and reported incidence rates were used to compute pooled risk differences (RDs). Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was aggregate RRs of diabetes in treatment vs control participants. Treatment subtypes (ie, LSM components, medication classes) were stratified. To estimate sustainability, post-washout and follow-up RRs for medications and LSM interventions, respectively, were examined. Results: Forty-three studies were included and pooled in meta-analysis (49 029 participants; mean [SD] age, 57.3 [8.7] years; 48.0% [n = 23 549] men): 19 tested medications; 19 evaluated LSM, and 5 tested combined medications and LSM. At the end of the active intervention (range, 0.5-6.3 years), LSM was associated with an RR reduction of 39% (RR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.54-0.68), and medications were associated with an RR reduction of 36% (RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.54-0.76). The observed RD for LSM and medication studies was 4.0 (95% CI, 1.8-6.3) cases per 100 person-years or a number-needed-to-treat of 25. At the end of the washout or follow-up periods, LSM studies (mean follow-up, 7.2 years; range, 5.7-9.4 years) achieved an RR reduction of 28% (RR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.60-0.86); medication studies (mean follow-up, 17 weeks; range, 2-52 weeks) showed no sustained RR reduction (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.79-1.14). Conclusions and Relevance: In adults at risk for diabetes, LSM and medications (weight loss and insulin-sensitizing agents) successfully reduced diabetes incidence. Medication effects were short lived. The LSM interventions were sustained for several years; however, their effects declined with time, suggesting that interventions to preserve effects are needed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Resistência à Insulina , Estilo de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco , Perda de Peso
17.
Transl Behav Med ; 7(4): 731-740, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28936694

RESUMO

Integrating physical activity (PA) counseling in routine clinical practice remains a challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of a pragmatic strategy aimed to improve physician PA counseling and patient PA. An effectiveness-implementation type-2 hybrid design was used to evaluate a 3-h training (i.e., implementation strategy-IS) to increase physician use of the 5-As (assess, advise, agree, assist, arrange) for PA counseling (i.e., clinical intervention-CI) and to determine if the CI improved patient PA. Patients of trained and untrained physicians reported on PA and quality of life pre-post intervention. Medical charts (N = 1700) were examined to assess the proportion of trained physicians that used the 5-As. The RE-AIM framework informed our evaluation. 305/322 of eligible physicians participated in the IS (M age = 40 years, 52% women) and 683/730 of eligible patients in the CI (M age = 49 years, 77% women). The IS was adopted by all state regions and cost ~ $20 Mexican pesos (US$1) per provider trained. Physician adoption of any of the 5-As improved from pre- to post-training (43 vs. 52%, p < .01), with significant increases in the use of assessment (43 vs. 52%), advising (25 vs. 39%), and assisting with barrier resolution (7 vs. 15%), but not in collaborative goal setting (13 vs. 17%) or arranging for follow-up (1 vs. 1%). Patient PA and quality of life did not improve. The IS intervention was delivered with high fidelity at a low cost, but appears to be insufficient to lead to broad adoption of the CI.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Exercício , Promoção da Saúde , Médicos , Adulto , Aconselhamento/economia , Educação Médica , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Transl Behav Med ; 7(1): 43-51, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27443642

RESUMO

Physical activity (PA) programs are a promising strategy to promote positive youth development (PYD). It is not known if published reports provide sufficient information to promote the implementation of effective PYD in indigenous youth. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which published literature on PA programs that promote PYD in indigenous youth report on RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance) indicators. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify articles reporting on PA programs that promote PYD in indigenous youth. The search yielded 8084 articles. A validated 21-item RE-AIM abstraction tool assessing internal and external validity factors was used to extract data from 10 articles meeting eligibility criteria. The most commonly reported dimensions were effectiveness (73 %), adoption (48 %), and maintenance (43 %). Reach (34 %) and implementation (30 %) were less often reported. Published research provides insufficient information to inform real-world implementation of PA programs to promote PYD in indigenous youth.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Esportes Juvenis/fisiologia , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Grupos Populacionais , Pesquisa
19.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 25: e2923, 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-961145

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: the RE-AIM framework has been widely used to evaluate internal and external validity of interventions aimed to promote physical activity, helping to provide comprehensive evaluation of the reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance of research and programming. Despite this progress, the RE-AIM framework has not been used widely in Latin America. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the RE-AIM framework, the process and materials developed for a one-day workshop in Guadalajara, and the acceptability and satisfaction of participants that attended the workshop. Methods: lecture, interactive examples and an agenda were developed for a one-day RE-AIM workshop over a three month period. Results: thirty two health care practitioners (M age = 30.6, SD=9.9 years) attended the workshop. Most (100%) rated the workshop as credible, useful (100%) and intended to apply it in current or future research (95%). Conclusion: results suggest intuitive appeal of the RE-AIM framework, and provide a strategy for introducing the utility and practical application of the framework in practice settings in Mexico and Latin America.


RESUMO Objetivo: o modelo RE-AIM tem sido amplamente utilizado para avaliar a validade interna e externa de intervenções que objetivam promover atividade física, auxiliando a fornecer uma avaliação abrangente do alcance, eficácia, adoção, implementação e manutenção de pesquisas e programas. Apesar deste progresso, o modelo RE-AIM não tem sido amplamente utilizado na América Latina. O objetivo deste artigo é descrever o modelo RE-AIM, o processo e os materiais desenvolvidos para uma oficina de um dia de duração em Guadalajara e a aceitabilidade e satisfação dos participantes que compareceram na oficina. Métodos: durante o período de três meses, palestras e exercícios interativos foram desenvolvidos para uma oficina de um dia sobre o modelo RE-AIM. Resultados: trinta e dois profissionais de saúde (Média de idade=30,6±9,9 anos) participaram da oficina. A maioria dos participantes classificou a oficina como credível (100%), útil (100%) e pretende aplicar o que foi aprendido em investigações atuais ou futuras (95%). Conclusão: os resultados sugerem que o modelo RE-AIM é um recurso intuitivo e fornecem uma estratégia para a apresentação da utilidade e aplicação prática do modelo em cenários práticos no México e na América Latina.


RESUMEN Objetivo: el marco RE-AIM ha sido ampliamente utilizado para evaluar la validez interna y externa de intervenciones destinadas a promover la actividad física, ayudando a proporcionar una evaluación exhaustiva de la cobertura, eficacia/efectividad, adopción, implementación y mantenimiento de programas sobre actividad física. A pesar de este progreso, el marco RE-AIM no se ha utilizado ampliamente en América Latina. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar el marco conceptual RE-AIM, describir el proceso y los materiales desarrollados para un taller en Guadalajara; y reportar la aceptabilidad y satisfacción de los participantes que acudieron al taller. Métodos: durante un período de tres meses, se desarrolló un taller sobre el marco RE-AIM. El taller duró un día e incluyó una conferencia y ejercicios interactivos. Resultados: treinta y dos profesionales de la salud (edad media = 30.6 [±9.9 años]) participaron en el taller. La mayoría calificó el taller como creíble, útil (100%) y manifestó la intención de aplicar lo aprendido en investigaciones actuales o futuras (95%). Conclusión: los resultados sugieren que el marco RE-AIM es intuitivamente atractivo y que el curso es una estrategia adecuada para introducir la utilidad y aplicación práctica del marco en espacios de práctica en América Latina.


Assuntos
Humanos , Programas de Autoavaliação , Exercício , Estratégias , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , América Latina
20.
J Phys Act Health ; 13(11 Suppl 2): S206-S212, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27848729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2016 Mexican Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth aims to assess how Mexico is doing in terms of providing physical activity (PA) opportunities for Mexican children and youth. The purpose of this article is to summarize results from the Mexican 2016 Report Card. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in Spanish and English languages using major databases, and complemented with a review of government/nongovernment documents, websites, and national health surveys. Information on the 9 indicators outlined in the Global Matrix of Report Card Grades was extracted. A team of Mexican experts met to discuss and assign a grade on each indicator based on the best available evidence and established benchmarks. RESULTS: Daily behaviors grades were Overall PA (C), Organized Sport Participation (D), Active Play (D-), Active Transportation (C), and Sedentary Behavior (D). For Settings and Sources of Influence, grades were Family and Peers (INC), School (D-), and Community and Environment (D). Strategies and Investments grades were Government Strategies (C) and Non-Government (F). CONCLUSIONS: PA and sedentary behaviors among Mexican children and youth remain below the recommended levels. Government and communities are far from providing appropriate and sufficient physical activity opportunities for children and youth.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Saúde da Criança , Exercício , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Criança , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , México
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